• chromatin
  • Histones are the proteins that help chromatin to condense. (unc.edu)
  • FOX proteins also have pioneering transcription activity by being able to bind condensed chromatin during cell differentiation processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • PRC1 PRC2 PHC1 PHC2 Heterochromatin protein 1 (Cbx) BMI1 PCGF2 (Polycomb group RING finger protein 2) ortolog Bmi1 RYBP RING1 SUV39H1 (histone-lysine N-methyltransferase) L3mbtl2 EZH2 (Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2) EED SUZ12 (Suppressor of Zeste 12) Jarid2 (jumonji, AT rich interactive domain 2) RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) RNF2 CBFβ YY1 Bivalent chromatin Portoso M, Cavalli G (2008). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial
  • In HslU, a bacterial ClpX/ClpY homologue of the HSP100 family of AAA proteins, the N- and C-terminal subdomains move towards each other when nucleotides are bound and hydrolysed. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretory
  • We will evaluate the possibility of soluble expression, secretory expression, correct modification and folding, production efficiency, necessity of purification steps and protein buffer formulation etc. (profacgen.com)
  • Misfolded secretory proteins are exported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and degraded by the ER-associated degradation pathway (ERAD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemistry
  • Proteins is abstracted and indexed in: Elsevier BIOBASE Biochemistry & Biophysics Citation Index Biological Abstracts BIOSIS Previews Biotechnology Citation Index Chemical Abstracts Service ChemWeb Current Contents/Life Sciences EMBASE Index Medicus/MEDLINE Science Citation Index Scopus According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2011 impact factor of 3.392. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Scientists studied proteins found in cells, known as histones, which are not part of the genetic code, but act as spools around which DNA is wound. (freerepublic.com)
  • The basic functional unit of a muscle, known as the sarcomere, consists of actin, myosin and tropomyosin proteins. (redorbit.com)
  • Native gels, also known as non-denaturing gels, analyze proteins that are still in their folded state. (wikipedia.org)
  • G proteins , also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins , are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior. (wikipedia.org)
  • This forkhead motif is also known as the winged helix due to the butterfly-like appearance of the loops in the protein structure of the domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • SIR proteins have been identified in many screens, and have historically been known as SIR (silent information regulator), MAR (mating-type regulator), STE (sterile), CMT (change of mating type) or SSP (sterile suppressor) according to which screen led to their identification. (wikipedia.org)
  • The family of non-collagenous proteins known as SIBLING proteins, standing for small integrin-binding ligand, N-linked glycoprotein, are components of the extracellular matrix of bone and dentin. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are working to solve this problem for a large number of known protein folds (a representative subset: about 1500 folds). (wikipedia.org)
  • Also known as the Angiopoietin-related proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major urinary proteins (Mups), also known as α2u-globulins, are a subfamily of proteins found in abundance in the urine and other secretions of many animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • International Therapeutic Proteins (known as ITP) supplies antitoxins, antidotes to snake venoms and other biologics (biological therapeutics) to corporate and government clients. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Proteins are considered the molecular "workers" of the cell because they are present in all areas and processes of the cell. (unc.edu)
  • One of the great challenges in molecular biology is to determine the three-dimensional structure of large biomolecules such as proteins. (freerepublic.com)
  • The electrophoretic mobilities of these proteins will be a linear function of the logarithms of their molecular weights. (wikipedia.org)
  • Except for S1 (with a molecular weight of 61.2 kDa), the other proteins range in weight between 4.4 and 29.7 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins produce a molecular motor that couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to changes in conformational states that can be propagated through the assembly in order to act upon a target substrate, either translocating or remodelling the substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dyneins, one of the three major classes of motor protein, are AAA proteins which couple their ATPase activity to molecular motion along microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are generally produced during viral infection, Interferon (IFN) treatment, and during pathogen recognition (Pathogen associated molecular pattern recognition) by the immune system during infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, the cyanobacterial clock proteins are the main circadian regulator in cyanobacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • With customized technical strategies, flexible production scale, and proprietary technologies, we offer our clients highly efficient and high-quality recombinant protein production, process development and scale-up production for downstream applications such as functional assays, structural studies, target validation and high throughput screenings etc. (profacgen.com)
  • Microtubules are tube-like structural proteins that help chromosomes move throughout the cell. (unc.edu)
  • They are "modular" proteins because microtubules can add or subtract protein units to become longer or shorter, respectively, while continuing to provide the cell with structural support during cell division. (unc.edu)
  • Proteins also have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton , which form a system of scaffolding that maintains cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Signaling molecules bind to a domain of the GPCR located outside the cell, and an intracellular GPCR domain then in turn activates a particular G protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • The recombinant DNA, usually the cDNA sequence of the target protein, is designed to be under the control of a well characterized promoter and express the target protein within the chosen host cell to achieve high-level protein expression. (profacgen.com)
