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  • behavior
  • The word also refers sometimes to affect display, which is "a facial, vocal, or gestural behavior that serves as an indicator of affect" (APA 2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • This effect was significant both across letters and for almost all letters individually (for other work on the effect of names on behavior see, e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • The complex question thus arises: does music, in any way, constitute a signal that is shaped by selection to affect listeners' behavior and potentially convey adaptive information to conspecifics (i.e., members of the same species)? (frontiersin.org)
  • In 1939, Bruner published his first psychological article on the effect of thymus extract on the sexual behavior of the female rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Psychosociology or psycho-sociology is the study of problems common to psychology and sociology, particularly the way individual behavior is influenced by the groups the person belongs to. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to this, one could see how psychology is instrumental in helping the sociologist to view the wide spread effects of social facts within an individuals behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • field of marketing
  • The relatively new field of marketing psychology has arisen out of questions like these, the purchasing ones not the camel, and seeks to give marketers insights into not only how are decision made, but how people differentiate between competing products and how much information they actually need. (lynda.com)
  • psychological
  • In a follow up, Sensenig and Brehm focused on the boomerang effect in experiments and applied Brehm's psychological reactance theory to explain the unintended attitudinal change. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some practitioners look specifically at mental illness cross-culturally (George Devereux) or at the ways in which social processes such as the oppression of ethnic minorities affect mental health (Abram Kardiner), while others focus on the ways in which cultural symbols or social institutions provide defense mechanisms (Melford Spiro) or otherwise alleviate psychological conflicts (Gananath Obeyesekere). (wikipedia.org)
  • The mere-exposure effect is a psychological phenomenon by which people tend to develop a preference for things merely because they are familiar with them. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimuli
  • In psychology, the term valence is used to describe stimuli, events, situations and emotional states that are intrinsically attractive (positively valenced) or intrinsically aversive (negatively valenced). (wikipedia.org)
  • An affected individual exhibits episodes of laughter and/or crying without an apparent motivating stimulus or in response to stimuli that would not have elicited such an emotional response before the onset of their underlying neurologic disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990
  • After a time, Bruner began to research other topics in psychology, but in 1990 he returned to the subject and gave a series of lectures, later compiled into the book Acts of Meaning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deleuze
  • The focus on affect has largely derived from the work of Deleuze and brought emotional and visceral concerns into such conventional discourses as those on geopolitics, urban life and material culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Affect (from Latin affectus or adfectus) is a concept, used in the philosophy of Baruch Spinoza and elaborated by Henri Bergson, Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, that places emphasis on bodily or embodied experience. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent philosophical usage by Gilles Deleuze, Félix Guattari and their translator Brian Massumi, while derived explicitly from Spinoza, tends to distinguish more sharply than Spinoza does between affect and what are conventionally called emotions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The terms "affect" and "affection" came to prominence in Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's A Thousand Plateaus, the second volume of Capitalism and Schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Affects, according to Deleuze, are not simple affections, as they are independent from their subject. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artists create affects and percepts, "blocks of space-time", whereas science works with functions, according to Deleuze, and philosophy creates concepts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The translator of Deleuze and Guattari's A Thousand Plateaus, Canadian political philosopher Brian Massumi, has given influential definitions of affect (see above) and has written on the neglected importance of movement and sensation in cultural formations and our interaction with real and virtual worlds. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1960s
  • The dissonance theory by Leon Festinger has thrived the progress of social psychology research in the 1960s as it is not confined to the prediction of intended influence but can support almost all sub fields of psychology studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • emotions
  • A recent study builds on that prior work to look at whether there is a difference in dream rebound for suppressors of positive versus negative emotions, whether this affects sleep quality, and relates to experiencing depression , anxiety or stress . (psychologytoday.com)
  • The Pseudobulbar affect, also referred to as emotional lability, should not be confused with labile mood or labile emotions that stem from emotional instability - affective dysregulation - commonly seen in personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • For Spinoza, as discussed in Parts Two and Three of his Ethics, affects are states of mind and body that are related to (but not exactly synonymous with) feelings and emotions, of which he says there are three primary kinds: pleasure or joy (laetitia), pain or sorrow (tristitia) and desire (cupiditas) or appetite. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Part III, "Definitions of the Emotions/Affects", Spinoza defines 48 different forms of affect, including love and hatred, hope and fear, envy and compassion. (wikipedia.org)
  • mere exposu
  • This phenomenon, known as the mere exposure effect, is used in advertising. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, it is still unclear in which part of advertising images the mere exposure effect occurs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Given the recent suggestion that attention plays an important role in the mere exposure effect, it is possible that the mere exposure effect does not occur for commercial products when advertising images consist of a commercial product along with an attractive human model. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mere exposure effect was found for whole advertising images and images of female models. (frontiersin.org)
  • That is, the results of this study suggest that the mere exposure effect does not always occur for every part of the repeated advertising images, and that attention would modulate the mere exposure effect for advertising images. (frontiersin.org)
  • To facilitate the application of the mere exposure effect on advertising, it is important to clarify the characteristics of the mere exposure effect in terms of human factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • reported that the supraliminal mere exposure effect occurred only for an object selected by attention. (frontiersin.org)
