• Entamoeba Histolytica
  • Protozoans have little in common with each other (for example, Entamoeba histolytica, an unikont eukaryotic organism, is less closely related to Naegleria fowleri, a bikont eukaryotic organism, than it is to Homo sapiens, which belongs to the unikont phylogenetic group) and so agents effective against one pathogen may not be effective against another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Invasive colitis and extraintestinal disease including liver abscesses, pleuropulmonary infections, and brain abscesses can result from infection with Entamoeba histolytica. (wikipedia.org)
  • fecal-oral
  • Those protozoans that have inhabited the human intestine can be transmitted from one human to another via the fecal-oral route, such as through sharing food the infected person has touched and through direct person to person contact. (blogspot.com)
  • Infection is transmitted through the fecal-oral route, and begins when a person ingests oocysts in fecally contaminated food or water. (wikipedia.org)
  • enteric
  • This study describes the epidemiology of enteric protozoa in the state of New South Wales and incorporates spatial analysis to describe their distribution. (jphres.org)
  • Laboratory and clinical records from four public hospitals in Sydney for 910 patients, who tested positive for enteric protozoa over the period January 2007 - December 2010, were identified, examined and analysed. (jphres.org)
  • This research is significant since it provides the most recent epidemiological update on the common enteric protozoa affecting Australians. (jphres.org)
  • It reveals that enteric protozoa cause considerable disease burden in high risk city dwellers, and provides the evidence base for development of targeted interventions for their prevention and control in high risk populations. (jphres.org)
  • The prevalence of enteric protozoa in this metropolitan setting underscores that microorganisms do not respect borders and that a collaborative approach is needed to contain the global spread of infectious diseases. (jphres.org)
  • Few epidemiological studies have shown that enteric infections are associated with exacerbations of ulcerative colitis (UC). (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • prevalence
  • Compared with those without G. lamblia , children with G. lamblia infections had lower weight-for-age and weight-for-height z -scores and were more than five times as likely to meet the z -score definition for wasting (prevalence ratio = 5.42, 95% CI = 2.97-9.89). (ajtmh.org)
  • The age distribution showed that the prevalence of protozoa decreased with age up to 24 years but increasing with age from 25 years onwards. (jphres.org)
  • pathogens
  • The interaction and survival of pathogens in hostile environments and in confrontation with host immune responses are important mechanisms for the establishment of infection. (hindawi.com)
  • cysts
  • these tissue cysts and even lesions can occur in the retinas, alveolar lining of the lungs (where an acute infection may mimic a Pneumocystis jirovecii infection), heart, skeletal muscle, and the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysts form in the CNS (brain tissue) upon infection with T. gondii and persist for the lifetime of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • Moreover, bacterial infection is an important concomitant of both the treatment and outcome of acute graft versus host disease (GVHD). (springer.com)
  • Infection has three stages: Acute toxoplasmosis is often asymptomatic in healthy adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection causes acute, non-bloody diarrhea with crampy abdominal pain, which can last for weeks and result in malabsorption and weight loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • Where the site of infection is easily accessed, antibiotics may be given topically in the form of eye drops onto the conjunctiva for conjunctivitis or ear drops for ear infections and acute cases of swimmer's ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • often asymptomatic
  • While Mansonella infections are often asymptomatic, they can be associated with angioedema (similar to Calabar swellings of loaisis), recurrent pruritic subcutaneous lesions, fever, headaches, arthralgia, and neurologic manifestations. (wikipedia.org)
  • trypanosomiasis
  • This disease also called trypanosomiasis is caused by a protozoa, which are carried by the tsetse fly and are transmitted to human tsetse fly bite. (blogspot.com)
  • systemic
  • Petersen FB, Buckner CD, Clift RA, Nelson N, Counts GW, Meyers JD, Thomas ED (1986) Prevention of nosocomial infections in marrow transplant patients: A prospective randomized comparison of systemic antibiotics versus granulocyte transfusions. (springer.com)
