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  • mice
  • In other studies, however, benzodiazepines did not change the defensive behavior of rats [ 6 , 10 ] or mice [ 1 , 10 ] exposed to cat odor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inductions of FABP in hepatic cytosol by administration of tiadenol and clofibric acid were studied in rats, mice and guinea-pigs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In rats and mice, [1-14C]oleic acid-binding capacity of hepatic cytosol was increased, in association with induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, by the administration of either the two peroxisome proliferators. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The peroxisome proliferators caused an induction of acyl-CoA hydrolase of lower-molecular-weight form alone in hepatic cytosol of mice, although inductions of two long-chain acyl-CoA hydrolases (higher- and lower-molecular-weight form) were brought about in hepatic cytosol of rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Congenic strains are generated in the laboratory by mating two inbred strains (usually rats or mice), and back-crossing the descendants 5-10 generations with one of the original strains, known as the recipient strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congenic mice or rats can then be compared to the pure recipient strain to determine whether they are phenotypically different if selection was for a genotypic region, or to identify the critical genetic locus, if selection was for a phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less commonly used for research than mice, rats have served as an important animal model for research in psychology and biomedical science. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbred strains are also available but are not as commonly used as inbred mice Much of the genome of Rattus norvegicus has been sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jackson Laboratory has additional features to maintaining mice, one can order mice that have been altered with genetic tools such as Gal4/UAS or CRISPR, meaning that even if the strain does not currently exist, you can still obtain a line of mouse that is useful to your research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Familiar albino animals include in-bred strains of laboratory animals (rats, mice, guinea-pigs and rabbits), but populations of naturally occurring albino animals exist in the wild, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the NOD mice, BB rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • NOD mice Type 1 Diabetes Autoimmunity Mordes JP, Poussier P, Blankenhorn EP, Greiner DL: Rat models of type 1 diabetes: Genetics, environment and autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of organisms - Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), Zea mays (maize), barley, Drosophila melanogaster, C. elegans and rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, researchers from the University of California, Davis were unable to reproduce Hornig's results despite using the same strain of mice and ten times the amount of mercury used in Hornig's study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent hobbyists and keepers of exotic pets, and later began selling in large numbers to scientific researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laboratory is also the world's source for more than 8,000 strains of genetically defined mice and is home of the Mouse Genome Informatics database. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a general rule, inbred mice tend to have longer gestation periods and smaller litters than outbred and hybrid mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the strain of mice most commonly used for DIO models, C57BL/6J, mice who started the diet at 10 weeks old showed lower increases in body weight and cholesterol than mice who started at 54 weeks, despite the same diet type and duration. (wikipedia.org)
  • genotype
  • In this manner either an interesting phenotype, or a defined chromosomal region assayed by genotype, is passed from the donor strain onto an otherwise uniform recipient background. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbred strains (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which are nearly identical to each other in genotype due to long inbreeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each strain has a single fixed genome and it is also possible to resample a given genotype multiple times in multiple environments to obtain highly accurate estimates of genetic and environmental effects and their interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sprague-Dawley
  • The effects of the plasma pattern of GH on serum and lipoprotein levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), apolipoprotein B 48/100 (apo B), and apolipoprotein E (apo E) were studied in hypophysectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats, which had been given replacement therapy with L-T4 and hydrocortisone. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Other common strains are the Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344, Holtzman albino strains, Long-Evans, and Lister black hooded rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media A 1972 study compared neoplasms in "Sprague-Dawley" rats from six different commercial suppliers and found highly significant differences in the incidences of endocrine and mammary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wistar
