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  • heterogeneity
  • Recent advances in molecular genetics have identified mutations in 9 distinct genes (designated as NPHP1, NPHP4, NPHP5, NPHP6, NPHP7, NPHP8, NPHP9, NPH11, and NPH1L ) that are associated with defects in distinct proteins that lead to heterogeneity in clinical manifestations. (medscape.com)
  • mice
  • Again the effect was more pronounced in AM+/− mice, which showed increases in cardiac myocyte size, protein synthesis, and fibroblast proliferation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Activation of D5 receptors is shown to promote expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and increase phosphorylation of protein kinase B in rat and mice prefrontal cortex neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • These genes contain several in-frame stop codons that prevent these genes from transcribing a functional protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following are categorized as SIBLING proteins: osteopontin (OPN) bone sialoprotein (BSP) dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) The genes coding for members of the SIBLING protein family are similarly organized and are all located on human chromosome 4q21-23. (wikipedia.org)
  • filtrate
  • The ascending limb is impermeable to water (because of a lack of aquaporin, a common transporter protein for water channels in all cells except the walls of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle) but permeable to solutes, but here Na+, Cl−, and K+ are actively transported into the medullary space, making the filtrate hypotonic (with a higher water potential). (wikipedia.org)
  • actin
  • 3. Other ROCK targets NHE1 (a sodium hydrogen exchanger, involved in focal adhesions and actin organisation) intermediate filament proteins: Vimentin, GFAP (glial fibrillaric acidic protein), NF-L (neurofilament L protein) F-actin binding proteins: Adducin, EF-1α (elongation factor, translation co-factor), MARCKS (myristylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate), Caponin (unknown function), and ERM (involved in linkage of the actin cytoskelton to the plasma membrane). (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • ERK activation was suppressed by protein kinase C inhibition to a greater degree in AM+/− myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition, treatment of cardiac myocytes with recombinant AM suppressed Ang II-induced ERK activation via a protein kinase A-dependent pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) is a kinase belonging to the AGC (PKA/ PKG/PKC) family of serine-threonine kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • The great quantity of useful water that is excreted is reabsorbed back into the blood as the nephron first descends into the deeper tissues of the kidney. (asknature.org)
  • Nephron reduction of as little as 11% in sheep 15 and 13% in the rat 16 is associated with changes in postnatal renal function and elevations in arterial blood pressure. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Urinalysis results might also show white blood cells, a common indicator of infection or inflammation, and increased protein, which can indicate nephron damage. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Normally the only components of the blood that are not filtered into Bowman's capsule are blood proteins, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Claudin-6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN6 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Claudin-12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN12 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and structural molecule activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dopamine receptor D5, also known as D1BR, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein 2A also known as Na+-Pi cotransport (NaPi-2a) or solute carrier family 34, member 1 (SLC34A1) is a protein in humans that is encoded by the SLC34A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angiopoietin-related protein 2 also known as angiopoietin-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANGPTL2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hippocalcin-like protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HPCAL1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of neuron-specific calcium-binding proteins family found in the retina and brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pepsin A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PGA5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Krüppel-like factor 15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KLF15 gene in the Krüppel-like factor family. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • ROCK increases the activity of the motor protein myosin II by two different mechanisms: Firstly, phosphorylation of the myosin light chain (MLC) increases the myosin II ATPase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also possible that phosphorylation of collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) by ROCK inhibits CRPM2 function of promoting axon outgrowth, resulting in growth cone collapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycoprotein
  • The family of non-collagenous proteins known as SIBLING proteins, standing for small integrin-binding ligand, N-linked glycoprotein, are components of the extracellular matrix of bone and dentin. (wikipedia.org)
  • ANGPTL2 protein is a secreted glycoprotein with homology to the angiopoietins and may exert a function on endothelial cells through autocrine or paracrine action. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • Angiopoietin-like protein 2 maintains tissue homeostasis by promoting adaptive inflammation and subsequent tissue reconstruction, whereas an excess of ANGPTL2 activation induced by prolonged stress promotes the breakdown of tissue homeostasis due to chronic inflammation, promoting the development of metabolic diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • The thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle is the only part of the nephron lacking in aquaporin-a common transporter protein for water channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • ROCK plays a role in a wide range of different cellular phenomena, as ROCK is a downstream effector protein of the small GTPase Rho, which is one of the major regulators of the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal
  • Comparison to the distribution of renal protein 4.1 isoforms and various membrane proteins indicates a complex relationship between the spectrin scaffold, its adapters, and various membrane proteins. (duhnnae.com)
  • Renal disease is usually attributed to metabolic consequences of abnormal glucose regulation manifested by elevated blood and tissue levels of glycosylated proteins and hemodynamic changes within the kidney tissue ( 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Aquaporins (AQPs) are ubiquitously expressed pore-forming proteins located in renal proximal tubules and are a part of the descending thin limbs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A countercurrent system in the renal medulla provides the mechanism for generating a hypertonic interstitium, which allows the recovery of solute-free water from within the nephron and returning it to the venous vasculature when appropriate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, his work involves identifying reliable and practical tests for protein-caloric malnutrition, which is associated with heightened risks of mortality in renal failure patients, and using these tests to assess different treatment strategies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epithelial cells of the renal tubules, including all the segments of the nephron and the collecting ducts (with the exception of intercalated cells) show the presence of a single primary apical cilium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rheumatologic (hypertrophic osteoarthropathy), renal (secondary kidney amyloidosis and sedimentation of immunocomplexes in nephrons), and gastrointestinal (production of molecules that affect the motility and secretory activity of the digestive tract) dysfunctions, for example, may relate to paraneoplastic syndromes. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • As a result, these mRNA molecules are silenced, by one or more of the following processes: Cleavage of the mRNA strand into two pieces, Destabilization of the mRNA through shortening of its poly(A) tail, and Less efficient translation of the mRNA into proteins by ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • roles
