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  • involves
  • If the assay involves addition of exogenous reactants (the reagents), then their quantities are kept fixed (or in excess) so that the quantity (and quality) of the target is the only limiting factor for the reaction/assay process, and the difference in the assay outcome is used to deduce the unknown quality or quantity of the target in question. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reaction mechanism is not well understood, but involves reduction of the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and oxidation of aromatic residues (mainly tryptophan, also tyrosine). (wikipedia.org)
  • Microplates with an embedded layer of filter material were developed in the early 1980s by several companies, and today, there are microplates for just about every application in life science research which involves filtration, separation, optical detection, storage, reaction mixing, cell culture and detection of antimicrobial activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assay involves 'all or none' response (ex. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase chain re
  • Polycarbonate is cheap and easy to mould and has been used for disposable microplates for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method of DNA amplification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather than collecting air filters daily and taking them to a lab for examination, installed sensors continuously monitored air quality by measuring polymerase chain reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Acid phosphatase catalyzes the following reaction at an optimal acidic pH (below 7): Orthophosphoric monoester + H2O → alcohol + H3PO4 Phosphatase enzymes are also used by soil microorganisms to access organically bound phosphate nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • An assay on the rates of activity of these enzymes may be used to ascertain biological demand for phosphates in the soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increased amount of substrate will increase the rate of reaction with enzymes, however once past a certain point, the rate of reaction will level out because the amount of active sites available has stayed constant. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large number of different methods of measuring the concentrations of substrates and products exist and many enzymes can be assayed in several different ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinetics
  • A variety of natural, derivatized and designed hyperpolarized probes has emerged for diverse biological studies including assays of intracellular reaction progression, pathway kinetics, probe uptake and export, pH, redox state, reactive oxygen species, ion concentrations, drug efficacy or oncogenic signaling. (mdpi.com)
  • His work was taken up by German biochemist Leonor Michaelis and Canadian physician Maud Menten, who investigated the kinetics of an enzymatic reaction mechanism, invertase, that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the assay itself (the analytic step) gets much attention, steps that get less attention by the chain of users, i.e. the preanalytic and the post analytic steps, are often less stringently regulated and generally more prone to errors - e.g. preanalytic steps in medical laboratory assays may contribute to 32-75% of all lab errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) is a laboratory method for real-time monitoring and dynamic analysis of chemical, physical and biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • procedure
  • Such industrial scale assays as these are often done in well equipped laboratories and with automated organization of the procedure-from ordering an assay to pre-analytic sample processing (sample collection, necessary manipulations e.g. spinning for separation or other processes, aliquoting if necessary, storage, retrieval, pipetting/aspiration etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bicinchoninic acid assay and the Hartree-Lowry assay are subsequent modifications of the original Lowry procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • A microwell for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays has a concavely curved, circumferential sidewall, a flat optical bottom and a top lip, including smooth transitions between the top lip, concave sidewall and flat bottom. (google.ca)
  • The assay usually aims to measure an intensive property of the analyte and express it in the relevant measurement unit (e.g. molarity, density, functional activity in enzyme international units, degree of some effect in comparison to a standard, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemists usually study enzyme-catalysed reactions using four types of experiments: Initial rate experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial rate experiment is the simplest to perform and analyze, being relatively free from complications such as back-reaction and enzyme degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • These probes are readily used directly under natural conditions in biofluids and are often directly developed and optimized for cellular assays, thus leaving little doubt about their specificity and utility under biologically relevant conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • processes
  • IMC is sensitive enough to detect and follow either slow processes (reactions proceeding at a few % per year) in a few grams of material, or processes which generate minuscule amounts of heat (e.g. metabolism of a few thousand living cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • IMC is thus a means for dynamic, quantitative evaluation of the rates and energetics of a broad range of rate processes, including biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of processes can result in quenching, such as excited state reactions, energy transfer, complex-formation and collisional quenching. (wikipedia.org)