  • This observation led to the research and development of the mere-exposure effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • One experiment that was conducted to test the mere-exposure effect used fertile chicken eggs for the test subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • practice
  • This study provided evidence demonstrating the effect of diaphragmatic breathing, a mind-body practice, on mental function, from a health psychology approach, which has important implications for health promotion in healthy individuals. (frontiersin.org)
  • As an adjunct professor at NYU School of Law, Bruner studied how psychology affects legal practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • traditionally
  • Where anthropology was traditionally geared towards historical and evolutionary trends, what psychology concerned itself with was more ahistorical and acultural in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • emotional
  • A divergence from a narrow reinforcement model of emotion allows other perspectives about how affect influences emotional development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudobulbar affect (PBA), or emotional incontinence, is a type of emotional disturbance characterized by uncontrollable episodes of crying and/or laughing, or other emotional displays. (wikipedia.org)
  • spatial
  • We hoped to show that the Cornsweet effect can be explained in a parsimonious way by some simple prior beliefs about the way that visual information is generated at different spatial and temporal scales. (frontiersin.org)
  • largely
  • Here we tested the hypothesis that the lack of ratio effect in the numbers 1-4 is largely dependent on the type of stimulus presentation. (frontiersin.org)
  • suggests
  • This principle, applied to decision making, suggests that making a decision in a problem should not be affected by how the problem is described. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsequent
  • The contrast-dependent emergence of the Cornsweet effect and subsequent appearance of Mach bands were simulated using a simple but plausible generative model. (frontiersin.org)
  • Laboratory
  • This subliminal exposure produced the same effect, though it is important to note that subliminal effects are unlikely to occur without controlled laboratory conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • When the communicator's position is too far from the recipient's position and thus produces a "contrast" effect and thus enhances their original attitudes. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • Affect" can mean an instinctual reaction to stimulation that occurs before the typical cognitive processes considered necessary for the formation of a more complex emotion. (wikipedia.org)
  • contrast
  • The four rows of Figure 1 show the Cornsweet effect increasing in magnitude as we increase the contrast of the stimulus. (frontiersin.org)
  • studies
  • For example, in the study of criminals, psychology studies the personality of the criminal shaped by the criminal's upbringing. (wikipedia.org)
  • infant
  • For example, the temperament of a highly reactive/low self-soothing infant may "disproportionately" affect the process of emotion regulation in the early months of life (Griffiths, 1997). (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • Because being a fluent reader-writer entails thousands of hours of experience with eye and hand movement in the direction dictated by one's writing system, it could be that writing system direction affects the axis used to represent time in terms of space. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, people's judgments about time are affected by simultaneous but irrelevant information about space, while the reverse again is not true ( Casasanto and Boroditsky, 2008 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In the diaphragmatic breathing condition, there was a significant interaction effect of group by time on sustained attention, whereby the BIG showed significantly increased sustained attention after training, compared to baseline. (frontiersin.org)
  • There was a significant interaction effect of group and time in the diaphragmatic breathing condition on cortisol levels, whereby the BIG had a significantly lower cortisol level after training, while the CG showed no significant change in cortisol levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • terms
  • In his notes on the terminology employed, the translator Brian Massumi gives the following definitions of the terms as used in the volume: AFFECT/AFFECTION. (wikipedia.org)
  • Principles
  • HR also goes under the earlier name of "Psychology of Mind" and most recently "Three Principles" understanding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although some critics have pointed to methodological flaws in cross-cultural psychological research and claim that serious shortcomings in the theoretical and methodological bases used impede rather than help the scientific search for universal principles in psychology, cross-cultural psychologists are turning more to the study of how differences (variance) occur, rather than searching for universals in the style of physics or chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • theories
  • Since there are questions as to whether theories dealing with central themes, such as affect, cognition, conceptions of the self, and issues such as psychopathology, anxiety, and depression, may lack external validity when "exported" to other cultural contexts, cross-cultural psychology re-examines them using methodologies designed to factor in cultural differences so as to account for cultural variance. (wikipedia.org)
  • fields
  • Neurorehabilitation is the culmination of many different fields to provide the best care and education for patients with injuries or diseases affecting their nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • personal
  • Health realization (HR) is a resiliency approach to personal and community psychology first developed in the 1980s by Roger C. Mills and George Pransky, and based on ideas and insights these psychologists elaborated from attending the lectures of philosopher and author Sydney Banks. (wikipedia.org)
  • includes
  • October In late, the CDC recommended that everyone in the usa who had perhaps been subjected to Ebola - - which includes people returning from an Ebola-affected nation, as well as those who looked after Ebola patients right here - - end up being monitored for 21 times after their last direct exposure for symptoms of the disease. (amandabrayman.com)
  • In contrast, cross-cultural psychology includes a search for possible universals in behavior and mental processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • book
  • Richards "Dick" J. Heuer, Jr. is a former CIA veteran of 45 years and most known for his work on analysis of competing hypotheses and his book, Psychology of Intelligence Analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heuer's book Structured Analytic Techniques for Intelligence Analysis, published in 2010 (second edition 2015) and co-authored with Randy H. Pherson, provides a comprehensive taxonomy of structured analytic techniques (SATs) pertaining to eight categories: decomposition and visualization, idea generation, scenarios and indicators, hypothesis generation and testing, cause and effect, challenge analysis, conflict management and decision support. (wikipedia.org)
  • mental
  • Cross-cultural psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes, including both their variability and invariance, under diverse cultural conditions. (wikipedia.org)