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  • humans
  • In humans today there are not multiple biological groups called "races. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The originators of the computer program most often used to support the argument that humans divide into the continental genetic clusters (which Wade says are "races") comment that their model (called structure) is not well-suited to data shaped by restricted gene flow with isolation by distance (as human genetic variation data on large scales are). (andrewsullivan.com)
  • Imagine a group of humans that had a mutation in the FOXP2 gene--often called the language gene--such that this transcription factor (a gene that helps stimulate the expression of select other genes) was nonfunctional. (nautil.us)
  • Discrimination
  • The issue of race has been in the news a lot lately with the canning of proposed amendments to Australia's Racial Discrimination Act, attempts by extremists to commit genocide on cultural minorities in Iraq and a new book by US author Nicholas Wade that has scientists claiming their work was hijacked to promote an ideological agenda. (theconversation.com)
  • One of the main indicators that racial discrimination has occurred in the hiring process involves the qualifications of the job applicants. (encyclopedia.com)
  • While a slight difference in qualifications between a minority and white candidate does not automatically indicate racial bias (if the lesser qualified white candidate is hired over the minority candidate), a substantial difference in qualifications has almost always been upheld by the courts as a sure sign of racial discrimination. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since the social unrest of the 1960s, the federal government has been actively involved in preventing racial discrimination in the workplace. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The most important law covering racial discrimination on the job is the Civil Rights Act of 1964 - specifically, Title VII of that act: it strictly prohibits all forms of discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in all aspects of employment. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The law was passed to override several Supreme Court decisions that had made it much more difficult for employees to prove that racial discrimination had occurred. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The 1991 act said that all racial discrimination was covered by U.S. law, including post-hire harassment. (encyclopedia.com)
  • argue
  • Sorting patients by race may seem useful during a time-constrained interview, but we argue that acting on rapid racial assessment can lead to missed diagnoses and inappropriate treatments. (xf.cz)
  • descent
  • Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The modern research in regards to Mexicans of European descent focuses on phenotypical traits such as skin color and hair color rather than on asking the perception of ancestry. (wikipedia.org)
  • This chapter, based on fieldwork conducted in 2007 at a large public university in Hawaii, explores Asian American college students' relationships with education and technology, and the role of educational and technological factors in their process of negotiating professional and cultural self-identities as contemporary Americans of Asian descent. (igi-global.com)
  • different
  • Under the General Government of occupied Poland in 1940, the Nazis divided the population into different groups, each with different rights, food rations, allowed housing strips in the cities, public transportation, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The degree of human genetic variation is a little different depending upon the gene type studied, but in general it is common to claim that ~85% of genetic variation is found within groups, ~6-10% between groups within the same continent and ~6-10% is found between continental groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Edwards (2003) claims, "It is not true, as Nature claimed, that 'two random individuals from any one group are almost as different as any two random individuals from the entire world'" and Risch et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • But of course, peoples come packaged many different ways, mostly culturally, and if you don't make a distinction between the kinds of groups you are talking about, then it is not at all clear that you can claim to be talking about races in any meaningfully rigorous sense. (ssrc.org)
  • immigrant groups
  • Their socioeconomic disadvantages and dismal school performance are particularly striking in California, where most other contemporary immigrant groups are notable for just the opposite. (ucdavis.edu)
  • races
  • By the mid-19th century, many racists believed the world's population could be divided into a variety of races: groups of people who shared similar physical attributes, such as skin colour and hair texture. (thecanadianencyclopedia.com)
  • So when Wade states in chapter 5 of his book, "It might be reasonable to elevate the Indian and Middle Eastern groups to the level of major races, making seven in all," he notices a problem: "But then, many more subpopulations could be declared races. (andrewsullivan.com)
  • thus
  • Thus the Aryans, the Jews, the French, or the Gypsies could all be considered distinctive and detectable elements, core natural identities buried under complex layers of ancestry. (ssrc.org)
  • ethnicity
  • As with other racial and ethnicity based terms, formal and common usage have changed markedly through the short history of this term. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the criteria for defining what constitutes a Mestizo varies from study to study as in Mexico a large number of white people have been historically classified as Mestizos because after the Mexican revolution the Mexican government begun defining ethnicity on cultural standards (mainly the language spoken) rather than racial ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • During his debate with Wade, anthropologist Agustín Fuentes pointed out that "Wade uses cluster, population, group, race, sub-race, ethnicity in a range of ways with few concrete definitions, and occasionally interchangeably throughout the book. (andrewsullivan.com)
