• quinidine
  • As it turns out, four closely-related alkaloids exist in the bark (quinine, cinchonine, quinidine and cinchonidine, in case you are keeping score) , but the most effective of the four was called quinine, and so the raw mixture also kept that name. (everything2.com)
  • Quinine (and quinidine) are used as the chiral moiety for the ligands used in Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation as well as for numerous other chiral catalyst backbones. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1939: Rabe and Kindler re investigate a sample left over from their 1918 experiments and identify and isolate quinine (again) together with diastereomers quinidine, epi-quinine and epi-quinidine 1940: Robert Burns Woodward signs on as a consultant for the Polaroid Corporation at the request of Edwin H. Land. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homomeroquinene (the second relay molecule in the Woodward/Doering claim) is obtained in several steps from the biomolecule cinchonine (related to quinidine but without the methoxy group): The key step in the assembly of quinotoxine is a claisen condensation: 1944: Bob Woodward and W.E. Doering report the synthesis of quinine starting from 7-hydroxyisoquinoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bark is medicinally active, containing a variety of alkaloids including the antimalarial compound quinine and the antiarrhythmic quinidine. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1820
  • The deforestation, coupled with severe political instability in the region (where a small handful of countries endured 43 revolutions in the 30 years between 1820 and 1850 ) was turning quinine into a very precious commodity. (everything2.com)
  • Chemical
  • In enzymology, a quinine 3-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.13.67) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction quinine + NADPH + H+ + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 3-hydroxyquinine + NADP+ + H2O The 4 substrates of this enzyme are quinine, NADPH, H+, and O2, whereas its 3 products are 3-hydroxyquinine, NADP+, and H2O. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2001 editorial published in Chemical & Engineering News sided with Stork, but the controversy was eventually laid to rest once and for all when Williams and coworkers successfully repeated Woodward's proposed conversion of quinotoxine to quinine in 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • centuries
  • The Schedula Romana was the base of at least three centuries of quinine reasonable dosing, until it was suddenly reduced in the 1970s to a dose as low as 5 mg/kg/24 h, which is eight times lower than the amount today recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • drug
  • Posted 12/12/FDA informed healthcare professionals and consumers that the Agency ordered firms to stop marketing unapproved drug products containing quinine, citing serious safety concerns, including deaths associated with quinine products. (drugs.com)
  • This is the first time that any drug has been demonstrated to be better than quinine at saving lives since the latter was first introduced into Europe nearly 400 years ago. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Effectiveness
  • The effectiveness of quinine as a treatment was first documented almost 400 years ago by Jesuit missionaries in South America, with it referred to as 'Jesuit's bark' in older documentation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • pregnant
  • Please help me am 4 weeks pregnant and my doctor gave my mistoprotol and quinine and ampliclox to get rid of it. (healthtap.com)
  • Quinine bark should not be taken while pregnant as it may cause miscarriage, stillbirth or developmental abnormalities. (zooscape.com)
  • natural
  • Natural quinine bark is still employed in herbal health systems around the world today. (zooscape.com)
  • Enriched with plant-based Quinine, it stimulates microcirculation and fortifies natural levels of Keratin to result in visibly thicker and fuller locks with superior bounce and shine. (skinstore.com)
  • The development of synthetic quinine is considered a milestone in organic chemistry although it has never been produced industrially as a substitute for natural occurring quinine. (wikipedia.org)
  • alternative
  • Thus this 3-day clindamycin-quinine regimen might constitute a potential alternative to chloroquine for treating clinical malarial attacks in children from Gabon. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Quinine can cause hemolysis in G6PD deficiency (an inherited deficiency), but this risk is small and the physician should not hesitate to use quinine in patients with G6PD deficiency when there is no alternative. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Because of its relatively constant and well-known fluorescence quantum yield, quinine is used in photochemistry as a common fluorescence standard. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • There were a third fewer deaths among those receiving artesunate: 15% of seriously ill patients died compared to 22% of those treated with quinine. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Quinine can cause abnormal heart rhythms, and should be avoided if possible in patients with atrial fibrillation, conduction defects, or heart block. (wikipedia.org)
  • less
  • As a flavoring agent in beverages, quinine is limited to less than 83 parts per million and 100 mg/l in the United States and European Union, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Very high doses of quinine can cause death usually because of cardiac toxicity. (healthtap.com)
  • Quinine can cause unpredictable serious and life-threatening blood and cardiovascular reactions including low platelet count and hemolytic-uremic syndrome/thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (HUS/TTP), long QT syndrome and other serious cardiac arrhythmias including torsades de pointes, blackwater fever, disseminated intravascular coagulation, leukopenia, and neutropenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • certain
  • However, there have also been studies that suggest that quinine can also inhibit the action of certain CYPs. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • given
  • The first study involved children in Gambia in western Africa and found that 80% survived whether given artemether or quinine. (latimes.com)
  • quinine gluconate may also be given intramuscularly (IM) or rectally (PR). (wikipedia.org)