• Benzo
  • Relief on the Way for Benzo[a]pyrene Cleanups? (lexology.com)
  • Land developers and remediators in Pennsylvania and New Jersey may soon have an easier time addressing soils containing benzo[a]pyrene, one of the most ubiquitous urban contaminants, thanks to updated information that was just released by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (lexology.com)
  • The new information comes from EPA's Final Assessment of Benzo[a]pyrene , which was completed in January 2017 and is now part of EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). (lexology.com)
  • While the Final Assessment concludes that benzo[a]pyrene is still a potent carcinogen, the revised parameters show that the chemical is not as toxicologically potent as was previously thought. (lexology.com)
  • Benzo[a]pyrene is a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and is found as the result of the combustion of organic matter such as wood, coal, oil, gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, and charcoal. (lexology.com)
  • Benzo[a]pyrene is often the highest-risk contaminant at sites impacted by PAHs and historic fill materials such as ash, and drives the remediation of soil that would otherwise be accepted as 'clean' for all other regulated substances. (lexology.com)
  • The revised toxicity criteria form the basis for the New Jersey Soil Remediation Standards and the Pennsylvania Statewide Health Standards, which define the acceptable default levels of benzo[a]pyrene that can be present in soil. (lexology.com)
  • Under EPA's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005a), benzo[a]pyrene is "carcinogenic to humans" based on strong and consistent evidence in animals and humans. (epa.gov)
  • The IRIS Toxicological Review of Benzo[a]pyrene was released for external peer review in September 2014. (epa.gov)
  • The EPA's Science Advisory Board's (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the benzo[a]pyrene assessment and released a final report of their review in April 2016. (epa.gov)
  • Benzo[a]pyrene is a five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is relatively insoluble in water and has low volatility. (epa.gov)
  • Natural sources of benzo[a]pyrene include forest fires and volcanoes, and anthropogenic sources include stoves/furnaces burning fossil fuels (especially wood and coal), motor vehicle exhaust, and various industrial combustion processes. (epa.gov)
  • In September 2014, EPA submitted the draft IRIS assessment of benzo[a]pyrene (see downloads) to the agency's Science Advisory Board (SAB) for peer review and comments. (epa.gov)
  • The SAB Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC), augmented for the review of the draft IRIS assessment of benzo[a]pyrene (CAAC-benzo[a]pyrene panel), will review this draft assessment. (epa.gov)
  • Details about the CAAC-Benzo[a]pyrene panel, meeting dates, and times will be announced in a Federal Register Notice released by the SAB. (epa.gov)
  • Additional information on the SAB-CAAC review of benzo[a]pyrene is on the SAB website. (epa.gov)
  • EPA initiated the interagency science consultation on the draft Toxicological Review of Benzo[a]pyrene. (epa.gov)
  • A revised interagency science consultation draft Toxicological Review of Benzo[a]pyrene was provided for further review by other federal agencies and the Executive Office of the President. (epa.gov)
  • EPA announced a request for nominations for experts to augment the SAB CAAC committee for the upcoming review of the draft benzo[a]pyrene assessment. (epa.gov)
  • SAB released a list and biosketches of potential candidates to augment the SAB CAAC for the upcoming review of the draft benzo[a]pyrene assessment. (epa.gov)
  • EPA transmitted the external peer review draft benzo[a]pyrene assessment, including responses to major public comments, and the draft charge to the peer reviewers to the SAB. (epa.gov)
  • A global-scale three dimensional atmospheric transport and chemistry model was applied to simulate transpacific transport of Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) emitted from Asia. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Benzo[e]pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C20H12. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2014, NASA announced a greatly upgraded database for tracking polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including Benzo[e]pyrene, in the universe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzopyrene Benzo[a]pyrene Benzene Pyrene, a four-ring analogue Hoover, Rachel (February 21, 2014). (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzo[a]pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and the result of incomplete combustion of organic matter at temperatures between 300 °C (572 °F) and 600 °C (1,112 °F). The ubiquitous compound can be found in coal tar, tobacco smoke and many foods, especially grilled meats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in coal tar with the formula C20H12. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide is an organic compound with molecular formula C20H14O3. