• Outcome
  • However, many previous studies had methodological weaknesses related to trial design, sample size, comparison group, outcome measures, short follow-up durations and programme content. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A meta-analysis of the available trials demonstrated little evidence for a direct effect of hydrocortisone on the rates of BPD, mortality, or the combined outcome of BPD or mortality. (mendeley.com)
  • Of the 21 studies comparing iron supplementation with controls, none evaluated neurodevelopmental status as an outcome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, results of 11 trials differed according to modality with acupressure appearing effective for first-day nausea, electroacupuncture appearing effective for first-day vomiting, and noninvasive electrostimulation appearing no more effective than placebo for any outcome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Further research should be considered in the form of large scale well-designed and well-reported randomised controlled trials with suitable outcome measures and surveillance periods. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recognition of use of EBP often PICOT formatted questions address the patient population (P), issue of interest or intervention (I), comparison group (C), outcome (O), and time frame (T). Asking questions in this format assists in generating a search that produces the most relevant, quality information related to a topic, while also decreasing the amount of time needed to produce these search results. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of an intervention focused PICOT question would be: In total knee arthroplasty patients (Population), what is the effect of nerve blocks (Intervention) compared to opioid pain medication (Comparison) in controlling post-operative pain (Outcome) within the first 24 hours after surgery (Time)? (wikipedia.org)
  • mortality
  • Data on randomized patients, total serious adverse events, all-cause mortality, non-fatal cardiovascular events, withdrawals due to adverse events, length of follow-up, blood pressure and heart rate were extracted independently and cross checked. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mortality event data were reported in 7 trials. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The patients presented with moderate hypercholesterolemia between 5.5 and 8.0 mmol/L. The results of the trial showed that simvastatin had a lowering effect on mortality and morbidity of patients suffering from coronary heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a randomized control trial of over 1500 surgical ICU patients, controlling patients' blood glucose below 110 mg/dL or 6.1 mmol/L significantly decreased mortality from 8% with conventional treatment to 4.6%, and also decreased morbidity from bloodstream infections by 46%, acute renal failure requiring dialysis or hemofiltration and critical illness polyneuropathy (Van den Berghe, 2001). (wikipedia.org)
  • A subsequent randomized control trial of 1200 medical ICU patients found that intensive insulin therapy significantly reduced morbidity but not mortality among all patients in the medical ICU. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most recently, the largest randomized control trial to date (with 6104 enrolled patients) comparing the effects of intensive glucose control vs. conventional glucose control in ICU patients found that tight glucose control significantly increased mortality at 90 days after admission to the ICU as compared to conventional glucose control (2.6% increase in the absolute risk of death). (wikipedia.org)
  • Incidence
  • Two trials (388 neonates) showed that betamimetics significantly reduced the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome but the difference was not significant when the analysis was adjusted for correlation of babies from twins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • postnatal
  • Regarding haematological outcomes, no benefit for iron supplementation was demonstrated within the first 8.5 weeks of postnatal life (16 trials), except by two poor quality studies. (biomedsearch.com)
  • studies
  • Studies comparing any acupuncture or electroacupuncture technique with a control were eligible for inclusion. (york.ac.uk)
  • SEARCH METHODS: Relevant trials were identified by electronic searches of numerous literature databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL, as well as handsearching of relevant conference abstracts and examination of reference lists in identified studies and other reviews. (mendeley.com)
  • Most studies assessed the zinc effect against a background of other micronutrient supplements, but five were placebo-controlled trials of zinc alone. (biomedsearch.com)
  • All studies (except one) were open-label trials. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Clinical study design is the formulation of trials and experiments, as well as observational studies in medical, clinical and other types of research (e.g., epidemiological) involving human beings. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, recall bias is likely to occur in cross-sectional or case-control studies where subjects are asked to recall exposure to risk factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conducting studies in seasonal indications (such as allergies, Seasonal Affective Disorder, influenza, and others) can complicate a trial as patients must be enrolled quickly. (wikipedia.org)
  • This use of the term "retrospective study" is misleading, however, and should be avoided because other research designs besides case-control studies are also retrospective in orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence-based policy relies on the use of science and rigorous studies such as randomized controlled trials to identify programs and practices capable of improving policy relevant outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A meta-analysis of studies on this topic could not demonstrate an advantage of tight glycemic control, while there was an increase in hypoglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • To our knowledge this is the first randomized placebo-controlled trial of angiotensin II blockade in these patients," said Dr. Ibrahim. (todaytopics.com)
  • Alpe d'HuZes cancer rehabilitation (A-CaRe) research: four randomized controlled exercise trials and economic evaluations in cancer patients and survivors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHOD: A-CaRe Clinical Research includes four randomized controlled trials in patients: (a) after chemotherapy, (b) during chemotherapy, (c) after stem cell transplantation and (d) during childhood cancer. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For each study, the proportion of patients whose depression improved in the treatment and control group was extracted and used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). (york.ac.uk)
  • METHODS: Data on the frequency of angina attacks, short-acting nitrate consumption, and heart rate were pooled from 5 randomized trials in patients with stable angina pectoris receiving 5, 7.5, or 10 mg of ivabradine b.i.d. for 3 or 4 months. (biomedsearch.com)
