• strains
  • With the use of the tail flick model, dose-response curves were constructed to codeine, morphine, oxycodone and oxymorphone (the O-demethylated metabolite of oxycodone) in both rat strains. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Genetic analysis of 117 albino rat strains collected from all parts of the world carried out by a team led by Takashi Kuramoto at Kyoto University in 2012, showed that the albino rats descended from hooded rats and all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have bred many strains or "lines" of rats specifically for experimentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The rat had been on a 12hour light:dark cycle (lights on at 07:00) and had access ad libitum to drinking water and a diet of commercially available cubes for mice (Epol, South Africa). (scielo.org.za)
  • While less commonly used for research than mice, rats have served as an important animal model for research in psychology and biomedical science. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994
  • The genetics of rats was studied by William Ernest Castle at the Bussey Institute of Harvard University until it closed in 1994. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation
  • Interestingly, an INDEL mutation in HIF1α was found in all SD rats, both in HR and non-HR. However, mutations in PTTG1 and CGNL1 genes were present only in the HR SD rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition, HR rats showed exacerbated hemodynamic response to CH as compared to the non-HR SD rats (RVSP: 72±5 mmHg vs. 49±4 mmHg) consistent with increased hypoxia signaling and a gain-of-function HIF1α mutation. (ahajournals.org)
  • A previously unrecognized mutation in HIF1α in SD rats is associated with increased susceptibility to severe PAH, which requires the presence of mutations in additional unique modifier genes. (ahajournals.org)
  • male
  • Related studies with a smaller number of animals indicated that male rats of the same strain were 5 times less susceptible to tumor formation than females. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because there are potentially significant drawbacks associated with plethysmography, we determined whether blood pressure changes could be detected by long-term monitoring with telemetry in age-matched male Sprague-Dawley rats fed either a normal or high-fructose diet for 8 weeks. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Male and female Crl:CD(SD)BR rats (30/sex/group) were exposed to EPG at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2g/kgbw/day or at 5% (w/w) in the diet prior to (13weeks), during, and after two consecutive matings. (rti.org)
  • Male and female rats were injected with SU (20mg/kg, sc) or vehicle (control). (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, crossing non-responsive male and female rats from the HR colony markedly decreased the proportion of rats exhibiting HR phenotype in the F1-generation (HR 15% and 0%, male vs. female, respectively), consistent with the presence of modifier genes. (ahajournals.org)
  • strain
  • Our lab has identified a unique sub-strain of SD rats that is hyper-responsive (HR) to SU5416 (SU) alone and develops severe progressive PAH in response to single injection of SU, even in absence of chronic hypoxia (CH). (ahajournals.org)
  • A chief criticism was that each part of the study had too few rats to obtain statistically useful data, particularly because the strain of rat used, Sprague Dawley, develops tumors at a high rate over its lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Studies in rats have shown that p-cresol is primarily conjugated with glucuronide to produce p-cresylglucuronide, though this may not be applicable to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • In addition, the epidydimal adipose tissue weight of the rats fed on PHGG was significantly higher than that of the rats fed on cellulose. (go.jp)
  • There was no significant effect on the serum lipid levels, but the serum IgG level of the rats fed on guar gum was significantly lower than that of the rats fed on cellulose. (go.jp)
  • The IgA and IgG productivity in mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes was significantly higher in the rats fed on guar gum, glucomannan and pectin than in those fed on cellulose, while the effect on Ig productivity in spleen lymphocytes was not as marked. (go.jp)
  • Thirty-day-old PCB treated rats displayed significantly elevated leptin levels and depressed triiodothyronine concentrations. (osu.edu)
  • Young adult rats exposed to PCB for 21 days displayed significantly depressed leptin concentrations, however PCB had no effect on thyroid hormones in this group. (osu.edu)
  • We also observed significantly higher HIF1α and BNIP3 (a downstream target of HIF1α) expression in the lungs of HR SD rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways: they are calmer and significantly less likely to bite, they can tolerate greater crowding, they breed earlier and produce more offspring, and their brains, livers, kidneys, adrenal glands, and hearts are smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • colony
  • The first rat colony in America used for nutrition research was started in January 1908 by Elmer McCollum, and then nutritive requirements of rats were used by Thomas Burr Osborne and Lafayette Mendel to determine the details of protein nutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • Fructose feeding increases insulin resistance but not blood pressure in Sprague-Dawley rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It concluded that MON 863, a corn rootworm-resistant Bt corn developed by Monsanto, caused health problems in rats, including weight changes, triglyceride level increases in females, changes in urine composition in males, and reduced function or organ damage in the liver, kidney, adrenal glands, heart and haematopoietic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • This one-generation study assessed the potential of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) to affect reproduction and offspring development in rats. (rti.org)
  • In the present study 15-and 30-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed gestationally and lactationally to 1.25 ppm of Aroclor 1254®, a mixture of 52 PCB congeners, via maternal diet, to determine the effect on leptin and thyroid hormones. (osu.edu)
  • The aim of the study was to test whether the DA rat and the SD rat pretreated with the CYP2D1 inhibitor quinine showed attenuation in analgesia to codeine and oxycodone. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This study concluded that the three crops caused liver, kidney and heart damage in the rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media A 1972 study compared neoplasms in "Sprague-Dawley" rats from six different commercial suppliers and found highly significant differences in the incidences of endocrine and mammary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • We propose that previous reports of fructose-induced hypertension reflect a heightened stress response by fructose-fed rats associated with restraint and tail cuff inflation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Popular
  • Rat-baiting was a popular sport which involved filling a pit with rats and timing how long it took for a terrier to kill them all. (wikipedia.org)
  • days
  • Eighty-seven per cent of all tumors appeared after the rats were 540 days of age, and the mean lifespan after a tumor was first observed was 140 days. (aacrjournals.org)
  • less
  • The animal attendant indicated that he had not noticed any untoward behaviour or sickness in the rat during the previous cage change 48 hours earlier However, about 12 hours before death the rat was less active than usual. (scielo.org.za)
  • cause
  • In rats a marginal iron deficiency that does not cause anemia disrupted axon growth in the auditory nerve affecting auditory brainstem latency without major changes in myelination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Techniques
  • Our rat hepatocytes are prepared using the same careful isolation and cryopreservation techniques as our human lots. (thermofisher.com)
  • Although
  • Although uterine torsion is a rare condition in rats, it should be considered as a potential complication of gestation in animal breeding units. (scielo.org.za)
  • changes
  • Kato M, Onodera T (1987) Early changes of osteo-chondrosis in medial femoral condyles from rats. (springer.com)
  • significant
  • In the DA rat, the ED50 to oxycodone was increased 10-fold but there was a significant (P = .0001) prolongation in the duration of analgesia in comparison to that in the untreated SD rat. (aspetjournals.org)