  • This 3D shape is necessary for a particular biological function and is determined by the sequence of the different amino acids that make up that protein. (freerepublic.com)
  • The defining feature of FOX proteins is the forkhead box, a sequence of 80 to 100 amino acids forming a motif that binds to DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Originally they were given vastly different names (such as HFH, FREAC, and fkh), but in 2000 a unified nomenclature was introduced that grouped the FOX proteins into subclasses (FOXA-FOXS) based on sequence conservation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental data and the three dimensional structure of IFIT1 reveals that the proteins bind to viral PPP RNA in a sequence specific manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • This large-scale mapping of protein sequence space will have applications for predicting protein structure and function, for understanding protein evolution, and for designing new proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiviral
  • CHICAGO (Reuters) U.S. researchers have discovered antiviral proteins in cells that naturally fight off influenza infections, a finding that may lead to better ways to make vaccines and protect people against the flu. (freerepublic.com)
  • humans
  • So far, four families of this protein have been identified in humans which are IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and IFIT5 and other variants have been found in different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IFIT proteins that are produced in humans and mice are 40%-45% similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans in good health excrete urine that is largely free of protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms , including catalysing metabolic reactions , DNA replication , responding to stimuli , and transporting molecules from one location to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some small molecules can stick to the protein and make them reconfigure faster to prevent sticking (changing green to red), potentially becoming drugs for these diseases. (redorbit.com)
  • G proteins are important signal transducing molecules in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • intrinsic
  • It uses no charged dye so the electrophoretic mobility of proteins in CN-PAGE (in contrast to the charge shift technique BN-PAGE) is related to the intrinsic charge of the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • MIPs are classified into five subfamilies in higher plants, including plasma membrane (PIPs), tonoplast (TIPs), NOD26-like (NIPs), small basic (SIPs) and unclassified X (XIPs) intrinsic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Major Intrinsic Protein (MIP) of the human lens of the eye (Aqp0), after which the MIP family was named, represents about 60% of the protein in the lens cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the MIP family channels include: Mammalian major intrinsic protein (MIP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIP). (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • Computing the 'Best Case' Probability of Proteins from Actual Data, and Falsifying a Prediction of Darwinism Kirk Durston July 28, 2015 4:52 PM Biological life requires thousands of different protein families, about 70 percent of which are 'globular' proteins, with a three-dimensional shape that is unique to each family of proteins. (freerepublic.com)
  • This is a large, functionally diverse protein family belonging to the AAA+ protein superfamily of ring-shaped P-loop NTPases, which exert their activity through the energy-dependent remodeling or translocation of macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PM-localized PIN proteins physically interact with a few members of the large PGP family of transporters that also work as auxin efflux carriers (PGP1 and PGP19 in Arabidopsis). (wikipedia.org)
  • The activity and localization of the PM-localized PIN proteins is regulated by several phosphorylations on their large cytosolic hydrophilic loop carried out by kinases of the AGC family (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • MIP family proteins are believed to form aqueous pores that selectively allow passive transport of their solute(s) across the membrane with minimal apparent recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • macromolecules
  • Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids , proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in virtually every process within cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • InterPro
  • InterPro: IPR012269) These proteins form water-specific channels that provide the plasma membranes of red cells, as well as kidney proximal and collecting tubules with high permeability to water, thereby permitting water to move in the direction of an osmotic gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • There are hundreds of types of proteins in the cell, each with its own function and physical structure. (unc.edu)
  • Methods commonly used to study protein structure and function include immunohistochemistry , site-directed mutagenesis , X-ray crystallography , nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry . (wikipedia.org)
  • SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, describes a collection of related techniques to separate proteins according to their electrophoretic mobility (a function of the length of a polypeptide chain and its charge) while in the denatured (unfolded) state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G protein activates a cascade of further signaling events that finally results in a change in cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transformer proteins (TFPs) are proteins that can transform from one conformation to a different one and simultaneously change their function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by John Wiley & Sons, which was established in 1986 by Cyrus Levinthal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Globulins make up 38% of blood proteins and transport ions, hormones, and lipids assisting in immune function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultimately, the name SIR had the most staying power, because it most accurately describes the function of the encoded proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • While theoretical models have in fact described exactly how these muscle proteins interact, this interaction has never previously been observed in detail. (redorbit.com)