  • Origin: Developed in 1972 at the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences (Novosibirsk) by Salganik and Solovyova from Wistar stock by selection for susceptibility to cataractogenic effect of galactose-rich diet and brother-sister mating of highly susceptible rats ( Solovyova et al 1975 ). (jax.org)
  • In the 80's the research group of Marguerite Vergnes at Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in Strasbourg (France) reported the spontaneous occurrence of spike-and-wave discharges (SWD) evocative of absence seizures in Wistar rats during cortical electroencephalographic (EE]) recordings. (wikipedia.org)
  • These initial observations led to the development of two breeding colonies: (i) a fully inbred strain of rats, with 100% of animals displaying the EEG and behavioral characteristics of absence seizures, derived from an outbred Wistar colony and called the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) (ii) a strain of non epileptic control animals selected from the same initial breeding colony of Wistar rats and called the NEC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most are derived from the albino Wistar rat, which is still widely used. (wikipedia.org)
  • They were originally derived from a Canadian colony of outbred Wistar rats that spontaneously develop hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis, characteristic of clinical onset of T1D. (wikipedia.org)
  • rodents
  • Cotton rats combine the best traits of human-like lung granuloma formation (trait of rabbits) and inexpensive care (trait of other small rodents) to provide a suitable host for this type of study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rat-catchers would not only make money by trapping the rodents, but also by selling them for food, or more commonly, for rat-baiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • A strain, in reference to rodents, is a group in which all members are as nearly as possible genetically identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypes
  • When F2 population was generated by breeding GAERS with Brown Norway rats, a polygenic inheritance of SWD-related phenotypes was shown and three quantitative trait loci were identified that could control different variables of SWDs (e.g., frequency, amplitude, duration). (wikipedia.org)
  • this very uniformity means that fewer individuals are required to produce results with the same level of statistical significance when an inbred line is used in comparison to an outbred line in the same experiment Breeding of inbred strains is often towards specific phenotypes of interest such as behavioural traits like alcohol preference or physical traits like aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • A study conducted in 1998 found that the tawny-bellied cotton rat can be infected by low-level HIV-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • locus
  • One type of inbred strain that either has been altered, or naturally mutated so that it is different at a single locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The small panel of 8 CXB strains was originally used to determine if the Major Histocompatibility (MHC) locus on proximal chromosome 17 was a key factor in different immune responses such as tissue rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipoproteins
  • In the present study we investigated the effect of FCE 22178 on the plasma lipoproteins of MNS rats at 28 weeks of age (with mild proteinuria and moderate dyslipoproteinemia) and at 48 weeks of age (with heavy proteinuria and severe dyslipoproteinemia). (unimore.it)
  • Differential effects of continuous versus intermittent administration of growth hormone to hypophysectomized female rats on serum lipoproteins and their apoproteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • generations
  • Speed congenics can be produced in as little as five back-cross generations, through the selection at each generation of offspring that not only retain the desired chromosomal fragment, but also 'lose' the maximum amount of background genetic information from the donor strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A strain is inbred when it has undergone at least 20 generations of brother x sister or offspring x parent mating, at which point at least 98.6% of the loci in an individual of the strain will be homozygous, and each individual can be treated effectively as clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some inbred strains have been bred for over 150 generations, leaving individuals in the population to be isogenic in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • colony
  • The first rat colony in America used for nutrition research was started in January 1908 by Elmer McCollum, and then nutritive requirements of rats were used by Thomas Burr Osborne and Lafayette Mendel to determine the details of protein nutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptible
  • Two inbred rat strains have been selected: the BN/hsdCpb which is characterised by a relatively low fertility and the GK/mol, a model susceptible for the development of non-insulin dependant diabetes (diabetes type II). (orgprints.org)
  • species
  • The tawny-bellied cotton rat (Sigmodon fulviventer) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other factors that make the species a desirable test subject are the existence of inbred strains, ease of handling, and inexpensive upkeep. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, a strain is a low-level taxonomic rank used in three related ways, usually at the intraspecific level (within a species). (wikipedia.org)
  • C57BL
