• bark
  • Obtaining some of the bark of this amazing plant , he treated her and the Countess of Chichon became the first European on record to receive quinine. (everything2.com)
  • The scientists called the compound quinine from the native name quina , meaning, roughly, 'tree bark. (everything2.com)
  • The effectiveness of quinine as a treatment was first documented almost 400 years ago by Jesuit missionaries in South America, with it referred to as 'Jesuit's bark' in older documentation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • drug
  • Posted 12/12/FDA informed healthcare professionals and consumers that the Agency ordered firms to stop marketing unapproved drug products containing quinine, citing serious safety concerns, including deaths associated with quinine products. (drugs.com)
  • This is the first time that any drug has been demonstrated to be better than quinine at saving lives since the latter was first introduced into Europe nearly 400 years ago. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Chemical
  • In enzymology, a quinine 3-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.13.67) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction quinine + NADPH + H+ + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 3-hydroxyquinine + NADP+ + H2O The 4 substrates of this enzyme are quinine, NADPH, H+, and O2, whereas its 3 products are 3-hydroxyquinine, NADP+, and H2O. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2001 editorial published in Chemical & Engineering News sided with Stork, but the controversy was eventually laid to rest once and for all when Williams and coworkers successfully repeated Woodward's proposed conversion of quinotoxine to quinine in 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • centuries
  • The Schedula Romana was the base of at least three centuries of quinine reasonable dosing, until it was suddenly reduced in the 1970s to a dose as low as 5 mg/kg/24 h, which is eight times lower than the amount today recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • powder
  • As many Protestant s had no love for the Jesuits, many referred to quinine as the "powder of the devil " and refused the cure. (everything2.com)
  • In the third step the ketone group is reduced with aluminum powder and sodium ethoxide in ethanol and quinine can be identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • One of the most invasive species in Galapagos Islands is the red quinine tree, Cinchona pubescens Vahl (Rubiaceae). (springer.com)
  • Quinine is considered an ecosystem engineer, changing plant species diversity and abundance as well as impacting endemic birds in the invaded area. (springer.com)
  • Botanical expeditions - called Cinchona Missions - were launched in 1942-1944 to explore promising areas of South America in an effort to locate cinchona species that contained quinine and could be harvested for quinine production. (wikipedia.org)
  • drugs
  • It is these secondary metabolites and pigments that can have therapeutic actions in humans and which can be refined to produce drugs-examples are inulin from the roots of dahlias, quinine from the cinchona, THC and CBD from the flowers of cannabis, morphine and codeine from the poppy, and digoxin from the foxglove. (wikipedia.org)
  • tree
  • Jäger H, Tye A, Kowarik I (2007) Tree invasion in naturally treeless environments: impacts of quinine ( Cinchona pubescens ) trees on native vegetation in Galapagos. (springer.com)
  • Europe
  • QUININE PHOSPHATE (CAS 549-60-0) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on quinine phosphate market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Natural
  • The development of synthetic quinine is considered a milestone in organic chemistry although it has never been produced industrially as a substitute for natural occurring quinine. (wikipedia.org)
  • product
  • Qualaquin, manufactured by Mutual Pharmaceutical Company, is the only quinine product approved by the FDA. (drugs.com)
  • general
  • The quinine invasion in Galapagos Islands provides an opportunity to help understand the ecology of plant invasions in Galapagos and in island ecosystems in general. (springer.com)
  • studies
  • However, there have also been studies that suggest that quinine can also inhibit the action of certain CYPs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • native
  • Though considered rare and endangered in its native range in Ecuador, quinine is being controlled as an invasive and used as a timber source in Galapagos. (springer.com)