• neurons
  • The production and study of connectomes, known as connectomics, may range in scale from a detailed map of the full set of neurons and synapses within part or all of the nervous system of an organism to a macro scale description of the functional and structural connectivity between all cortical areas and subcortical structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • spatial resolution
  • Single Voxel Spectroscopy (SVS): has a minimum spatial resolution of approximately 1 cm3, and has the cleanest spectrum free from unwanted artefacts due to the small acquired volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Establishing normative MR spectroscopy values requires both high spatial resolution and 3D coverage because metabolite levels in newborns vary dramatically with both postconceptional age and anatomic location. (ajnr.org)
  • pulses
  • These steps include: Shimming the magnetic field: this step is taken to correct for the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field by tuning different pulses in the x, y, and z directions. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many approaches available, related to the sequence of radiofrequency pulses and magnetic field gradients, for the generation of clinical images and spectra by NMR. (jci.org)
  • Pulses of radio waves excite the nuclear spin energy transition, and magnetic field gradients localize the signal in space. (wikipedia.org)
  • visualization
  • Nagai M, Yamaguchi M, Mori K, Furuta T, Ashino H, Kurosawa H, Kasahara H, Minami M, Fujii H Magnetic resonance-based visualization of thermal ablative margins around hepatic tumors by means of systemic ferucarbotran administration before radiofrequency ablation: animal study to reveal the connection between excess iron deposition and T2*-weighted hypointensity in ablative margins. (go.jp)
  • Hospital
  • From 1995 until his retirement in 2010, he was professor and head of the section of Experimental Magnetic Resonance of the Central Nervous System of the University Hospital of Tübingen. (wikipedia.org)
  • acquisition
  • Yamaguchi M, Mitsumori F, Watanabe H, Takaya N, Minami M. In vivo localized 1H MR spectroscopy of rat testes: stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) combined with short TI inversion recovery (STIR) improves the detection of metabolite signals. (go.jp)
  • In the literature 13C fMRS is commonly referred to as functional 13C MRS or just 13C MRS. Typically in MRS a single spectrum is acquired by averaging enough spectra over a long acquisition time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multi-voxel spectroscopy provides information about group of voxels and data can be presented in 2D or 3D images, but it requires longer acquisition times and therefore temporal resolution is decreased. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • This study showed the feasibility of detecting the 3D distributions of choline, creatine, and N -acetylaspartate resonances in the neonatal brain. (ajnr.org)
  • The data generated by fMRS usually shows spectra of resonances, instead of a brain image, as with MRI. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multi-voxel spectroscopy usually is performed when the specific volume of interest is not known or it is important to study metabolite dynamics in a larger brain region. (wikipedia.org)
  • fMRS has several advantages over other functional neuroimaging and brain biochemistry detection techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike push-pull cannula, microdialysis and in vivo voltammetry, fMRS is a non-invasive method for studying dynamics of biochemistry in an activated brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The connectome will significantly increase our understanding of how functional brain states emerge from their underlying structural substrate, and will provide new mechanistic insights into how brain function is affected if this structural substrate is disrupted. (wikipedia.org)
  • reporting the discovery of resting state functional connectivity (fcMRI) in the human brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same equipment also was used in the discovery of MRI resting state human functional connectivity (fcMRI), a very heavily cited paper that led to the founding of a new journal: Brain Connectivity, and the funding of the Human Connectome Project. (wikipedia.org)
  • MRI brain scans use a strong, permanent, static magnetic field to align nuclei in the brain region being studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • and by Turner had shown that oxygen depletion led to significant drops in MRI signal changes in large veins and the brain cortex itself, respectively, via a magnetic susceptibility mechanism analogous to that used by Belliveau with exogenous tracers, but in this case using deoxygenated blood itself as the contrast agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • gradient
  • Rather than creating a homogeneous magnet field by adjusting the "shimming" magnets to minimize field inhomogeneity, Lauterbur applied a magnetic field gradient to induce inhomogeneity in a planned way, providing a method to encode different parts of the substance to be imaged. (jci.org)
  • The radio signal may be made to encode position information by varying the main magnetic field using gradient coils. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major components of an MRI scanner are: the main magnet, which polarizes the sample, the shim coils for correcting shifts in the homogeneity of the main magnetic field, the gradient system which is used to localize the MR signal and the RF system, which excites the sample and detects the resulting NMR signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another magnetic field, the gradient field, is then applied to spatially locate different nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • physics
  • In this capacity, he has been credited with leading the evolution of EPR spectroscopy from applications in physics to applications in chemistry and biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • field
  • These agents create local magnetic field inhomogeneities that lead to a decreased signal on T2-weighted MR images 5 . (jove.com)
  • Currently, Grodd is an independent researcher at the department High-field Magnetic Resonance of the Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • To balance the need for temporal resolution and sufficient SNR, fMRS requires a high magnetic field strength (1.5 T and above). (wikipedia.org)
  • MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields, electric field gradients, and radio waves to generate images of the organs in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain atomic nuclei are able to absorb and emit radio frequency energy when placed in an external magnetic field. (wikipedia.org)
  • To perform a study, the person is positioned within an MRI scanner that forms a strong magnetic field around the area to be imaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, energy from an oscillating magnetic field temporarily is applied to the patient at the appropriate resonance frequency. (wikipedia.org)
  • MRI requires a magnetic field that is both strong and uniform. (wikipedia.org)
  • application
  • Research into the application and interpretation of medical images is usually the preserve of radiology and the medical sub-discipline relevant to medical condition or area of medical science (neuroscience, cardiology, psychiatry, psychology, etc.) under investigation. (wikipedia.org)