• strains
  • Genetic analysis of 117 albino rat strains collected from all parts of the world carried out by a team led by Takashi Kuramoto at Kyoto University in 2012, showed that the albino rats descended from hooded rats and all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have bred many strains or "lines" of rats specifically for experimentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The rat had been on a 12hour light:dark cycle (lights on at 07:00) and had access ad libitum to drinking water and a diet of commercially available cubes for mice (Epol, South Africa). (scielo.org.za)
  • While less commonly used for research than mice, rats have served as an important animal model for research in psychology and biomedical science. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • male
  • Related studies with a smaller number of animals indicated that male rats of the same strain were 5 times less susceptible to tumor formation than females. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because there are potentially significant drawbacks associated with plethysmography, we determined whether blood pressure changes could be detected by long-term monitoring with telemetry in age-matched male Sprague-Dawley rats fed either a normal or high-fructose diet for 8 weeks. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Male and female Crl:CD(SD)BR rats (30/sex/group) were exposed to EPG at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2g/kgbw/day or at 5% (w/w) in the diet prior to (13weeks), during, and after two consecutive matings. (rti.org)
  • significantly
  • In addition, the epidydimal adipose tissue weight of the rats fed on PHGG was significantly higher than that of the rats fed on cellulose. (go.jp)
  • There was no significant effect on the serum lipid levels, but the serum IgG level of the rats fed on guar gum was significantly lower than that of the rats fed on cellulose. (go.jp)
  • The IgA and IgG productivity in mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes was significantly higher in the rats fed on guar gum, glucomannan and pectin than in those fed on cellulose, while the effect on Ig productivity in spleen lymphocytes was not as marked. (go.jp)
  • Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways: they are calmer and significantly less likely to bite, they can tolerate greater crowding, they breed earlier and produce more offspring, and their brains, livers, kidneys, adrenal glands, and hearts are smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Studies in rats have shown that p-cresol is primarily conjugated with glucuronide to produce p-cresylglucuronide, though this may not be applicable to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • Research on the effects of 2-furoic acid in rats showed an increase in bile salts and acute toxicity suggesting potential toxic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first rat colony in America used for nutrition research was started in January 1908 by Elmer McCollum, and then nutritive requirements of rats were used by Thomas Burr Osborne and Lafayette Mendel to determine the details of protein nutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Atomoxetine has been found to act as an NMDA receptor antagonist in rat cortical neurons at therapeutic concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • We propose that previous reports of fructose-induced hypertension reflect a heightened stress response by fructose-fed rats associated with restraint and tail cuff inflation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • less
  • The animal attendant indicated that he had not noticed any untoward behaviour or sickness in the rat during the previous cage change 48 hours earlier However, about 12 hours before death the rat was less active than usual. (scielo.org.za)
  • rate
  • Atomoxetine's ability to increase prefrontal cortex firing rate in anesthetized rats could not be blocked by D1 or α2-adrenergic receptor antagonists, but could be potentiated by NMDA or an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, suggesting a glutamatergic mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Techniques
  • Our rat hepatocytes are prepared using the same careful isolation and cryopreservation techniques as our human lots. (thermofisher.com)