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  • doses
  • If intravenous infusion is not possible, quinine dihydrochloride may be given intramuscularly where doses, including the loading dose are the same as those used for intravenous administration (Reynolds, 1996). (inchem.org)
  • Very high doses of quinine can cause death usually because of cardiac toxicity. (healthtap.com)
  • bark
  • Obtaining some of the bark of this amazing plant , he treated her and the Countess of Chichon became the first European on record to receive quinine. (everything2.com)
  • The scientists called the compound quinine from the native name quina , meaning, roughly, 'tree bark. (everything2.com)
  • The effectiveness of quinine as a treatment was first documented almost 400 years ago by Jesuit missionaries in South America, with it referred to as 'Jesuit's bark' in older documentation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Chemical
  • QUININE International Programme on Chemical Safety Poisons Information Monograph 464 Pharmaceutical This monograph is not complete, and the following sections are included: 1,2,7,9,10,13 and 14. (inchem.org)
  • Writing in the Journal of Biological Chemistry (3 July), scientists from the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom suggest quinine may block the transport of tryptophan into cells because it has a similar chemical structure to the amino acid. (scidev.net)
  • In enzymology, a quinine 3-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.13.67) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction quinine + NADPH + H+ + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 3-hydroxyquinine + NADP+ + H2O The 4 substrates of this enzyme are quinine, NADPH, H+, and O2, whereas its 3 products are 3-hydroxyquinine, NADP+, and H2O. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2001 editorial published in Chemical & Engineering News sided with Stork, but the controversy was eventually laid to rest once and for all when Williams and coworkers successfully repeated Woodward's proposed conversion of quinotoxine to quinine in 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • side effects
  • Quinine drugs are associated with serious side effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias, thrombocytopenia, and severe hypersensitivity reactions. (drugs.com)
  • Who knows the side effects of taking quinine? (healthtap.com)
  • Researchers may have discovered why the popular antimalarial, quinine, causes debilitating side-effects. (scidev.net)
  • Quinine is known to cause nausea, blurred vision and hallucinations, but until now no one has been able to explain these side-effects. (scidev.net)
  • It doesn't take a leap of faith to see that quinine could interfere with serotonin's capacity to affect mood in humans, causing some of the side effects we see with quinine - like hallucinations,' he says. (scidev.net)
  • drugs
  • This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with quinine. (drugs.com)
  • You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take quinine with all of your drugs and health problems. (drugs.com)
  • You may need to have your blood work checked more closely while taking quinine with your other drugs. (drugs.com)
  • powder
  • As many Protestant s had no love for the Jesuits, many referred to quinine as the "powder of the devil " and refused the cure. (everything2.com)
  • In the third step the ketone group is reduced with aluminum powder and sodium ethoxide in ethanol and quinine can be identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • chloroquine
  • at an effective dose of 10 mg/kg, some were 8 times better than chloroquine and 64 times better than quinine. (asmscience.org)
  • Twelve specially selected 4-quinoline methanols were tested with chloroquine-resistant and chloroquine-sensitive P. falciparum , and five were found to be at least as active as chloroquine against chloroquine-sensitive strains and equally effective against strains resistant to chloroquine, quinine, and pyrimethamine. (asmscience.org)
  • pregnant
  • Low blood sugar has happened with quinine, especially in pregnant women. (drugs.com)
  • You will need to talk about the benefits and risks of using quinine while you are pregnant. (drugs.com)
  • Please help me am 4 weeks pregnant and my doctor gave my mistoprotol and quinine and ampliclox to get rid of it. (healthtap.com)
  • centuries
  • The Schedula Romana was the base of at least three centuries of quinine reasonable dosing, until it was suddenly reduced in the 1970s to a dose as low as 5 mg/kg/24 h, which is eight times lower than the amount today recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • One of the most invasive species in Galapagos Islands is the red quinine tree, Cinchona pubescens Vahl (Rubiaceae). (springer.com)
  • Quinine is considered an ecosystem engineer, changing plant species diversity and abundance as well as impacting endemic birds in the invaded area. (springer.com)
  • Botanical expeditions - called Cinchona Missions - were launched in 1942-1944 to explore promising areas of South America in an effort to locate cinchona species that contained quinine and could be harvested for quinine production. (wikipedia.org)
  • adverse
  • Since 1969, FDA received 665 reports of adverse events with serious outcomes associated with quinine use, including 93 deaths. (drugs.com)
  • It follows that people who take quinine when their bodies are already running on relatively low levels of tryptophan are at risk of experiencing the most serious adverse reactions, says Simon Avery, study co-author and associate professor at Nottingham University's School of Biology. (scidev.net)
  • Variations in tryptophan levels in people could potentially determine whether they're going to experience adverse effects from quinine or not,' he told SciDev.Net. (scidev.net)
  • treatment
  • The treatment regimen of quinine is complex and is determined largely by the parasite's level of resistance and the reason for drug therapy (i.e. acute treatment or prophylaxis). (wikipedia.org)
  • drug
  • Posted 12/12/FDA informed healthcare professionals and consumers that the Agency ordered firms to stop marketing unapproved drug products containing quinine, citing serious safety concerns, including deaths associated with quinine products. (drugs.com)
  • I think that quinine is as base so if the pH of the medium is bigger than the pKa of the drug then there will be more of the non-ionised form than the ionised form. (physicsforums.com)
  • tree
  • Jäger H, Tye A, Kowarik I (2007) Tree invasion in naturally treeless environments: impacts of quinine ( Cinchona pubescens ) trees on native vegetation in Galapagos. (springer.com)
  • health
  • Tell all of your health care providers that you take quinine. (drugs.com)
  • Keep taking quinine as you have been told by your doctor or other health care provider, even if you feel well. (drugs.com)
  • The World Health Organization recommendation for quinine is 20 mg/kg first times and 10 mg/kg every 8 hours for 5 days where parasites are sensitive to quinine, combined with doxycycline, tetracycline or clindamycin. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemistry
  • Strictly looking at the question from a chemistry viewpoint, I think that passive diffusion of quinine will more likely be absorbed in the ileum since the pKa and pH are close. (physicsforums.com)
  • The development of synthetic quinine is considered a milestone in organic chemistry although it has never been produced industrially as a substitute for natural occurring quinine. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1907: the correct atom connectivity established by Paul Rabe 1918: Paul Rabe and Karl Kindler synthesize quinine from quinotoxine, reversing the Pasteur chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • given
  • Intravenous: initial loading dose of 7 mg/kg of quinine dihydrochloride given over 30 minutes followed immediately by maintenance infusions, or an initial dose of 20 mg/kg (up to a maximum of 1.4 g) given over 4 hours with maintenance infusions being started 8 to 12 hours later. (inchem.org)
  • The first study involved children in Gambia in western Africa and found that 80% survived whether given artemether or quinine. (latimes.com)
  • suggest
  • However, there have also been studies that suggest that quinine can also inhibit the action of certain CYPs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • terms
  • These 3 salts contain approximately the same amount of quinine and any of them can be used when the dose is cited in terms of "quinine salts" (Reynolds, 1996). (inchem.org)