• trimer
  • In contrast, at low pH, only low quantities of the trimer are produced and the nature of the applied acid has a distinct effect on the reaction outcome. (rsc.org)
  • Complex organic acids, such as e.g. maleic or nicotinic acid, lead to comparable quantities of the trimer and acetaldehyde. (rsc.org)
  • aldehydes
  • NIOSH recommends that the producers and users of acetaldehyde, malonaldehyde, and the other low-molecular-weight aldehydes disseminate this information to workers and customers. (cdc.gov)
  • The reactions of aldehydes, ketones, and their derivatives frequently have a detectable tetrahedral intermediate, while for the reactions of derivatives of carboxylic acids this is not the case. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also the formation of a considerable amount of 'unusual' dioxanone byproduct in the MBH reaction of aryl aldehydes with acrylates was not expected. (wikipedia.org)
  • react
  • In the journal Nucleic Acids Research, scientists from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) report that polyamines "" natural compounds essential for cell growth "" react with acetaldehyde to trigger a series of reactions that damage DNA, an event that can lead to the formation of cancer. (redorbit.com)
  • Methyl
  • One example of the Strecker synthesis is a multikilogram scale synthesis of an L-valine derivative starting from Methyl isopropyl ketone: The asymmetric Strecker reaction was pioneered by Kaoru Harada in 1963. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Tishchenko reaction of paraformaldehyde in the presence of aluminum methylate or magnesium methylate forms methyl formate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In organic chemistry, this reaction may be used to convert a terminal methyl ketone into the analogous carboxylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium hydroxide
  • When iodine and sodium hydroxide are used as the reagents a positive reaction gives iodoform, which is a solid at room temperature and tends to precipitate out of solution causing a distinctive cloudiness. (wikipedia.org)
  • reagents
  • Victor Grignard assumed the existence of unstable tetrahedral intermediate in 1901, while investigating the reaction of esters with organomagnesium reagents. (wikipedia.org)
  • proton transfer
  • Continuous measurements using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) can be used to describe the production processes of secondary products during ozone induced oxidation of terpenes. (mdpi.com)
  • intermediate
  • A tetrahedral intermediate is a reaction intermediate in which the bond arrangement around an initially double-bonded carbon atom has been transformed from trigonal to tetrahedral. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the end of the reaction he found that the remaining starting material had a decreased proportion of labeled oxygen, which is consistent with the existence of the tetrahedral intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • observed a very stable neutral tetrahedral intermediate in the reaction of N-acylpyrroles with organometallic compounds, followed by protonation with ammounium chloride producing a carbinol. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least in some cases (chloral hydrate) the reaction may stop and the intermediate product isolated if conditions are acidic and hypohalite is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • addition
  • Kekulé suggested in reply that benzene had two complementary structures and that these forms rapidly interconverted, which would also explain the lack of addition reactions (as the valency of each carbon atom is not that expected of a double bond). (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Benzene is the prototypical example of an aromatic compound, a hitherto unknown class of compounds, and its synthesis was the first example of aromatization, the process and chemical reactions whereby an aromatic system is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • The potential for acetaldehyde or malonaldehyde to produce cancer in humans has not been determined, but reducing occupational exposures to these chemicals should lower the risk. (cdc.gov)
  • The reaction can be used to transform acetyl groups into carboxyl groups or to produce chloroform (CHCl3), bromoform (CHBr3), or iodoform (CHI3). (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • NIOSH therefore considers acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde to be potential occupational carcinogens and recommends that exposures to each be reduced to the lowest feasible concentration. (cdc.gov)
  • known
  • View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and acetaldehyde from 2-deoxy-alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate , the pathway 2-deoxy-D-ribose 1-phosphate degradation and in Carbohydrate degradation . (uniprot.org)
  • The nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum shows that there are three environments for protons, in the ratio of 3:2:1 corresponding to CH3 SH and CH. 1,1-Ethanedithiol has several reactions known that are important in white wine flavours. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction is also known as the Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction or MBH reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The research team, led by P.J. Brooks, Ph.D., of NIAAA and Miral Dizdaroglu, Ph.D., of NIST, examined acetaldehyde's reaction with polyamines, small molecules found in all cells. (redorbit.com)
  • Yet the researchers found the polyamines facilitated the conversion of acetaldehyde into crotonaldehyde (CrA), an environmental pollutant that has been shown to cause cancer in animals. (redorbit.com)
  • Products
  • 3) Reaction products usually contain multiple functionalities in a proximity so that a variety of further transformations are possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • Cederbaum AI, Lieber CS, Rubin E (1974a) The effect of acetaldehyde on mitochondrial function. (springer.com)
  • Aggarwal and Harvey modeled the two pathways using density functional theory calculations and showed that the computed energy profile matches well with the experimental kinetic isotope effect and observed rate of reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • advantages
  • MBH reaction has several advantages as a useful synthetic method: 1) It is an atom-economic coupling of easily prepared starting materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • 2. In the next step of glycolysis, the six carbon F1,6BP is split into two three carbon piece (DHAP and G3P) s in a reaction catalyzed by aldolase. (oregonstate.edu)
  • potential
  • The purpose of this bulletin is to disseminate recent information about the potential carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde. (cdc.gov)
  • Acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde both meet the criteria of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for classifying substances as potential occupational carcinogens [ Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1990 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • studies
  • Results of recent studies in animals indicate an increased incidence of laryngeal cancer in hamsters and nasal cancer in rats following exposure to acetaldehyde. (cdc.gov)
  • However, some studies indicate that their chemical reactivity and mutagenicity are similar to those of acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde. (cdc.gov)
  • Long-term inhalation studies of acetaldehyde produced laryngeal cancers in hamsters and nasal cancers in rats. (cdc.gov)