  • The first set of eight strains, the CXB family, were generated by Donald Bailey at the Jackson Laboratory from an intercross between a female BALB/cBy mouse (abbreviated C) and a male C57BL/6By mouse in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • maternal
  • We examined the factors influencing maternal food intake and pup growth in Norway rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The only exception is that the Y chromosome and the mitochondrial genome, both of which are inherited intact from the paternal and maternal strain, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Norway
  • To further elucidate the role played by mitochondria in steroidogenesis, we examined the effects of the perturbation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain with myxothiazol (MYX) on testosterone production by primary cultures of Brown Norway rat Leydig cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Taken as a whole, these results suggest that Norway rat dams apparently do not monitor and defend a maximal pup growth rate. (biomedsearch.com)
  • effects
  • Brandt, Kirsten and Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel (2003) The effects of organically and conventionally cultivated plant feed on fertility and health in two inbred rat strains. (orgprints.org)
  • In this experiment we study the effects of various culturing methods of plant based foods on health and fertility parameters in a two-generation study in rats. (orgprints.org)
  • The effects and time course of a single injection of beta-bungarotoxin into E14 rat embryos were examined with an electron-microscopic study of development of the internal intercostal somatic nerve. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Laboratory rats are frequently subject to dissection or microdialysis to study internal effects on organs and the brain, such as for cancer or pharmacological research. (wikipedia.org)
  • develops
  • We have previously shown that the administration of a thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) synthase inhibitor (FCE 22178) reduced the progression of glomerular lesions and proteinuria in MNS rats, an inbred strain which develops an age-related nephrotic syndrome. (unimore.it)
  • model
  • Based on that, a behavioral test in which rats are exposed to cat odor has been developed and proposed to model some forms of anxiety. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, this pair of rat strains provides a useful genetic model for the experimental study of anxiety. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The GAERS or Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rat from Strasbourg is a recognized animal model of Absence Epilepsy, a typical childhood form of Epilepsy characterized by recurrent loss of contact and concomitant pattern on the electroencephalogram called "spike-and-wave" discharges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, the GAERS has been recognized as a very predictive model for Absence Epilepsy, along with the WAG/Rij rat model. (wikipedia.org)
  • NCLAS also came into the limelight due to the WNIN/Ob obese rat strain which is the heaviest inbred rat model available. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1990s, Hornig helped to develop an infection-based model of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism and depression, based on neonatal rat infection with Borna disease virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the strain and sex of the rodent impacts the response to the model. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1992
  • In 1992, due to new findings, the S symbol was assigned to this strain. (jax.org)
  • neonatal
  • Neonatal changes in fatty acid profile of phospholipids in rat heart muscle. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Neonatal stress and increased cardiac function play an important role in the modification of the fatty acid composition of rat heart muscle phospholipids during early development. (biomedsearch.com)
  • normally
  • the strain designation, which is normally a number or a formal name, covers all the plants that descend from the originally modified plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • which is true of inbred strains, since they normally have at least 98.6% similarity by generation 20. (wikipedia.org)
  • respectively
  • Drug treatment reduced proteinuria (by 70% and 36% at 28 and 48 weeks of age, respectively) plasma cholesterol (by 36% and 27% at 28 and 48 weeks of age, respectively) and prevented the decrease of plasma albumin observed in untreated rats (C-MNS) 48 weeks old. (unimore.it)
  • From 28 to 48 weeks of age plasma apo A-I and apo E increased 217% and 128%, respectively, in C-MNS rats and 191% and 121%, respectively, in T-MNS-rats. (unimore.it)
  • differ
  • Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways: they are calmer and significantly less likely to bite, they can tolerate greater crowding, they breed earlier and produce more offspring, and their brains, livers, kidneys, adrenal glands, and hearts are smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • The ability of brain cells to regulate intracellular pH (pHi) and several phosphate metabolites was evaluated during 1 h of hypercapnia (inspiratory CO2 fraction of 0.10 and 0.05) in anesthetized rats by 31P high-field (145.6 MHz) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In October 2003, researchers succeeded in cloning two laboratory rats by nuclear transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • The objective of the present study was to compare the LEW and SHR strains in the COT, with or without the presence of the predator's odor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A light microscopical study of the morphogenesis of the gut in the rat embryo was undertaken to provide a careful map of temporal changes in the topographical relations of the (definitive) endoderm, the notochord and the hypoblast (primary endoderm). (biomedsearch.com)