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a metabolite and derivative of benzo[a]pyrene (found in tobacco smoke) as a result of oxidation to include hydroxyl and epoxide functionalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide binds to the N2 atom of a guanine nucleobase in DNA, distorting the double helix structure by intercalation of the pyrene moiety between base pairs through π-stacking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzo[a]pyrene is a derivative in which a fifth benzene ring has been fused to the pyrene system, and is a component of tobacco smoke which is a procarcinogen partly responsible for the carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of smoking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide is a metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene formed by the introduction of vicinal hydroxyl and epoxide functional groups to the fifth benzene ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metabolism of the tobacco smoke procarcinogen benzo[a]pyrene involves three distinct steps - the introduction of an epoxide group in the 7,8-position, its hydration to a vicinal diol and the introduction of an epoxide in the 9,10-position. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first step, a cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) catalysed oxidation produces several products including (+)-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-epoxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme epoxide hydrolase, then hydrates the epoxide ring to yield the vicinal diol (−)-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol, which is then oxidised by cytochrome P450 oxidase again forming the mutagen and carcinogen (+)-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anti stereoisomer (shown here) and its enantiomer are the ultimate carcinogens from benzo[a]pyrene, but the syn isomers are also produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxides induce guanine to thymidine transversions in related areas of p53, thereby inactivating its tumor suppression ability in certain cells, leading to genetic mutations and potentially to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induction of CYP1A1 by benzo[a]pyrene occurs via binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the cytosol, leading the transformed receptor to translocate to the nucleus where it dimerises with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator and then binds xenobiotic response elements in DNA located upstream of certain genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seemingly, CYP1A1 activity in the intestinal mucosa prevents major amounts of ingested benzo[a]pyrene to enter portal blood and systemic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, benzo[a]pyrene has been found to activate a transposon, LINE1, in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • epoxide
  • These oxidations are stereoselective, producing the pair of enantiomers with the hydroxyl groups on opposite sides of the pyrene plane and with the epoxide on the same side as its adjacent hydroxyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • simulate
  • Pyrene moved to a new Art Deco style factory in 1930, located on the Great West Road, Brentford and established the concept of major fire demonstrations with the construction of a large demonstration ground alongside the Brentford factory, to simulate an oil storage depot. (wikipedia.org)
  • foam
  • The liner Queen Mary was protected by the installation of a Pyrene foam fire-fighting system in 1933. (wikipedia.org)
  • During 1955, the now world-famous FB5X foam making branch pipe was introduced, and the Pyrene ED-HOL system in ships, which recycled the ship's own inert exhaust gases to fight fires in the hold, was developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • Pyrene may refer to: Pyrene, a chemical compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its Pyrene Company Limited sold part of the chemical division to the Brent International Chemical Company which was a stand-alone specialty chemical company who manufactured a variety of industrial cleaning compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Company Limited
  • The Pyrene Company Limited from their beginning in 1914, until 1971 when they became Chubb Fire Security Limited, were among the world's leaders in the manufacture of fire fighting equipment. (wikipedia.org)
  • A British offshoot, The Pyrene Company Limited was founded in 1914 when Wallace B. Phillips, an American businessman set up in Great Queen Street, London, selling 'pump' extinguishers. (wikipedia.org)
  • details
  • [details] source of synonymy (of Pyrene testudinaria tylerae (Griffith & Pidgeon, 1834) ) Kilburn R.N. (1975). (marinespecies.org)
  • [details] additional source (of Pyrene testudinaria tylerae (Griffith & Pidgeon, 1834) ) Liu J.Y. [Ruiyu] (ed.). (2008). (marinespecies.org)
  • Family
  • Ixias pyrene, the yellow orange tip, is a small butterfly of the family Pieridae, that is, the yellows and whites, which is found in India and Southeast Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Name
  • The name Pyrene was epitomised by their famous 'pump' extinguisher which was installed on public transport, commercial and private vehicles throughout the western world. (wikipedia.org)
  • equipment
  • During World War II, Pyrene designed and manufactured ARP equipment for ordnance factories, industry and power stations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1959, Pyrene acquired the safety product business of Panorama Equipment, and traded as Pyrene Panorama. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyrene Panorama Limited was established in 1959 when Pyrene purchased the business of Panorama Equipment Limited, which itself dated from 1941. (wikipedia.org)
  • shown
  • Although it is not as problematic as benzopyrene, animal studies have shown pyrene is toxic to the kidneys and the liver. (wikipedia.org)