  • admixture
  • Mexico's northern and western regions have the highest percentages of White population, with the majority of the people not having native admixture or being of predominantly European ancestry, resembling in aspect that of northern Spaniards. (wikipedia.org)
  • practice
  • 2007) Racial Categories in Medical Practice: How Useful Are They? (xf.cz)
  • Racial categories, with shifting meanings and culturally determined parameters, have always shaped medical practice and thinking, leading to vigorous debates about their use in epidemiology, public health, and medical research journals [10- (xf.cz)
  • suffer
  • Yet, there are many sub groups of Asian Americans who suffer in terms of education with some sub groups showing a high rate of dropping out of school or lacking a college education. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • On the one hand, commentators have frequently described Asian Americans as a "model minority," given their impressive aggregate socio-economic, educational, and technological achievements in comparison to other racial groups (see Humes & McKinnon, 2000). (igi-global.com)
  • people
  • African slaves brought to the United States and their descendants have had a history of cultural exchange and intermarriage with Native Americans, as well as with other enslaved people who possessed Native American and European ancestry. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The most commonly used definition of Asian American is the US Census Bureau definition, which includes all people with origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Said registers also put in question other narratives held by contemporary academics, such as European immigrants who arrived to Mexico being almost exclusively men or that "pure Spanish" people were all part of a small powerful elite, as Spaniards were often the most numerous ethnic group in the colonial cities and there were menial workers and people in poverty who were of complete Spanish origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • and since it was a reification to begin with, it could be applied to pretty much any group of people with their own name, who could be seen to differ, if you looked hard enough, from contrasting groups of people. (ssrc.org)
  • population
  • It can help scientists understand ancient human population migrations as well as how human groups are biologically related to one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • New York is home to the largest African American population and the second largest Asian American population in the United States. (forumotion.com)
  • Queens, also in New York City, is home to the state's largest Asian-American population, and is also the most diverse county in the United States. (forumotion.com)
  • Even something thought to be so ubiquitous as skin color works only in a limited way as dark or light skin tells us only about a human's amount of ancestry relative to the equator, not anything about the specific population or part of the planet they might be descended from. (psychologytoday.com)
  • For example, since the removal of restrictive "national origins" quotas in 1965, the Asian-American population has diversified greatly to include more of the peoples with ancestry from various parts of Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to 20th and 21st century academics, large scale intermixing between the European immigrants and the native Indigenous peoples would produce a Mestizo group which would become the overwhelming majority of Mexico's population by the time of the Mexican Revolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Descriptive statistics derived from population surveys using racial definitions based on self-identity, however, are not biological or attributive categories appropriate for individual treatment . (xf.cz)
  • among
  • Mexican Americans and other Latinos today constitute the single largest ethnic group among California's school children, and four out of five are the children of immigrants. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The risk of developing prostate cancer is highest among Black men and lowest among Asian men. (herbalyzer.com)
  • But such a position produces a critical paradox: the rates of morbidity and death from particular diseases are not uniformly distributed among socially defined racial and ethnic groups throughout the world [4- (xf.cz)
  • estimate
  • we can estimate that about 120 unselected SNPs or 20 highly selected SNPs can distinguish group CA from NA, AA from AS and AA from NA. (scienceblogs.com)
  • This variation is usually calculated using Sewall Wright's fixation index (FST), which is an estimate of between to within group variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • patterns
  • Changing patterns of immigration and an extensive period of exclusion of Asian immigrants have resulted in demographic changes that have in turn affected the formal and common understandings of what defines Asian American. (wikipedia.org)
  • vast
  • If Mexican American youth were just another in the vast array of new second generation groups, there would be only modest cause for concern regarding their below average achievement and future prospects. (ucdavis.edu)
  • social
  • Recent work has clearly demonstrated that racial social structures, from access to health care to one's own racialized self-image , can impact the ways our bodies and immune systems develop. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The book has been examined as an example of Pioneer's funding of "scientific racist" research, while psychologist Michael Howe has identified the book as part of a movement, begun in the 1990s, to promote a racial agenda in social policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • categories
  • In that way there is a distinct statistical correlation between gene frequencies and racial categories. (wikipedia.org)