  • different
  • These results suggest that the type of stress experienced by LEW and SHR strains exposed to cat odor is different from that elicited by exposure to classical models of anxiety such as the elevated plus-maze, black/white box and open-field tests. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There were even significant variations in the incidences of adrenal medulla tumors among rats from the same source raised in different laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidney
  • These findings suggest that the beneficial effect of FCE 22178 on the dyslipoproteinemia of nephrotic MNS rats is secondary to the amelioration in kidney function and to the reduction of proteinuria produced by this drug. (unimore.it)
  • Simultaneous purification and properties of dehydropeptidase-I and aminopeptidase-M from rat kidney. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Endothelial derived relaxing factor controls renal hemodynamics in the normal rat kidney. (biomedsearch.com)
  • humans
  • Future research is underway to use the cotton rat for studying pulmonary tuberculosis complicated by HIV-1 due to similarities with humans in both diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • injection
  • Diabetes in BB rats can be prevented by a single injection of mycobacterial adjuvants such as complete Freund's adjuvant (FCA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • Note: UGB is itself progesterone induced gene in the endometrium in Lagomorphs) Inhibits phospholipase A2 in vitro Binds phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol Binds to fibronectin: The uteroglobulin knockout mice on the inbred C57Bl6 strain develop Goodpasture's syndrome like glomerulopathy due to fibronectin binding of IgA which might potentially be prevented by uteroglobin replacement. (wikipedia.org)
  • However contrary to the animal model claims, human genetic data might suggest that the effect may be indirect Uteroglobin knockout mice on the inbred 129 strain appear to have healthy phenotype (no glomerulopathy development), but show physiological differences in their responses to respiratory challenges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of organisms - Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), Zea mays (maize), barley, Drosophila melanogaster, C. elegans and rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less commonly used for research than mice, rats have served as an important animal model for research in psychology and biomedical science. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbred strains are also available but are not as commonly used as inbred mice Much of the genome of Rattus norvegicus has been sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many investigators who wish to trace observations on behavior and physiology to underlying genes regard aspects of these in rats as more relevant to humans and easier to observe than in mice, giving impetus to the development of genetic research techniques applicable to rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • SNPs) and phenotypes that are obtained from groups of related individuals, including human families, experimental crosses of strains of mice and rats, and organisms as diverse as Drosophila melanogaster, Arabidopsis thaliana, and barley. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, a great deal of the experimental literature in behavioral neuroscience comes from the study of non-human species, most frequently rats, mice, and monkeys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congenic strains are generated in the laboratory by mating two inbred strains (usually rats or mice), and back-crossing the descendants 5-10 generations with one of the original strains, known as the recipient strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congenic mice or rats can then be compared to the pure recipient strain to determine whether they are phenotypically different if selection was for a genotypic region, or to identify the critical genetic locus, if selection was for a phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mice, large differences in learning ability exist among different inbred strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • After her poultry business failed, she started breeding rats and mice for hobbyists and pet owners. (wikipedia.org)
  • They established that ovariectomies reduced the incidence of mammary tumors and that tumor susceptibility varied in different strains of mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • While Little patronizingly called Lathrop a "talented pet-shop owner," his own DBA strain was probably derived from her partially inbred silver fawn mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Karin Knorr Cetina wrote in 2009 that at least five of the primary strains of laboratory mice in use may derive from a single female from Lathrop. (wikipedia.org)