  • Lysine methylation is an emerging post-translation modification and it has been identified on several histone and non-histone proteins, where it plays crucial roles in cell development and many diseases. (jove.com)
  • genes
  • Experimental vector IB vaccines and genetically manipulated IBVs-with heterologous spike protein genes-have produced promising results, including in the context of in ovo vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • They differentiated BHLHE41/SHARP1 and BHLHE/40SHARP2 from other BHLH-protein encoding genes since they are not transcribed until the end of embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • BHLH
  • The BHLHE41 protein has a myc-type, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and an orange domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The orange domain is a 30 residue sequence located on the carboxy-terminal end relative to the BHLH domain of the protein whose function is still unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pod-1 was the first tissue-restricted bHLH protein to be identified in the developing kidney and tied to regulation of morphogenetic events. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue-restricted
  • In this paradigm, tumor cells express tissue-restricted antigens (e.g., neuronal proteins), triggering an anti-tumor immune response which may be partially or, rarely, completely effective in suppressing tumor growth and symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • One study established that dialysis changes protein metabolism in such a way as to stimulate protein degradation in muscle and other tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basic helix-loop-helix family, member e41", or BHLHE41, is a gene that encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor repressor protein in various tissues of both humans and mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • dietAry protein
  • The normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) is a formula commonly used to assess dietary protein intake in dialysis patients, as a means towards determining nutritional adequacy, a major problem in many ESRD patients. (blogspot.com)
  • extracellular
  • Experimental evidence show that the mature receptor protein contains up to 17 leucine-rich repeats, each composed of 24 amino acids spanning the extracellular domain flanked by the cysteine-rich N-terminal and C-terminal regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, R-spondin proteins were shown to interact with the extracellular domain of LRG5 although the molecular mechanism is not yet fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polycystin-1, the protein encoded by the PKD1 gene, is present on these cilia and is thought to sense the flow with its large extracellular domains, activating the calcium channels associated with polycystin-2, the product of gene PKD2, as a result of the genetic setting of ADPKD as explained in the genetics sub-section below. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • The nature of the protective immune response to IBV is poorly understood, but the surface spike protein, the amino-terminal S1 half, is sufficient to induce good protective immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • BHLHE41-001 contains 5 coding exons, has a transcript length of 3,837 base pairs, and encodes the 482 amino acid BHLHE41 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of structure, the proteins that belong to this family consist of about 510 to 920 amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxin is a large 250-kDa protein the active part of which is the NH2-terminal 551 amino acid fragment. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • This suggests that each PKMT methylates multiple proteins, however till now only one or two substrates have been identified for several of these enzymes. (jove.com)
  • intake
  • Most guidelines specify maintaining the protein intake above 1.0 - 1.2 g/kg/day in dialysis patients, with values less than 0.8 g/kg/day being equated with malnutrition. (blogspot.com)
  • Protein and energy intake in advanced chronic kidney disease: how much is too much. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The WNK1 gene encodes a cytoplasmic serine-threonine kinase expressed in the distal nephron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Claudin-12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN12 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic helix-loop-helix domain allows members of the protein family to dimerize with each other to affect gene transcription through binding to specific DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolated the lin-4 gene, they found that instead of producing an mRNA encoding a protein, it produced short non-coding RNAs, one of which was a ~22-nucleotide RNA that contained sequences partially complementary to multiple sequences in the 3' UTR of the lin-14 mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) also known as G-protein coupled receptor 49 (GPR49) or G-protein coupled receptor 67 (GPR67) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LGR5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pepsin A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PGA5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • H(+)/Cl(-) exchange transporter 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLCN5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factor 21 (TCF21), also known as pod-1, capsulin, or epicardin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TCF21 gene on chromosome 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • The kinase domain has some similarity to the MEKK protein kinase family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, LGR5 might be a receptor for a member of the large family of bone morphogenetic protein antagonists. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stoichiometry of these subunits is still to be verified, but ENaC is very likely to be a heterotrimeric protein like the recently analyzed acid-sensing ion channel 1 (ASIC1), which belongs to the same family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although a member of a family of chloride channels, the CLCN5 protein allows movement of protons in the opposite direction of Cl(-), thus functioning as an antiporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • short
  • The protein contains a kinase domain located within its short N-terminaldomain and a long C-terminal tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Patients then come to clinical attention when this tumor immune response breaks immune tolerance and begins to attack the normal tissue expressing that (e.g., neuronal) protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • Other experiments show that a single miRNA species may repress the production of hundreds of proteins, but that this repression often is relatively mild (much less than 2-fold). (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • Here we show how we use electron cryo-tomography to study the in situ organization of large membrane protein complexes in mitochondria. (jove.com)