• field of marketing
  • The relatively new field of marketing psychology has arisen out of questions like these, the purchasing ones not the camel, and seeks to give marketers insights into not only how are decision made, but how people differentiate between competing products and how much information they actually need. (lynda.com)
  • psychological
  • In a follow up, Sensenig and Brehm focused on the boomerang effect in experiments and applied Brehm's psychological reactance theory to explain the unintended attitudinal change. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1939, Bruner published his first psychological article on the effect of thymus extract on the sexual behavior of the female rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some practitioners look specifically at mental illness cross-culturally (George Devereux) or at the ways in which social processes such as the oppression of ethnic minorities affect mental health (Abram Kardiner), while others focus on the ways in which cultural symbols or social institutions provide defense mechanisms (Melford Spiro) or otherwise alleviate psychological conflicts (Gananath Obeyesekere). (wikipedia.org)
  • The mere-exposure effect is a psychological phenomenon by which people tend to develop a preference for things merely because they are familiar with them. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990
  • After a time, Bruner began to research other topics in psychology, but in 1990 he returned to the subject and gave a series of lectures, later compiled into the book Acts of Meaning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deleuze
  • The focus on affect has largely derived from the work of Deleuze and brought emotional and visceral concerns into such conventional discourses as those on geopolitics, urban life and material culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Affect (from Latin affectus or adfectus) is a concept, used in the philosophy of Baruch Spinoza and elaborated by Henri Bergson, Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, that places emphasis on bodily or embodied experience. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent philosophical usage by Gilles Deleuze, Félix Guattari and their translator Brian Massumi, while derived explicitly from Spinoza, tends to distinguish more sharply than Spinoza does between affect and what are conventionally called emotions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The terms "affect" and "affection" came to prominence in Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's A Thousand Plateaus, the second volume of Capitalism and Schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Affects, according to Deleuze, are not simple affections, as they are independent from their subject. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artists create affects and percepts, "blocks of space-time", whereas science works with functions, according to Deleuze, and philosophy creates concepts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The translator of Deleuze and Guattari's A Thousand Plateaus, Canadian political philosopher Brian Massumi, has given influential definitions of affect (see above) and has written on the neglected importance of movement and sensation in cultural formations and our interaction with real and virtual worlds. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1960s
  • The dissonance theory by Leon Festinger has thrived the progress of social psychology research in the 1960s as it is not confined to the prediction of intended influence but can support almost all sub fields of psychology studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • emotions
  • A recent study builds on that prior work to look at whether there is a difference in dream rebound for suppressors of positive versus negative emotions, whether this affects sleep quality, and relates to experiencing depression , anxiety or stress . (psychologytoday.com)
  • The Pseudobulbar affect, also referred to as emotional lability, should not be confused with labile mood or labile emotions that stem from emotional instability - affective dysregulation - commonly seen in personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • For Spinoza, as discussed in Parts Two and Three of his Ethics, affects are states of mind and body that are related to (but not exactly synonymous with) feelings and emotions, of which he says there are three primary kinds: pleasure or joy (laetitia), pain or sorrow (tristitia) and desire (cupiditas) or appetite. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Part III, "Definitions of the Emotions/Affects", Spinoza defines 48 different forms of affect, including love and hatred, hope and fear, envy and compassion. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • Lerner and Keltner 2000) argue that affect can be both pre- and post-cognitive: initial emotional responses produce thoughts, which produce affect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having people perceive particular spatial configurations can affect their subsequent reasoning about time, but the reverse is not true ( Boroditsky, 2000 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • negative
  • Hovland, Janis and Kelly first recorded and named the boomerang effect in 1953, noting that it is more likely under certain conditions: When weak arguments are paired with a negative source. (wikipedia.org)
  • Negative affect in offspring of depressed mothers is predicted by infant Cortisol levels at 6 months and maternal depression during pregnancy, but not postpartum. (birthpsychology.com)
  • We investigated the influence of negative emotion on the degree of self-reference effect using event-related potentials (ERPs). (frontiersin.org)
  • The findings indicate that negative emotional processing could weaken the degree of self-reference effect. (frontiersin.org)
  • stimuli
  • In psychology, the term valence is used to describe stimuli, events, situations and emotional states that are intrinsically attractive (positively valenced) or intrinsically aversive (negatively valenced). (wikipedia.org)
  • An affected individual exhibits episodes of laughter and/or crying without an apparent motivating stimulus or in response to stimuli that would not have elicited such an emotional response before the onset of their underlying neurologic disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zajonc