  • https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10739-006-9117-1 Bonnie Tocher Clause, The Wistar Institute Archives: Rats (Not Mice) and History, Mendel Newsletter, Feb. 1998 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working with a special strain of mice, he set out to identify the hormone that normal animals use to control their appetite - a molecule that was missing in the plump rodents. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the strain of mice most commonly used for DIO models, C57BL/6J, mice who started the diet at 10 weeks old showed lower increases in body weight and cholesterol than mice who started at 54 weeks, despite the same diet type and duration. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990. Characterization of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection in different strains of mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • An in-vitro study completed in 2005 showed that Colostrinin can increase the lifespan of cells isolated from inbred mice predisposed to premature aging and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study showed the effect of Colostrinin on the mitochondria of cells isolated from strains of senescence-prone (SAMP1) and senescence-resistant (SAMR1) mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • C57BL
  • A quasi-congenic QTL introgression strain carrying a low alcohol consumption gene from BALB/c has lower voluntary alcohol consumption than C57BL/6, with 96% of loci in common (Vadasz et al, 1996). (spotidoc.com)
  • The first set of eight strains, the CXB family, were generated by Donald Bailey at the Jackson Laboratory from an intercross between a female BALB/cBy mouse (abbreviated C) and a male C57BL/6By mouse in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Each strain has a single fixed genome and it is also possible to resample a given genotype multiple times in multiple environments to obtain highly accurate estimates of genetic and environmental effects and their interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Speed congenics can be produced in as little as five back-cross generations, through the selection at each generation of offspring that not only retain the desired chromosomal fragment, but also 'lose' the maximum amount of background genetic information from the donor strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The availability of inbred and mutant mouse strains can be advantageous when examining the genetic basis of murine susceptibility and resistance to infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wistar
  • In this paper I examine King's work on inbreeding, her participation in the debates over eugenics, her position at the Wistar Institute, her status as a woman working with mostly male scientists, and her involvement with popular science. (wikipedia.org)
  • mouse
  • In this study we have examined the influence of plasma lipases and lipid transfer protein activities on the transfer of free cholesterol (FC) and phospholipids (PL) from lipid emulsion to human, rat and mouse lipoproteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Selections return the entire set of mouse, human, and rat homologs of the mouse PIRSF superfamily member selected. (jax.org)
  • You can select a given mouse superfamily member and download (or forward to NCBI BLAST) FASTA formatted protein sequences of that mouse gene and its mouse, human and rat homologs, as defined in the corresponding HomoloGene Class. (jax.org)
  • The numbers of mouse, human and rat genes in the HomoloGene Class are shown. (jax.org)
  • You can also "Select all" mouse superfamily members to obtain their protein sequences and the protein sequences for all mouse, human and rat homologs of the mouse superfamily members. (jax.org)
  • Black 6 became the most frequently used strain of laboratory mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the same time period, studies on mouse genetics in the laboratory of William Ernest Castle in collaboration with Abbie Lathrop led to generation of the DBA ("dilute, brown and non-agouti") inbred mouse strain and the systematic generation of other inbred strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some common mouse strains show large variations in their level of resistance to obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994
  • Inceoglu S, Siemionow M, Chick L et al (1994) The effect of combined immunosuppression with systemic low-dose cyclosporin and topical fluocinolone acetonide on the survival of rat hind-limb allografts. (springer.com)
  • The genetics of rats was studied by William Ernest Castle at the Bussey Institute of Harvard University until it closed in 1994. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • The only exception is that the Y chromosome and the mitochondrial genome, both of which are inherited intact from the paternal and maternal strain, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • Rationale Vulnerability to alcoholism is determined by many factors including the balance of pleasurable vs. the full dose-response relationship of ethanol CTA were assessed in male and woman adolescent and adult rats. (healthweblognews.info)
  • Results CTA was sex-specific in adult but not adolescent rats with adult females exhibiting less aversion. (healthweblognews.info)
  • Tetramisole loaded into zeolite is more effective at killing adult N. brasiliensis in rats than tetramisole alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways: they are calmer and significantly less likely to bite, they can tolerate greater crowding, they breed earlier and produce more offspring, and their brains, livers, kidneys, adrenal glands, and hearts are smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • The small panel of 8 CXB strains was originally used to determine if the Major Histocompatibility (MHC) locus on proximal chromosome 17 was a key factor in different immune responses such as tissue rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • There were even significant variations in the incidences of adrenal medulla tumors among rats from the same source raised in different laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • maze