  • MAIN RESULTS: Fifteen randomized controlled trials (representing 869 patients) met the inclusion criteria. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We concluded that in patients who discontinue clozapine, considering a trial of olanzapine would be worthwhile. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Regaining muscular control is essential if the individual wishes to return to pre-injury level of function and patients will invariably be referred for rehabilitation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Importance: Impact Randomized trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Authors: The Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this trial (the NICE-SUGAR Study), patients randomised to the intensive glucose control group had a target blood sugar range of 4.5 to 6.0 mmol/L while those placed in the conventional glucose control group had a blood glucose target range of 8.0 to 10.0 mmol/L (as compared to 10.0 to 11.1 mmol/L in Van den Berghe, 2001). (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, a design effect (used to inflate the sample size of an individually randomised trial to that required in a cluster trial) has been established, which has shown that the stepped wedge CRT could reduce the number of patients required in the trial compared to other designs. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • All four A-CaRe trials use similar methods. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Dr. Jadad's doctoral work led to the creation of new tools to distill high-quality health-related information, new methods to build specialized bibliographic databases to support health-related decisions, innovative approaches the management of big data in health care, and the validation of the most widely used tool to assess the quality of clinical trials in the world: the Jadad scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • evaluation
  • Peer Effects, Teacher Incentives, and the Impact of Tracking: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Kenya. (wikipedia.org)
  • In microfinance, Karlan has studied the following topics: interest rate policy, credit evaluation and scoring policies, entrepreneurship training, group versus individual liability, savings product design, credit with education, and impact from increased access to credit and savings. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethics
  • Some of the considerations here are shared under the more general topic of design of experiments but there can be others, in particular related to patient confidentiality and ethics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Philosophical debates center around questions about individual rights, ethics and government authority, while economic topics include how to maximize the efficiency of health care delivery and minimize costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • placebo
  • A large well designed placebo-controlled RCT is needed to demonstrate SLT's effectiveness in Parkinson's disease. (mendeley.com)
  • Two trials included a placebo arm. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The pooled effect of 3 different anti-hypertensive drugs in one placebo-controlled trial showed a statistically significant greater reduction in both systolic [WMD -13, 95%CI -19,-and diastolic [WMD -8, 95%CI, -12,-blood pressure with antihypertensive therapy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The study found no difference between the ionized bracelet and control with respect to musculoskeletal pain, suggesting the effects of Q-ray bracelet was due to the placebo effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • RESULTS
  • MAIN RESULTS: Six trials (374 twin pregnancies) were included, but only five trials (344 twin pregnancies) contributed data. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For postoperative nausea and vomiting, results from 26 trials showed acupuncture-point stimulation was effective for both nausea and vomiting. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Trautwein has published a large number of articles on a number of topics, including the development of conscientiousness, expectancy-value beliefs, and academic effort, the effectiveness of homework assignments and completion, and the results of several randomized controlled field trials in school settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study
  • The term retrospective study is sometimes used as another term for a case-control study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ratanawongsa N, Handley MA, Quan J, Sarkar U, Pfeifer K, Soria C, et al, Quasi-experimental trial of diabetes Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support (SMARTSteps) in a Medicaid managed care plan: study protocol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2005 study published in the journal Nature compared 40 Wikipedia articles on science topics to their Encyclop√¶dia Britannica counterpart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data
  • Both review authors separately evaluated trial quality and data extraction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Importance: Topic creator, Breakthrough, Impact The Canon of Medicine Author: Avicenna (Ibn Sina) Publication data: The Canon of Medicine, 1025 Description: This fourteen-volume medical encyclopedia was the first of its kind and remained the most popular medical textbook in both Europe and the Islamic world up until the 17th century and continued to be in use as late as the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importance: Topic creator, Breakthrough, Impact Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus Author: William Harvey Publication data: 1628 Description: The work in which Harvey explained the circulation of the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapy
  • List of topics characterized as pseudoscience Quackery Negative air ionization therapy Power Balance Hologram bracelet Magnet therapy Energy medicine Court rules in FTC's favor in Q-Ray bracelet case Archived August 25, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyses
  • Post hoc analyses of these trials suggest that the clinical benefit brought about by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors may not entirely be due to their effect on the levels of circulating lipoproteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Health Care
  • There are many categories of health policies, including global health policy, public health policy, mental health policy, health care services policy, insurance policy, personal healthcare policy, pharmaceutical policy, and policies related to public health such as vaccination policy, tobacco control policy or breastfeeding promotion policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • exercise
  • CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that exercise is more effective at improving physical fitness and thereby reducing fatigue and more cost-effective compared with usual care or a waiting list control group. (biomedsearch.com)
  • quality
  • Six of the 20 trials were graded as high quality. (biomedsearch.com)
  • They may cover topics of financing and delivery of healthcare, access to care, quality of care, and health equity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence-based nursing (EBN) is an approach to making quality decisions and providing nursing care based upon personal clinical expertise in combination with the most current, relevant research available on the topic. (wikipedia.org)
  • demonstrate
  • Superiority trials are designed to demonstrate that one treatment is more effective than a given reference treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-inferiority trials are designed to demonstrate that a treatment is at least not appreciably less effective than a given reference treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Equivalence trials are designed to demonstrate that two treatments are equally effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • reviews
  • Several randomised trials, but no reviews, exist for motion sickness. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Reviews are an overview of one particular topic of clinical interest in order to refresh the readers' memory, to enhance an emergence concept or the summary recent publications that haven't appeared in the textbooks yet. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • Some reasons why a particular publication might be regarded as important: Topic creator - A publication that created a new topic Breakthrough - A publication that changed scientific knowledge significantly Influence - A publication which has significantly influenced the world or has had a massive impact on the teaching of medicine. (wikipedia.org)