  • ketone
  • The Kröhnke pyridine synthesis is reaction in organic synthesis between α-pyridinium methyl ketone salts and α, β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds used to generate highly functionalized pyridines. (wikipedia.org)
  • test
  • The Enhanced Chemiluminescence (ECL) Water Quality Test: Modes of Action and Mechanistic Studies of Substances acting on the Enhanced Chemiluminescence Reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • test the quality of", from Anglo-French assaier, from assai (n.), from Old French essai "trial", and the noun assay thus means "trial, test of quality, test of character", mid-14th century, from Anglo-French assai and the meaning "analysis" is from the late 14th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Since its discovery, the Kröhnke synthesis has enjoyed broad applicability to the preparation of di-,tri- and tetrapyridine derivatives, demonstrating a number of advantages over related reactions such as the Hantzsch pyridine synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • compound
  • Electron donating substituents can also encourage photoisomerization to the linear diazo compound, rather than the singlet carbene, and hence these compounds are unfavorable for use in biological assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ATPase assay is designed to indicate the nature of the interaction between the compound and the transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • result
  • Similarly, after the assay, the result may be documented, verified and transmitted/communicated in steps that are called post-analytic steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • level
  • Assays have become a routine part of modern medical, environmental, pharmaceutical, forensic and many other businesses at various scales from industrial to curbside or field level. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • In addition to the bovine and porcine tissue from which pharmaceutical-grade heparin is commonly extracted, it has also been extracted and characterised from: Turkey Whale Dromedary camel Mouse Humans Lobster Fresh water mussel Clam Shrimp Mangrove crab Sand dollar Atlantic salmon Zebra fish The biological activity of heparin within species 6-11 is unclear and further supports the idea that the main physiological role of heparin is not anticoagulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ATPase assay is a membrane assay that indirectly measures the activity of efflux transporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • The hyperpolarized probes are produced ex situ , introduced into biological systems and detected with high sensitivity and contrast against background signals using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. (mdpi.com)
  • analysis
  • 9. The microplate of claim 1 , wherein the reference fiducial provides information that facilitates the preselected assay if the information is determined before optical analysis. (google.com)
  • For assay of currency coins, this literally meant analysis of the purity of the gold or silver or whatever precious component was used to represent the true value of the coin. (wikipedia.org)
  • An assay (analysis) is never an isolated process and must be combined with pre- and post-analytic procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • sample
  • Application of this new laser optical separator to biological particles including bacteria and viruses now provides a new avenue for biomedical sample evaluation. (google.com)
  • Eclox ECL is a broadband enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) assay that can be used to qualitatively assess a water sample to determine whether it has been contaminated. (wikipedia.org)
  • optical
  • 6. The reaction well of claim 5 wherein the optical window has a diameter of approximately 0.059 inch. (google.ca)
  • 7. The reaction well of claim 6 wherein the well has a height, defined by a distance between the circumferential top lip and the optical window, of approximately 0.180 inch measured along the well axis. (google.ca)
  • hand
  • On the other hand, trifluoroaryldiazirines in particular show favorable stability and photolytic qualities and are most commonly used in biological applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, older generation qualitative assays, especially bioassays, may be much more gross and less quantitative (e.g., counting death or dysfunction of an organism or cells in a population, or some descriptive change in some body part of a group of animals). (wikipedia.org)
  • further
  • The resulting aforementioned halodiazirine can undergo an exchange reaction to further functionalize the diazirene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The information communication (e.g. request to perform an assay and further information processing) or specimen handling (e.g. collection, transport and processing) that are done until the beginning of an assay are the preanalytic steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The drops can also encapsulate cells, enabling cell-based assays to be carried out. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • In biological specimens containing a growth medium, appearance over time of a detectable and rising heat flow signal is a simple general indicator of the presence of some type of replicating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • directly
  • Alternatively, diaziridines can be produced directly by the reaction of ketones with ammonia in the presence of an aminating agent such as a chloramine or hydroxyl amine O-sulfonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme that catalyzes