  • The radial arm maze was designed by Olton and Samuelson in 1976 to measure spatial learning and memory in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reference memory is assessed when the rats only visit the arms of the maze which contains the reward. (wikipedia.org)
  • It therefore seems that in remembering locations on the radial arm maze, rats do not rely on local intra-maze cues, but rather on extra-maze cues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cole and Chappell-Stephenson, using a radial maze with food locations ranging from 8 to 48, estimated the limit of spatial memory in rats to be between 24 and 32 locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one experiment utilizing the radial arm maze, it was shown that spatial relations among hidden target sites control spatial decisions that rats make and are unrelated to visual or perceptual cues that are related to certain locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Rat-catchers would not only make money by trapping the rodents, but also by selling them for food, or more commonly, for rat-baiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • variations
  • Over time, breeding the rats for these contests may have produced variations in color, notably the albino and hooded varieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • model
  • Relatively insensitive to the primary odorant isovaleric acid (contrast seven other strains) and may provide an animal model of specific anosmia (Wysocki et al, 1977). (spotidoc.com)
  • Shapiro RI, Cerra FB (1978) A model for reimplantation and transplantation of a complex organ: the rat hind limb. (springer.com)
  • Benhaim P, Anthony JP, Ferreira L et al (1996) Use of combination of low-dose cyclosporine and RS-61443 in a rat hindlimb model of composite tissue allotransplantation. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, the strain and sex of the rodent impacts the response to the model. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • however, a similar rat protein has been identified as the major canalicular bile salt export pump of liver. (jax.org)
  • The first rat colony in America used for nutrition research was started in January 1908 by Elmer McCollum, and then nutritive requirements of rats were used by Thomas Burr Osborne and Lafayette Mendel to determine the details of protein nutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The effect of the lipases was verified by incubation of labeled ( 3 H-FC, 14 C-PL) triglyceride rich emulsion with human plasma (control, post-heparin and post-heparin plus lipase inhibitor), rat plasma (control and post-heparin) and by the injection of the labeled lipid emulsion into control and heparinized functionally hepatectomized rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • density
  • In hepatectomized rats, heparin stimulation of intravascular lipolysis increased the plasma removal of 14 C-PL and the amount of 14 C-PL found in the low density lipoprotein density fraction but not in the high density lipoprotein density fraction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • study
  • Laboratory rats are frequently subject to dissection or microdialysis to study internal effects on organs and the brain, such as for cancer or pharmacological research. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Galaninergic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of corticotropin and thyrotropin secretion in the rat. (uclouvain.be)
  • early
  • As there is evidence that the hooded rat was known as the "Japanese rat" in the early 20th century, Kuramoto concluded that one or more Japanese hooded rats might have been brought to Europe or the Americas and an albino rat that emerged as a product of the breeding of these hooded rats was the common ancestor of all the albino laboratory rats in use today. (wikipedia.org)
  • male
  • Female 58 mated with the same male gave rise to strain C58. (spotidoc.com)
  • Since GAL coexists with vasopressin and CRH in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), we have studied the pharmacological and physiological actions of GAL on ACTH and TSH secretion in freely moving male rats. (uclouvain.be)
  • found
  • In 1977, Schwartz, along with Harold Gainer, Ph.D, found that the glucose consumption in the rat SCN is a function of time of day and environmental lighting conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olton and Samuelson also found when they switched some already-visited arms into as yet unvisited locations partway through a trial, that the rats tended to visit as-yet unvisited locations even when doing so meant running down arms that had already been traversed, and tended to avoid arms that had not yet been traversed but were now in previously visited locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Press BH, Sibley RK, Shons AR (1986) Limb allotransplantation in the rat: extended survival and return of nerve function with continuous cyclosporin/prednisone immunosuppression. (springer.com)
  • Brown
  • In 18th century Europe, wild Brown rats ran rampant and this infestation fueled the industry of rat-catching. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • N. brasiliensis are adapted to infecting rats and so can continue laying eggs for prolonged periods of time. (wikipedia.org)