• enzyme
  • In enzymology, a protein-glutamate O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.80) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S-adenosyl-L-methionine + protein L-glutamate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + protein L-glutamate methyl ester Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are S-adenosyl methionine and protein L-glutamic acid, whereas its two products are S-adenosylhomocysteine and protein L-glutamate methyl ester. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is S-adenosyl-L-methionine:protein-L-glutamate O-methyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme participates in bacterial chemotaxis - general and bacterial chemotaxis - organism-specific. (wikipedia.org)
  • Penicillinase is a bacterial enzyme produced by bacteria resistant to other B-lactam antibiotics which hydrolyses the antibiotic, rendering it nonfunctional. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretion
  • Protein secretion plays a central role in modulating the interactions of bacteria with their environments. (vt.edu)
  • A number of secreted proteins are destined to enter the host cell (effectors and toxins), and thus several secretion systems include apparatus to translocate proteins across the plasma membrane of the host also. (vt.edu)
  • The Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) Consortium has been developing standardized terms for describing biological processes and cellular components that play important roles in the interactions of microbes with plant and animal hosts, including the processes of bacterial secretion. (vt.edu)
  • Here we survey bacterial secretion systems known to modulate interactions with host organisms and describe Gene Ontology terms useful for describing the components and functions of these systems, and for capturing the similarities among the diverse systems. (vt.edu)
  • The type 2 secretion system (often referred to as the type II secretion system or the T2SS) is protein secretion machinery found in various species of Gram-negative bacteria, including various human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type II secretion system is one of six protein secretory systems that are commonly found in gram negative bacteria along with the type I secretion system, the type III secretion system, The type IV secretion system, the chaperone/usher pathway, the autotransporter pathway/type V secretion system and the type VI secretion system (some bacteria also utilize the type VII secretion system). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like these other systems, the type II secretion system enables the transport of cytoplasmic proteins across the lipid bilayers that make up the cell membranes in gram negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type II secretion system is a membrane bound protein complex found in Gram-negative bacteria that is used to secrete proteins found in the cytoplasm of the bacteria into the extracellular space outside of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type II secretion system is just one of many secretory systems found in Gram-negative bacteria and is used to secrete a variety of different proteins, including bacterial toxins and degradative enzymes such as proteases and lipases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each bacterial cell will contain a number of type II secretion systems and these are found embedded in the inner and outer membranes of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, the Sec pathway is used to transport structural components of the type II secretion system into the periplasm where they can then assemble, while both the Sec and Tat pathways are used to transport secretory proteins into the periplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once these secretory proteins are in the periplasm the second step can then take place and they are secreted out of the cell through the type II secretion system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall the type II secretion system is a large multiprotein machinery, made up of a number of distinct protein subunits known as the general secretory proteins (GSPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Each gene is named with a letter corresponding to the GSP that it encodes (for example the gspD gene encodes GspD) and studies indicate that between 12 and 15 of these genes are essential to the function of the type II secretion system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the type II secretion system GspD creates a pore in the outer membrane of the bacterial cell through which proteins can be secreted. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Meticillin and other β-lactam antibiotics are structural analogs of D-alanyl-alanine, and the transpeptidase enzymes that bind to them are sometimes called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosome
  • These, together with electronic microscopy and the use of certain reactives, have allowed for the determination of the topography of the proteins in the ribosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ribosome of E. coli has about 22 proteins in the small subunit (labelled S1 to S22) and 33 proteins in the large subunit (somewhat counter-intuitively called L1 to L36). (wikipedia.org)
  • This is why the number of proteins in a ribosome is of 56. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosomal
  • A ribosomal protein (r-protein or rProtein) is any of the proteins that, in conjunction with rRNA, make up the ribosomal subunits involved in the cellular process of translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • All ribosomal proteins have been isolated and many specific antibodies have been produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, a near-complete (near)atomic picture of the ribosomal proteins is emerging from the latest high-resolution cryo-EM data (including PDB ID: 5AFI). (wikipedia.org)
  • This is also reflected by the fact that several ribosomal proteins do not appear to be essential when deleted. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conjunction with previous reports, 22 ribosomal proteins have been shown to be nonessential in B. subtilis, at least for cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • BipA, a ribosomal binding GTPase and prolific regulator of EPEC virulence, transcriptionally regulates Ler from an upstream position where it also regulates other genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • homology