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD or G6PDH) (EC 1.1.1.49) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D-glucose 6-phosphate + NADP+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone + NADPH + H+ This enzyme participates in the pentose phosphate pathway (see image), a metabolic pathway that supplies reducing energy to cells (such as erythrocytes) by maintaining the level of the co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Iodine-125 (125I) is a radioisotope of iodine which has uses in biological assays, nuclear medicine imaging and in radiation therapy as brachytherapy to treat a number of conditions, including prostate cancer, uveal melanomas, and brain tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the intense heat and pressure of the melting reactors, a reaction between the nuclear fuel metal cladding and the remaining water surrounding them produced explosive hydrogen gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • conduct
  • Project Deseret was developed to conduct a highly classified military research, development, and testing program which was aimed at both offensive and defensive human, animal, and plant reaction to biological, chemical, toxicological, entomological, and radiological warfare agents in various combinations of climate and terrain. (wikipedia.org)
  • On April 17, 1963, President Kennedy signed National Security Action Memorandum 235 (NSAM 235) authorizing: Policy guides governing the conduct of large-scale scientific or technological experiments that might have significant or protracted effects on the physical or biological environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the benefits of using a secreted reporter molecule like MetLuc is its no-lysis protocol that allows one to be able to conduct live cell assays and multiple assays on the same cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • intensity
  • However, the technique could be adapted for the continuous enzyme assay when colour intensity is monitored over time by incubating sister blots for progressively increasing periods of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • This could be judged upon visually and the reaction is stopped when differences in colour intensity among spots are evident, taking into consideration that the duration of linearity in some enzyme reactions may be very short indeed. (wikipedia.org)
  • quantitative
  • Recently, a new qualitative or rather semi quantitative micro-technique, first described by Wagih and Fletcher (1993), and termed 'zymoblot' has been introduced to detect enzyme activities in spiroplasmas and bacteria and many other biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • fully
  • PrimePCR assay design and validation are fully described in the following publication. (bio-rad.com)
  • Progress toward standardizing new biological warfare agents was limited from 1961 to 1962 by the lack of adequate extra-continental test facilities in which toxic agent munitions combinations could be fully assayed without the legal and safety limitations that were necessary in less remote test areas within the Continental United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • Control assays and synthetic DNA templates were designed to facilitate the assessment of the key experimental factors impacting your real-time PCR results. (bio-rad.com)
  • Use the PrimePCR DNA contamination control assay to determine if genomic DNA (gDNA) is present in a sample at a level that may affect PCR results. (bio-rad.com)
  • Use the PrimePCR RNA quality assay to determine if RNA integrity may adversely affect PCR results for a single sample. (bio-rad.com)
  • Unlike wet assays (e.g. colorimetry), results obtained by the zymoblot are always in a recorded from. (wikipedia.org)
  • Volume
  • The most common microplate format used in academic research laboratories or clinical diagnostic laboratories is 96-well (8 by 12 matrix) with a typical reaction volume between 100 and 200 µL per well. (wikipedia.org)
  • content
  • The three isolates were differentiated using Double Antibody Sandwich-Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA), woody indicator plants, differential hosts, peroxidase isozymes and activity, total RNA content and Reserves Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • The other techniques, based on colorimetry, may require larger aliquots of a sample so that the amount of the coloured soluble products produced is large enough to colour the content of the assay cuvette to a colorimetrically readable level. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • The serological characters represented as the antigenic determinants of CPsV-EG isolate related to monoclonal antibodies specific CPsV strain where as appeared precipitation reaction by DAS-ELISA and DTBIA (Ghazal et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2008). CPsV-EG was detected on the basis of biological indexing by graft inoculation which gave oak leaf pattern (OLP) on Dweet tangor and serological assay by DAS-ELISA using Mab specific CPsV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zymoblot is an end-point type of assay where an enzyme reaction is allowed to proceed for a fixed period of time before being stopped by rapid elimination of its specific substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • critical
  • Prions are proteins found in humans and other mammals, but when an altered form of the prion appears, it somehow starts a critical chain reaction turning healthy prions in to deadly ones that ultimately destroy the brain. (blogspot.com)
  • light
  • The catalyzed reaction is: coelenterazine + O2 → coelenteramide + CO2 + photon of light Bacterial bioluminescence is seen in Photobacterium species, Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio haweyi, and Vibrio harveyi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon
  • Upon their entry to the biological system, they encounter the immune system, which limits their availability at the intended site. (scirp.org)