• kinase
  • The Src family kinase Fyn is expressed in T cells and has been shown to phosphorylate proteins involved in TCR signaling, cytoskeletal reorganization, and IL-4 production. (jimmunol.org)
  • Additionally, Fyn can phosphorylate PAG (phosphoprotein associated with glycolipid-enriched microdomains), also called Cbp (Csk-binding protein), which acts to down-regulate TCR signaling through its recruitment to the membrane of Csk, a kinase that inhibits both Fyn and Lck through phosphorylation of negative regulatory tyrosines near their C termini ( 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Downstream of TLR4, SHP-1 showed increased interaction with several proteins including IL-1R-associated kinase-4, and modulated LPS signaling by inhibiting NF-κB, AP-1, ERK, and JNK activity, while enhancing p38 activity. (jimmunol.org)
  • p110delta(-/-) B cells proliferate poorly in response to B cell receptor (BCR) or CD40 signals in vitro, fail to activate protein kinase B, and are prone to apoptosis. (jove.com)
  • Cross-linking of FcγRIIIA (CD16) receptor on natural killer (NK) cells induces receptor-associated tyrosine kinase activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous intracellular proteins, including phospholipase C (PLC)-γ1, PLC-γ2 and the associated ζ chain. (biochemj.org)
  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav was inhibited by herbimycin A, a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor. (biochemj.org)
  • In vitro kinase assays with Vav immunoprecipitates derived from NK3.3 cells or LAK-NK cells resulted in the appearance of a phosphorylated 58 kDa protein, suggesting the presence of a kinase within the Vav immunoprecipitates. (biochemj.org)
  • Cross-linking of CD16 did not enhance this Vav-associated kinase activity. (biochemj.org)
  • Phosphoamino acid analysis of the 58 kDa protein revealed that it was phosphorylated only on serine and threonine residues, indicating that an unidentified serine/threonine kinase is constitutively associated with Vav. (biochemj.org)
  • These observations suggest that the downstream signalling events regulated by Vav and its associated proteins are complex involving both tyrosine kinases as well as the yet unidentified serine/threonine kinase in NK cells. (biochemj.org)
  • It has also been identified in several other protein families such as: PI3 Kinase, Ras GTPase-activating protein, CDC24 and cdc25. (wikipedia.org)
  • SH3 domains are found in proteins of signaling pathways regulating the cytoskeleton, the Ras protein, and the Src kinase and many others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins known to bind RhoG in its GTP-bound state include the microtubule-associated protein kinectin, Phospholipase D1 and the MAP Kinase activator MLK3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, there are four main transmembrane receptor types: G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs), serine/threonine kinase receptors (RSTKs), and ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs). (wikipedia.org)
  • This domain can bind phosphatidylinositol lipids within biological membranes (such as phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate), and proteins such as the βγ-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins, and protein kinase C. Through these interactions, PH domains play a role in recruiting proteins to different membranes, thus targeting them to appropriate cellular compartments or enabling them to interact with other components of the signal transduction pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is important because it makes the recruitment of different PH domain containing proteins sensitive to the activities of enzymes that either phosphorylate or dephosphorylate these sites on the inositol ring, such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase or PTEN, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins reported to contain PH domains belong to the following families: Pleckstrin, the protein where this domain was first detected, is the major substrate of protein kinase C in platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinase C theta (PKC-θ) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCQ gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by the second messenger diacylglycerol. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a calcium-independent and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • New perspectives on PKCtheta, a member of the novel subfamily of protein kinase C". Stem Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • homology
  • The proteins encoded by members of the Dbl family share a common domain, presented in this entry, of about 200 residues (designated the Dbl homology or DH domain) that has been shown to encode a GEF activity specific for a number of Rho family members. (embl.de)
  • It does not share significant sequence homology with other subtypes of small G-protein GEF motifs such as the Cdc25 domain and the Sec7 domain, which specifically interact with Ras and ARF family small GTPases, respectively, nor with other Rho protein interactive motifs, indicating that the Dbl family proteins are evolutionarily unique. (embl.de)
  • The SRC Homology 3 Domain (or SH3 domain) is a small protein domain of about 60 amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • RhoG (Ras homology Growth-related) (or ARGH) is a small (~21 kDa) monomeric GTP-binding protein (G protein), and is an important component of many intracellular signalling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pleckstrin homology domain (PH domain) is a protein domain of approximately 120 amino acids that occurs in a wide range of proteins involved in intracellular signaling or as constituents of the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • In addition to that, the SH3 domain was responsible for controlling protein-protein interactions in the signal transduction pathways and regulating the interactions of proteins involved in the cytoplasmic signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated G proteins are able to couple to multiple downstream effectors and can therefore control a number of distinct signalling pathways (a characteristic known as pleiotropy). (wikipedia.org)
