• pathways
  • SH3 domains are found in proteins of signaling pathways regulating the cytoskeleton, the Ras protein, and the Src kinase and many others. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to that, the SH3 domain was responsible for controlling protein-protein interactions in the signal transduction pathways and regulating the interactions of proteins involved in the cytoplasmic signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated G proteins are able to couple to multiple downstream effectors and can therefore control a number of distinct signalling pathways (a characteristic known as pleiotropy). (wikipedia.org)
  • This domain can bind phosphatidylinositol lipids within biological membranes (such as phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate), and proteins such as the βγ-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins, and protein kinase C. Through these interactions, PH domains play a role in recruiting proteins to different membranes, thus targeting them to appropriate cellular compartments or enabling them to interact with other components of the signal transduction pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proline-rich domain may interact with SH3 domains of proteins involved in signal transduction pathways while the LIM domains are likely involved in protein-protein binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • The Src family kinase Fyn is expressed in T cells and has been shown to phosphorylate proteins involved in TCR signaling, cytoskeletal reorganization, and IL-4 production. (jimmunol.org)
  • Additionally, Fyn can phosphorylate PAG (phosphoprotein associated with glycolipid-enriched microdomains), also called Cbp (Csk-binding protein), which acts to down-regulate TCR signaling through its recruitment to the membrane of Csk, a kinase that inhibits both Fyn and Lck through phosphorylation of negative regulatory tyrosines near their C termini ( 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Downstream of TLR4, SHP-1 showed increased interaction with several proteins including IL-1R-associated kinase-4, and modulated LPS signaling by inhibiting NF-κB, AP-1, ERK, and JNK activity, while enhancing p38 activity. (jimmunol.org)
  • p110delta(-/-) B cells proliferate poorly in response to B cell receptor (BCR) or CD40 signals in vitro, fail to activate protein kinase B, and are prone to apoptosis. (jove.com)
  • Other proteins known to bind RhoG in its GTP-bound state include the microtubule-associated protein kinectin, Phospholipase D1 and the MAP Kinase activator MLK3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, there are four main transmembrane receptor types: G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs), serine/threonine kinase receptors (RSTKs), and ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs). (wikipedia.org)
  • This is important because it makes the recruitment of different PH domain containing proteins sensitive to the activities of enzymes that either phosphorylate or dephosphorylate these sites on the inositol ring, such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase or PTEN, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins reported to contain PH domains belong to the following families: Pleckstrin, the protein where this domain was first detected, is the major substrate of protein kinase C in platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinase C theta (PKC-θ) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCQ gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by the second messenger diacylglycerol. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a calcium-independent and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • New perspectives on PKCtheta, a member of the novel subfamily of protein kinase C". Stem Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • The N-terminal region of Dock2 binds constitutively to the scaffolding protein Elmo, which confers stabilization and enhances GEF activity toward Rac. (rupress.org)
  • Mouse protein citron, a putative rho/rac effector that binds to the GTP-bound forms of rho and rac. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • While T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognizes antigenic peptides of proteins presented on the self MHC, B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) recognizes essentially any kinds of molecules. (springer.com)
  • The classical SH3 domain is usually found in proteins that interact with other proteins and mediate assembly of specific protein complexes, typically via binding to proline-rich peptides in their respective binding partner. (wikipedia.org)
  • signal
  • The cellular response in signal transduction cascades involves alteration of the expression of effector genes or activation/inhibition of targeted proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Focal adhesions are actin-rich structures that enable cells to adhere to the extracellular matrix and at which protein complexes involved in signal transduction assemble. (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • RhoG shares a subset of common binding partners with Rac, Cdc42 and RhoU/V members but a major specificity is its inability to bind to CRIB domain proteins such as PAKs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila
  • Here, we report that the single Drosophila vav homolog is ubiquitously expressed during development, although it is enriched along the embryonic ventral midline and in the larval eye discs and brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • We have analyzed the role that vav plays during development by generating Drosophila null mutant alleles. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we decided to take advantage of the Drosophila model system to further analyze the contribution of vav in axogenesis during development. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although ubiquitously expressed during Drosophila development, we show that vav displays higher levels of expression in the embryonic and larval CNSs. (jneurosci.org)
  • In Drosophila, the protein encoded by the 'son of sevenless' gene (Sos) contains a domain that shows sequence similarity with the catalytic domain of CDC25. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • RIG-I activation by RNA leads to the induction of type I interferon (IFN) genes through the activation of its adaptor molecule, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Genetic analysis indicated that CDC25 is essential for activation of RAS proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is important in hematopoiesis, playing a role in T-cell and B-cell development and activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • While the role of the mammalian vav genes has been extensively studied in the hematopoietic system and the immune response, there is little information regarding the role of vav outside of these systems. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. (labome.org)
  • This response is slower than the first because it involves more steps, like transcription of genes and then the effect of newly formed proteins in a specific target. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organism
  • However, there is very little evidence of a role for vav in axogenesis in a developing organism. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, such enzymes exert a part of their effect on cell function by modulating the localization of downstream signaling proteins that possess PH domains that are capable of binding their phospholipid products. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • Many SH3-binding epitopes of proteins have a consensus sequence that can be represented as a regular expression or Short linear motif: -X-P-p-X-P- 1 2 3 4 5 with 1 and 4 being aliphatic amino acids, 2 and 5 always and 3 sometimes being proline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding
  • Binding of GTP activates RAS proteins, and subsequent hydrolysis of the bound GTP to GDP and phosphate inactivates signaling by these proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This particular GEF has been identified as the specific binding partner of Nef proteins from HIV-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among other things, these virulence factors are required for bacterial adhesion and injection of proteins into the host cell, invasion of bacteria in the host cell (via a type-III secretion system), and acquisition and binding of iron harvested from red blood cells (by siderophores). (wikipedia.org)
  • A large number of PH domains have poor affinity for phosphoinositides and are hypothesized to function as protein binding domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxysterol-binding proteins OSBP, S. cerevisiae OSH1 and YHR073w. (wikipedia.org)
  • RhoGEF
  • There are 11007 RhoGEF domains in 10684 proteins in SMART's nrdb database. (embl.de)
  • Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing RhoGEF domain. (embl.de)
  • The complete taxonomic breakdown of all proteins with RhoGEF domain is also avaliable . (embl.de)
  • Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing RhoGEF domain in the selected taxonomic class. (embl.de)
  • effector
  • Ysr141 sRNA was shown to regulate the synthesis of the type III secretion system (T3SS) effector protein YopJ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrophobic/membrane-associated - are insoluble in water and membrane-associated, being localized at intermembrane spaces, where they can bind to membrane-associated effector proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • The PDBFlex database explores the intrinsic flexibility of protein structures by analyzing structural variations of the same protein across the archive. (rcsb.org)
  • This allows for the easy identification of regions and types of structural flexibility present in a protein of interest. (rcsb.org)