  • The scholar who is best known for developing the mere-exposure effect is Robert Zajonc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zajonc tested the mere-exposure effect by exposing Chinese characters for shorts amounts of time to two groups of individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • The clinical effect of PBA can be severe, with unremitting and persistent symptoms that can be disabling to patients, and may significantly affect quality of life for caregivers. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • We evaluate the effect of smoking bans and excise taxes on the exposure to tobacco smoke of nonsmokers, and we show their unintended consequences on children. (blogspot.com)
  • This observation led to the research and development of the mere-exposure effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • One experiment that was conducted to test the mere-exposure effect used fertile chicken eggs for the test subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • This subliminal exposure produced the same effect, though it is important to note that subliminal effects are unlikely to occur without controlled laboratory conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • traditionally
  • Where anthropology was traditionally geared towards historical and evolutionary trends, what psychology concerned itself with was more ahistorical and acultural in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • emotional
  • A divergence from a narrow reinforcement model of emotion allows other perspectives about how affect influences emotional development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudobulbar affect (PBA), or emotional incontinence, is a type of emotional disturbance characterized by uncontrollable episodes of crying and/or laughing, or other emotional displays. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • Affect" can mean an instinctual reaction to stimulation that occurs before the typical cognitive processes considered necessary for the formation of a more complex emotion. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • We hoped to show that the Cornsweet effect can be explained in a parsimonious way by some simple prior beliefs about the way that visual information is generated at different spatial and temporal scales. (frontiersin.org)
  • The term affect (philosophy) takes on a different meaning in other fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different causes for this effect have been discussed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of our study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of submaximum biting on golf performance via shot precision and shot length over three different distances. (frontiersin.org)
  • The concept of affect (psychology) takes on a different meaning in the field of psychology. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • Recent research has shown that neuromuscular activity of the craniomandibular system (CMS) might affect human motor control. (frontiersin.org)
  • The earliest known research on the effect was conducted by Gustav Fechner in 1876. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • This principle, applied to decision making, suggests that making a decision in a problem should not be affected by how the problem is described. (wikipedia.org)
  • decisions
  • Such decisions are based on pseudoscientific belief systems rooted in scientific illiteracy , an unwillingness to have beliefs falsified , and the allure of "pop psychology" . (ccsu.edu)
  • subsequent
  • The contrast-dependent emergence of the Cornsweet effect and subsequent appearance of Mach bands were simulated using a simple but plausible generative model. (frontiersin.org)
  • studies
  • For example, in the study of criminals, psychology studies the personality of the criminal shaped by the criminal's upbringing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • When the communicator's position is too far from the recipient's position and thus produces a "contrast" effect and thus enhances their original attitudes. (wikipedia.org)
  • contrast
  • The four rows of Figure 1 show the Cornsweet effect increasing in magnitude as we increase the contrast of the stimulus. (frontiersin.org)
  • stimulus
  • Here we tested the hypothesis that the lack of ratio effect in the numbers 1-4 is largely dependent on the type of stimulus presentation. (frontiersin.org)
  • infant
  • For example, the temperament of a highly reactive/low self-soothing infant may "disproportionately" affect the process of emotion regulation in the early months of life (Griffiths, 1997). (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • In 1956 Bruner published the book A Study of Thinking, which formally initiated the study of cognitive psychology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Psychosociology or psycho-sociology is the study of problems common to psychology and sociology, particularly the way individual behavior is influenced by the groups the person belongs to. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • In recent decades, numerous researches on human motor control have suggested the potential effect of dental occlusion and muscle activity of the craniomandibular system (CMS). (frontiersin.org)
  • writing system
  • Because being a fluent reader-writer entails thousands of hours of experience with eye and hand movement in the direction dictated by one's writing system, it could be that writing system direction affects the axis used to represent time in terms of space. (frontiersin.org)
  • theory
  • In this video tutorial, Mike explains consumer choice theory and advertisements, along with exploring marketing psychology. (lynda.com)
  • Sensenig & Brehm applied Brehm's reactance theory to explain the boomerang effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Festinger himself was ambiguous about the role of commitment in the theory, later researchers such as Brehm and Cohen have emphasized its importance in providing a general conceptualization of the boomerang effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prospect theory shows that a loss is more significant than the equivalent gain, that a sure gain (certainty effect and pseudocertainty effect) is favored over a probabilistic gain, and that a probabilistic loss is preferred to a definite loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • Moreover, people's judgments about time are affected by simultaneous but irrelevant information about space, while the reverse again is not true ( Casasanto and Boroditsky, 2008 ). (frontiersin.org)