  • The proline-rich domain may interact with SH3 domains of proteins involved in signal transduction pathways while the LIM domains are likely involved in protein-protein binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • It localizes preferentially to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) of mammalian cells and regulates, for example, the secretory transport of bone-specific proteins from the Golgi complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levels of both FGD1 and Cdc42 are enriched on the Golgi complex itself and their interdependence regulates the transport of cargo proteins from the Golgi. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • The Rho family of GTP-binding proteins has been implicated in the regulation of various cellular functions including actin cytoskeleton-dependent morphological change. (embl.de)
  • They are involved in regulation of kinases and phosphatases, G protein associated factors and transcriptional factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several S. cerevisiae proteins involved in cell cycle regulation and bud formation like BEM2, BEM3, BUD4 and the BEM1-binding proteins BOI2 (BEB1) and BOI1 (BOB1). (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • The N-terminal region of Dock2 binds constitutively to the scaffolding protein Elmo, which confers stabilization and enhances GEF activity toward Rac. (rupress.org)
  • Mouse protein citron, a putative rho/rac effector that binds to the GTP-bound forms of rho and rac. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • While T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognizes antigenic peptides of proteins presented on the self MHC, B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) recognizes essentially any kinds of molecules. (springer.com)
  • The classical SH3 domain is usually found in proteins that interact with other proteins and mediate assembly of specific protein complexes, typically via binding to proline-rich peptides in their respective binding partner. (wikipedia.org)
  • signal
  • The cellular response in signal transduction cascades involves alteration of the expression of effector genes or activation/inhibition of targeted proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Focal adhesions are actin-rich structures that enable cells to adhere to the extracellular matrix and at which protein complexes involved in signal transduction assemble. (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • RhoG shares a subset of common binding partners with Rac, Cdc42 and RhoU/V members but a major specificity is its inability to bind to CRIB domain proteins such as PAKs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila
  • Here, we report that the single Drosophila vav homolog is ubiquitously expressed during development, although it is enriched along the embryonic ventral midline and in the larval eye discs and brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • We have analyzed the role that vav plays during development by generating Drosophila null mutant alleles. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we decided to take advantage of the Drosophila model system to further analyze the contribution of vav in axogenesis during development. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although ubiquitously expressed during Drosophila development, we show that vav displays higher levels of expression in the embryonic and larval CNSs. (jneurosci.org)
  • In Drosophila, the protein encoded by the 'son of sevenless' gene (Sos) contains a domain that shows sequence similarity with the catalytic domain of CDC25. (wikipedia.org)
  • downstream
  • Thus, such enzymes exert a part of their effect on cell function by modulating the localization of downstream signaling proteins that possess PH domains that are capable of binding their phospholipid products. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • RIG-I activation by RNA leads to the induction of type I interferon (IFN) genes through the activation of its adaptor molecule, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Genetic analysis indicated that CDC25 is essential for activation of RAS proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is important in hematopoiesis, playing a role in T-cell and B-cell development and activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • While the role of the mammalian vav genes has been extensively studied in the hematopoietic system and the immune response, there is little information regarding the role of vav outside of these systems. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. (labome.org)
  • This response is slower than the first because it involves more steps, like transcription of genes and then the effect of newly formed proteins in a specific target. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organism
  • However, there is very little evidence of a role for vav in axogenesis in a developing organism. (jneurosci.org)
  • amino acids
  • Many SH3-binding epitopes of proteins have a consensus sequence that can be represented as a regular expression or Short linear motif: -X-P-p-X-P- 1 2 3 4 5 with 1 and 4 being aliphatic amino acids, 2 and 5 always and 3 sometimes being proline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding
  • Binding of GTP activates RAS proteins, and subsequent hydrolysis of the bound GTP to GDP and phosphate inactivates signaling by these proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This particular GEF has been identified as the specific binding partner of Nef proteins from HIV-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among other things, these virulence factors are required for bacterial adhesion and injection of proteins into the host cell, invasion of bacteria in the host cell (via a type-III secretion system), and acquisition and binding of iron harvested from red blood cells (by siderophores). (wikipedia.org)
  • A large number of PH domains have poor affinity for phosphoinositides and are hypothesized to function as protein binding domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxysterol-binding proteins OSBP, S. cerevisiae OSH1 and YHR073w. (wikipedia.org)
  • RhoGEF
  • There are 11007 RhoGEF domains in 10684 proteins in SMART's nrdb database. (embl.de)
  • Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing RhoGEF domain. (embl.de)
  • The complete taxonomic breakdown of all proteins with RhoGEF domain is also avaliable . (embl.de)
  • Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing RhoGEF domain in the selected taxonomic class. (embl.de)
  • effector
  • Ysr141 sRNA was shown to regulate the synthesis of the type III secretion system (T3SS) effector protein YopJ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrophobic/membrane-associated - are insoluble in water and membrane-associated, being localized at intermembrane spaces, where they can bind to membrane-associated effector proteins. (wikipedia.org)