  • Proteins conserved amongst T3SSS can be used for analysis of these systems using computational homology searching. (bham.ac.uk)
  • tubulin
  • Although some free-living Verrucomicrobia are reported to have tubulin genes, they have not been found to have tubular structures like those of epixenosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tubulin is characterized by the evolutionarily conserved Tubulin/FtsZ family, GTPase protein domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The GSPs are common among a number of different bacterial species and when they come together they form a complex that is structurally very similar to the type IV pili, an appendage that is also commonly found in gram negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • All of them are different with three exceptions: one protein is found in both subunits (S20 and L26), L7 and L12 are acetylated and methylated forms of the same protein, and L8 is a complex of L7/L12 and L10. (wikipedia.org)
  • uptake
  • The zinc uptake regulator (Zur) gene is a bacterial gene that codes for a transcription factor protein involved in zinc homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under conditions of zinc deficiency, the protein undergoes a conformational change that prevents DNA binding, thereby lifting the repression and causing zinc uptake genes such as ZinT and the ZnuABC zinc transporter to be expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptors
  • The prototypical fMet-containing oligopeptide is N-Formylmethionine-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) which activates leukocytes and other cell types by binding with these cells' formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) and formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) G protein coupled receptors (see also formyl peptide receptor 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • Additional stabilization results from the proteins' basic residues, as these neutralize the charge repulsion of the RNA backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleation
  • From the evidence, we propose a mechanism for its function as a specific magnetite nucleation protein and summaries the key features for this action: namely, self-assembly to display a charged surface for specific iron binding, with the curvature of the surfaces determining the particle size. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • annotation
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • Problems in r-proteins annotation inspired the RibAlign project that, however, has been de facto abandoned by the end of 2011. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • secretory
  • The first step involves the Sec and Tat secretory pathways which are responsible for transporting proteins across the inner membrane into the periplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, GspD is essential for the correct function system because without it secretory proteins cannot exit the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Polymorphonuclear cells can bind proteins starting with fMet, and use them to initiate the attraction of circulating blood leukocytes and then stimulate microbicidal activities such as phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • The integration host factor (IHF), a dimer of closely related chains which is suggested to function in genetic recombination as well as in translational and transcriptional control is found in Enterobacteria and viral proteins including the African swine fever virus protein A104R (or LMW5-AR). (wikipedia.org)
  • InterPro
  • InterPro: IPR012269) These proteins form water-specific channels that provide the plasma membranes of red cells, as well as kidney proximal and collecting tubules with high permeability to water, thereby permitting water to move in the direction of an osmotic gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleotides
  • In DNA replication at the lagging strand site, DNA polymerase III removes nucleotides individually from the DNA binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen
  • We may consider the active center of a nucleic acid-binding protein as a three dimensional distribution of functional groups able to form ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and hydrophobic bonds (including stacking). (springer.com)
  • Protein-protein interactions also exist to hold structure together by electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • overlap
  • Genes may overlap in a variety of ways and can be classified by their positions relative to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unidirectional or tandem overlap: the 3' end of one gene overlaps with the 5' end of another gene on the same strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Convergent or end-on overlap: the 3' ends of the two genes overlap on opposite strands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Divergent or tail-on overlap: the 5' ends of the two genes overlap on opposite strands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain types of gene overlap provide evidence that one of the genes in the pair may have originated de novo, rather than from gene duplication or other mechanisms by which new genes are created. (wikipedia.org)
  • pores
  • These two proteins form pores that harvest energy for flagellar mechanical movement by proton motive force (PMF) across the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • MIP family proteins are believed to form aqueous pores that selectively allow passive transport of their solute(s) across the membrane with minimal apparent recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • chains
  • Together, but not separately, the two reagents eliminate the bonds that hold the tangled protein chains in place. (coursehero.com)
  • Mechanism
  • The mechanism of Ler regulation involves competition with histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS), a negative regulator of the LEE pathogenicity island. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was later substantiated by Susumu Ohno, who identified a candidate gene that may have arisen by this mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • The cage contains the unwound, or denatured, protein, while the chaperonin goes about refolding its shape using the cellular energy source, ATP. (bio-medicine.org)