  • In Drosophila, the Trithorax-group (trxG) and Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins act antagonistically and interact with chromosomal elements, termed Cellular Memory Modules (CMMs). (wikipedia.org)
  • SUPERFAMILY
  • AAA proteins are divided into seven basic clades, based on secondary structure elements included within or near the core AAA fold: clamp loader, initiator, classic, superfamily III helicase, HCLR, H2-insert, and PS-II insert. (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily
  • It was found that the proteins are primarily made in the liver of males and secreted through the kidneys into the urine in large quantities (milligrams per day). (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • Prokaryotes have AAA which combine chaperone with proteolytic activity, for example in ClpAPS complex, which mediates protein degradation and recognition in E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Blood proteins, also termed plasma proteins or serum proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrary to popular belief, haemoglobin is not a blood protein, as it is carried within red blood cells, rather than in the blood serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum albumin accounts for 55% of blood proteins, and is a major contributor to maintaining the osmotic pressure of plasma to assist in the transport of lipids and steroid hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Separating serum proteins by electrophoresis is a valuable diagnostic tool as well as a way to monitor clinical progress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current research regarding blood plasma proteins is centered on performing proteomics analyses of serum/plasma in the search for biomarkers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The normal laboratory value of serum total protein is around 7 g/dL. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • We study the chemical and physical structure of amino acids and proteins, describe the topology of proteins and discuss an important enzyme, penicillin amidase, in greater detail. (springer.com)
  • A representation of the 3D structure of the protein myoglobin showing turquoise α-helices . (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein was the first to have its structure solved by X-ray crystallography . (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein binding to helical junctions is important for initiating the correct tertiary fold of RNA and to organize the overall structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins@Home was a large-scale non-profit protein structure prediction project utilizing distributed computing to perform a lot of computations in a small amount of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrophoresis
  • Protein electrophoresis is a method for analysing the proteins in a fluid or an extract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gel electrophoresis is often performed in combination with electroblotting immunoblotting to give additional information about a specific protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of practical limitations, protein electrophoresis is generally not suited as a preparative method. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most proteins, the binding of SDS to the polypeptide chain imparts an even distribution of charge per unit mass, thereby resulting in a fractionation by approximate size during electrophoresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • During electrophoresis in a discontinuous gel system, an ion gradient is formed in the early stage of electrophoresis that causes all of the proteins to focus into a single sharp band. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • The ribosome of E. coli has about 22 proteins in the small subunit (labelled S1 to S22) and 33 proteins in the large subunit (somewhat counter-intuitively called L1 to L36). (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • This hypothesis was, however, challenged by observations that proteins could fold in two alternative conformations, such as the prion proteins which exist in a physiologially active cellular form and an insoluble form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor
  • Increased palmitoylation of the Gs protein alpha subunit after activation by the beta-adrenergic receptor or cholera toxin. (springer.com)
  • G protein-coupled receptor and G proteins working together transmit signals from many hormones , neurotransmitters , and other signaling factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, the receptor stimulates a G protein, which then stimulates an enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malfunction of GPCR [G Protein-Coupled Receptor] signaling pathways are involved in many diseases, such as diabetes , blindness, allergies, depression, cardiovascular defects, and certain forms of cancer . (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein functions as a receptor for membrane bound ligands, and may play a role in vascular, renal and hepatic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement
  • Examples of specific blood proteins: Prealbumin (transthyretin) Alpha 1 antitrypsin (neutralizes trypsin that has leaked from the digestive system) Alpha 1 acid glycoprotein Alpha 1 fetoprotein alpha2-macroglobulin Gamma globulins Beta-2 microglobulin Haptoglobin Ceruloplasmin Complement component 3 Complement component 4 C-reactive protein (CRP) Lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL) Transferrin Prothrombin MBL or MBP Anderson NL, Anderson NG (1977). (wikipedia.org)
  • Stable
  • Stable cell line construction for large amount of protein expression is also available for both research use and industrial production. (profacgen.com)