  • In more severe cases, particularly deep-seated systemic infections, antibiotics can be given intravenously or by injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the main uses of amphotericin B is treating a wide range of systemic fungal infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Neglected tropical diseases ( NTDs ) are a diverse group of tropical infections which are especially common in low-income populations in developing regions of Africa , Asia , and the Americas . (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall disability among populations in regions where filariae are endemic has been difficult to determine because of high rates of coinfection with other filariae and the nonspecificity of M. perstan infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Albendazole and mebendazole have been the treatments administered to entire populations to control hookworm infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Fungal infection occurs less commonly than bacterial infection, but with a higher case fatality rate. (springer.com)
  • The symptoms of M. perstans may be confounded with those of other filarial infections, such as onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis and loiasis, because coinfection often occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection often occurs in immuno-compromised individuals, notably AIDS patients, and outbreaks have been reported in institutionalized groups in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection occurs by ingestion of sporocyst-containing oocysts: the sporocysts excyst in the small intestine and release their sporozoites, which invade the epithelial cells and initiate schizogony. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The species traditionally collectively termed "protozoa" are not closely related to each other, and have only superficial similarities (eukaryotic, unicellular, motile, though with exceptions). (wikipedia.org)
  • A survey of the protozoan and helminth species which infest the intestines of the people in the Inyanga area of Rhodesia has revealed a wide range of species. (journals.co.za)
  • Fungal
  • AmBisome (LAMB) is a liposomal formulation of amphotericin B for injection and consists of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and distearoyl phosphatidylglycerol that in aqueous media spontaneously arrange into unilamellar vesicles that contain amphotericin B. Guidelines recommend the use of LAMB for CNS fungal infections due to better pharmacokinetics and CNS penetration but do note that this is based only on animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the past it had been used for fungal infections of the surface of the GI tract such as thrush, but has been replaced by other antifungals such as nystatin and fluconazole. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • We selected 580 cases which had residence post code data available, enabling us to examine the geographic distribution of patients, and reviewed the clinical data of 252 patients to examine possible links between protozoa, demographic and clinical features. (jphres.org)
  • persistent
  • Impact: This novel study suggests that elevated iron stores may put women at risk for persistent HPV infection, an early event in cervical carcinogenesis. (healtheiron.com)
  • Typically, patients with a persistent watery diarrhea lasting over several days may be suspected of harboring the disease, especially if they have traveled to a region where the protozoan is endemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • recur
  • Swelling may occur at different times after the initial infection, persist, and recur for various times independently of antiparasitic treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prevention
  • Clift RA, Sanders JE, Thomas ED, Williams B, Buckner CD (1978) Granulocyte transfusions for the prevention of infection in patients receiving bone-marrow transplants. (springer.com)
  • Winston DJ, Ho WG, Nakao SL, Gale RP, Champlin RE (1986) Norfloxacin versus vancomycin/polymyxin for prevention of infections in granulocytopenic patients. (springer.com)
  • This article adds to a growing body of research on child growth and intestinal parasitic infections and has implications for their treatment and prevention in preschool-aged children. (ajtmh.org)
  • Resistance
  • This is because amphotericin B resistance requires sacrifices on the part of the pathogen that make it susceptible to the host environment, and too weak to cause infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • Food and water contaminated by feces is the common route of transmission, however, oral contact with fecal matter can also cause infection. (blogspot.com)
  • Infections are common in farming environments where many animals are confined in a small space. (wikipedia.org)
  • outcomes
  • Pregnant women affected by a hookworm infection can also develop aneamia, which results in negative outcomes both for the mother and the infant. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxoplasmosis
  • Infections with toxoplasmosis usually cause no obvious symptoms in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reviews of serological studies have estimated that 30-50% of the global population has been exposed to and may be chronically infected with latent toxoplasmosis, although infection rates differ significantly from country to country. (wikipedia.org)
  • treat
  • Lipid formulations of amphotericin B should not be used to treat urinary tract infections because they do not penetrate into the kidney or achieve adequate concentrations in the urine. (wikipedia.org)