• electrons
  • The protons have a positive electric charge, the electrons have a negative electric charge, and the neutrons have no electric charge. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In addition, electrons of energy over about 50 MeV may induce giant dipole resonance in nuclides by a mechanism which is the inverse of internal conversion, and thus produce neutrons by a mechanism similar to that of photoneutrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unit of matter consisting of a single nucleus surrounded by a number of electrons equal to the number of protons in the nucleus. (gc.ca)
  • From an electrical point of view, the nucleus is said to be positively charged and the electrons negatively charged. (wikibooks.org)
  • The situation could be viewed as something like a cricket ball, representing the nucleus, in the middle of a sporting arena with the electrons orbiting somewhere around where the spectators would sit. (wikibooks.org)
  • radon
  • In this case, radium decays into radon gas. (blogspot.com)
  • Upon disintegration, in the case of radon and its progeny, the radiation released is primarily in the form of an alpha particle - or two protons and two neutrons - that has the potential t o cause lung cancer. (blogspot.com)
  • It is the chemistry of radioactive elements such as the actinides, radium and radon together with the chemistry associated with equipment (such as nuclear reactors) which are designed to perform nuclear processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another 50 or so shorter-lived radionuclides, such as radium and radon, found on Earth, are the products of decay chains that began with the primordial nuclides, or are the product of ongoing cosmogenic processes, such as the production of carbon-14 from nitrogen-14 in the atmosphere by cosmic rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • photons
  • Typically photons begin to produce neutrons on interaction with normal matter at energies of about 7 to 40 MeV, which means that radiotherapy facilities using megavoltage X-rays also produce neutrons, and some require neutron shielding. (wikipedia.org)
  • fast neutron
  • In the most important reaction for natural production, a fast neutron (which must have energy greater than 4.0 MeV) interacts with atmospheric nitrogen: Worldwide, the production of tritium from natural sources is 148,000 terabecquerels per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • uranium
  • Cf-252 and all other spontaneous fission neutron sources are produced by irradiating uranium or another transuranic element in a nuclear reactor, where neutrons are absorbed in the starting material and its subsequent reaction products, transmuting the starting material into the SF isotope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radioactivity was discovered in 1896 by Henri Becquerel in uranium, and subsequently observed by Marie and Pierre Curie in thorium and in the new elements polonium and radium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both plutonium and U-233 are produced from the absorption of neutrons by irradiating fertile materials in a reactor, in particular the common uranium isotope U-238 and thorium, respectively, and can be separated from spent uranium and thorium fuels in reprocessing plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some proponents of the Mini-nuke hypothesis have claimed that this study shows unually high concentrations of Uranium, Thorium, Tritium, and other signs of nuclear fission products. (alienscientist.com)
  • As a radioactive compound, uranium disintegrates or decays releasing progeny (or daughter) products such as radium, along with energy in the form of radiation. (blogspot.com)
  • emission
  • Typical emission rates for alpha reaction neutron sources range from 1×106 to 1×108 neutrons per second. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unpredictable composition of the products (which vary in a broad probabilistic and somewhat chaotic manner) distinguishes fission from purely quantum-tunneling processes such as proton emission, alpha decay, and cluster decay, which give the same products each time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain highly excited short-lived nuclear states can decay through neutron emission, or more rarely, proton emission. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclide
  • The decaying nucleus is called the parent radionuclide (or parent radioisotope), and the process produces at least one daughter nuclide. (wikipedia.org)
  • cosmic rays
  • Naturally occurring tritium is extremely rare on Earth, where trace amounts are formed by the interaction of the atmosphere with cosmic rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tritium occurs naturally due to cosmic rays interacting with atmospheric gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although tritium is formed naturally through the interaction of cosmic rays with the atmosphere, it does not accumulate because of its short half-life of 12.3 years. (alienscientist.com)
  • chain reaction
  • Nuclear power relies on fissionable material that can sustain a chain reaction with neutrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reason plutonium 239 is very very very important is that it's fissile and that means that you can take a neutron shoot it at this plutonium 239 and be almost certain that he'll fission and spit off some other neutrons and get going this chain reaction that we need to get going in a nuclear reactor. (brightstorm.com)
  • decay
  • The unusually low energy released in the tritium beta decay makes the decay (along with that of rhenium-187) appropriate for absolute neutrino mass measurements in the laboratory (the most recent experiment being KATRIN). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because its decay products cause phosphors to glow, tritium is used in self-illuminating devices found in watches, exit signs, and gun sights. (alienscientist.com)
  • Decay products from a nucleus with spin may be distributed non-isotropically with respect to that spin direction, either because of an external influence such as an electromagnetic field, or because the nucleus was produced in a dynamic process that constrained the direction of its spin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Except for gamma decay or internal conversion from a nuclear excited state, the decay is a nuclear transmutation resulting in a daughter containing a different number of protons or neutrons (or both). (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • Because of their tremendous penetrating ability, neutrons can be very damaging to the human body, a fact well known by the U.S. military, which is developing a bomb designed to kill people (but preserve property) by emitting large quantities of lethal neutron fragments. (ratical.org)
  • The smallest of these fragments in ternary processes ranges in size from a proton to an argon nucleus. (wikipedia.org)