• kidney
  • The proximal tubule of the mammalian kidney is the nephron site where the major portion, some two-thirds to three-fourths, of the filtered sodium salts is reabsorbed. (springer.com)
  • 1971. Evidence of a para-cellular pathway for ion flow in the kidney proximal tubule: Elec-tronmicroscopic demonstration of lanthanum precipitate in the tight junction. (springer.com)
  • Result: Under the light microscope, the kidney in experimental group show the many anatomical changes as increase in Wight, elongated and increase in width, and showed many histological changes as a glomerular enlargement with decrease of urinary space and dilation in proximal and distal tubule. (journalijar.com)
  • Blood exits the kidneys via the renal vein (connected to the inferior vena cava) The nephron - is the functional unit of the kidney. (coursehero.com)
  • The SLC2A9 gene encodes a facilitative glucose transporter, and it has two splice variants that are highly expressed in the proximal nephron, a key site for urate handling in the kidney. (nih.gov)
  • Ultimately these processes create a simple two-nephron kidney that is capable of reabsorbing and secreting solutes and expelling excess water-processes that are critical to the homeostasis of the body fluids. (springer.com)
  • The zebrafish pronephric kidney provides a simple, yet powerful, model system to better understand the conserved molecular and cellular progresses that drive nephron formation, structure, and function. (springer.com)
  • The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the kidney which leads from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further reading: Table of medication secreted in kidney Most of the ammonium that is excreted in the urine is formed in the proximal tubule via the breakdown of glutamine to alpha-ketoglutarate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) have a pivotal role in kidney disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nephrocalcinosis (deposition of calcium in the substance of the kidney) Bone demineralisation (causing rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults) Sjogren's syndrome Proximal RTA (pRTA) is caused by a failure of the proximal tubular cells to reabsorb filtered bicarbonate from the urine, leading to urinary bicarbonate wasting and subsequent acidemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The breakdown products of tetracyclines are toxic and can cause Fanconi syndrome, a potentially fatal disease affecting proximal tubular function in the nephrons of the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fanconi
  • pRTA also has several causes, and may occasionally be present as a solitary defect, but is usually associated with a more generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubular cells called Fanconi syndrome, in which there is also phosphaturia, glycosuria, aminoaciduria, uricosuria, and tubular proteinuria. (wikipedia.org)
  • excretion
  • In another large sample of hypertensive and normotensive black subjects, we found that the ability of the proximal tubule to regulate sodium excretion is a significant determinant of salt sensitivity in humans even after adjustment for several covariates. (ahajournals.org)
  • The absence of significant difference in furosemide-induced urinary sodium excretion may seem surprising, but one should take into account that the distal segments of the nephron were still able to adapt for the final elimination of sodium to maintain sodium balance and blood pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • It was included in the classification of renal tubular acidoses as it is associated with a mild (normal anion gap) metabolic acidosis due to a physiological reduction in proximal tubular ammonium excretion (impaired ammoniagenesis), which is secondary to hypoaldosteronism, and results in a decrease in urine buffering capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • We showed previously that amiloride, an inhibitor of the epithelial Na channel in distal nephron, significantly lowered blood pressure in whites when compared with blacks, consistent with less Na uptake by the epithelial Na channel in blacks, probably because of lower aldosterone levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • The luminal surface of the epithelial cells of this segment of the nephron is covered with densely packed microvilli forming a border readily visible under the light microscope giving the brush border cell its name. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cuboidal epithelial cells lining the proximal tubule have extensive lateral interdigitations between neighboring cells, which lend an appearance of having no discrete cell margins when viewed with a light microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • duct
  • In both amphibians and zebrafish the pronephros has a single nephron attached to a nephric duct, which in turn is linked to the cloaca. (wikipedia.org)
  • While this transient primordium never forms functional nephrons, the duct derived from it is essential to the development of the more complex later kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • filtrate
  • Nevertheless, it is at the proximal tubular level where the bulk of water, salts, and nonelectrolytes are normally retrieved from the filtrate. (springer.com)
  • It is a paired organ, consisting of a single giant nephron that processes blood filtrate produced from glomeruli or glomera- large embryonic glomeruli. (wikipedia.org)
  • segments
  • The data of Chun et al, 8 therefore, provide additional evidence that alterations of renal sodium in the loop of Henle segments of the nephron might have some role in the development of hypertension, particularly in black hypertensive subjects. (ahajournals.org)
  • kidneys
  • Although these kidneys have a simple anatomical organization with only a single nephron, the nephrons have a segmental and functional complexity that is very similar to that in more complex kidneys such as mesonephroi and metanephroi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcitriol is produced in the cells of the proximal tubule of the nephron in the kidneys by the action of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase, a mitochondrial oxygenase and an enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (calcifediol) in the 1-alpha position. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Protein molecules that pass through the glomerular pores are either absorbed unchanged (such as albumin), degraded in the proximal tubular cells and absorbed (such as free light chains), or excreted as fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • site
  • The fact that abnormal sodium handling in cirrhosis has been localised predominantly to the proximal nephron, 4 a site of angiotensin II action, supports this contention. (bmj.com)
  • small
  • Sodium-dependent glucose cotransporters (or sodium-glucose linked transporter, SGLT) are a family of glucose transporter found in the intestinal mucosa (enterocytes) of the small intestine (SGLT1) and the proximal tubule of the nephron (SGLT2 in PCT and SGLT1 in PST). (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Darmady EM, Strank F (1975) Microdissection of the nephron in disease. (springer.com)
  • Bertram JF, Douglas-Denton RN, Diouf B, Hughson MD, Hoy WE (2011) Human nephron number: implications for health and disease. (springer.com)
  • System
  • The unique importance of this transport operation derives from the fact that this active, energy-consuming transport process provides the main driving force for transepithelial water movement/ 12 ) Thus, the maintenance of an adequate and constant extracellular fluid and plasma volume depends crucially on the integrity of the proximal tubular Na+ transport system. (springer.com)