  • In sum, racial categories now in use are based on a convoluted and often pernicious history, including much purposefully created misinformation. (nautil.us)
  • In order to monitor the success of attempts to address these health inequalities, we need to keep health records based on racial and ethnic categories. (xf.cz)
  • This problem is illustrated in Box 1, which describes an "on the ground" dilemma of administering a drug to individuals who do not fit "standard" racial categories. (xf.cz)
  • In the last several decades, poorly defined racial categories became reified in biomedical research practices, in part because of the widespread use of US census categories . (xf.cz)
  • make a distinction
  • In addition to the general definition of Hispanophone, some groups in the Hispanic world make a distinction between Castilian-speaking and Spanish-speaking, with the former term denoting the speakers of the Spanish language-also known as Castilian-and the latter the speakers of the Spanish or Hispanic languages (i.e. the languages of Spain or the languages of the Hispanic nations). (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, the anti-Japanese movement became widespread around 1905, due both to increasing immigration and the Japanese victory over Russia, the first defeat of a western nation by an Asian nation in modern times. (nps.gov)
  • Perhaps the most significant discovery is that human groups, however constituted, are fluid, bio-cultural units. (ssrc.org)
  • European
  • While the Mexican government periodically conducts racial censuses for "Indigenous Mexicans" and "Afro-Mexicans" it has not conducted a census for European Mexicans for nearly a century. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was also the first (as far as we know) who has European and African ancestry. (nautil.us)
  • national
  • After immigration laws were reformed during the 1940s-60s, abolishing national origins quotas, Asian immigration increased rapidly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar
  • Chinese labor was cheap labor, and this economic grievance became an ideology of Asian inferiority similar to existing American racial prejudices. (nps.gov)
  • American
  • In 2015, Asian American earnings were found to exceed all other racial groups when all Asian ethnic groups are grouped as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • One source even quoted as saying that some Asian ethnic groups "have poverty rates that rival the African-American poverty rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2014, data released by the United States Census Bureau revealed that five Asian American ethnic groups are in the top 10 lowest earning ethnicities in terms of per capita income in all of the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the American definition of 'Asian' originally included West Asian ethnic groups, particularly Afghan Americans, Jewish Americans, Armenian Americans, Assyrian Americans, and Arab Americans, although these groups are now considered Middle Eastern American. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term Asian American was coined by historian Yuji Ichioka, who is credited with popularizing the term, to frame a new "inter-ethnic-pan-Asian American self-defining political group" in the late 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, "Asian American" is the accepted term for most formal purposes, such as government and academic research, although it is often shortened to Asian in common usage. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the American Revolution, Lancaster was the capital of the United States for one day, on September 27, 1777, after the Continental Congress fled Philadelphia, which had been captured by the British. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asian American Perspectives on Education and Technology. (igi-global.com)
  • minority
  • Analyses of the 2010 census have shown that Asian Americans are the fastest growing racial or ethnic minority in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • An employee who alleges that a manager or other person in power tells jokes or makes statements that are demeaning, insulting, or offensive to members of a minority group. (encyclopedia.com)
  • level
  • For example, in 2012, Asian Americans had the highest educational attainment level of any racial demographic in the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • laws
  • In the 1920s, states like Virginia enacted eugenic laws, such as its 1924 Racial Integrity Act, which established the one-drop rule as law. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the 1930s and 1940s, Jews in Nazi-controlled states were made to wear yellow ribbons or stars of David, and were, along with Romas (Gypsies), discriminated against by the racial laws. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nativist immigration laws during the 1880s-1920s excluded various Asian groups, eventually prohibiting almost all Asian immigration to the continental United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both laws were based on the presumption that Asians were aliens ineligible for citizenship, which in turn stemmed from a narrow interpretation of the naturalization statute. (nps.gov)
  • terms
  • This occurs in terms of household income as well, in 2008 Asian Americans had the highest median household income overall of any racial demographic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to that time, and even into the 19th century, human variation was always interpreted as varying in local terms, not in para-continental terms. (ssrc.org)
  • world
  • There are also smaller Hispanophone groups in Canada, northern Morocco, Equatorial Guinea, Western Sahara, the Philippines and Brazil as well as in many other places around the world, particularly large cities in Western Europe and Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetic distance between some groups within Africa is as great as the genetic distance between many "racially divergent" groups in the rest of the world. (nautil.us)