• genome
  • Replication of the genome is essential for inheritance of genetically determined traits. (nih.gov)
  • Most DNA in an individual genome is found in chromosomes but DNA found outside the nucleus also serves important biological functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epigenetics most often denotes changes in a chromosome that affect gene activity and expression, but can also be used to describe any heritable phenotypic change that does not derive from a modification of the genome, such as prions. (wikipedia.org)
  • centromere
  • Before this happens, every chromosome is copied once (S phase), and the copy is joined to the original by a centromere, resulting either in an X-shaped structure (pictured to the right) if the centromere is located in the middle of the chromosome or a two-arm structure if the centromere is located near one of the ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z canalisation candidate gene carrier centimorgan centriole centromere The part of a chromosome that links a pair of sister chromatids. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • Some use the term chromosome in a wider sense, to refer to the individualized portions of chromatin in cells, either visible or not under light microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • A consensus definition of the concept of epigenetic trait as "stably heritable phenotype resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations in the DNA sequence" was formulated at a Cold Spring Harbor meeting in 2008, although alternate definitions that include non-heritable traits are still being used. (wikipedia.org)
  • mtDNA
  • mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) the DNA of the mitochondrial chromosome, existing in several thousand copies per cell and inherited exclusively from the mother. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Transcription
  • Gene expression usually involves transcription of DNA into messenger RNA and translation of mRNA into protein. (nih.gov)
  • and it is one of several sites for recognition and binding of regulatory proteins called transcription factors. (fao.org)
  • molecules
  • DNA and RNA molecules are each written in a language using four "letters" (four nucleotide bases), but the language used to construct proteins includes 20 "letters" (20 different amino acids). (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmid
  • Plasmid DNA vaccines are genetically engineered to contain a gene which encodes for an antigen or a protein produced by a pathogenic virus, bacterium or other parasite. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • We use transgenic fish in which gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are genetically tagged with green fluorescent protein for identification in the intact brain. (jove.com)
  • antigen
  • Whenever the blood of a person receives the foreign proteins (antigen) his blood plasma starts forming the antibodies in order to neutralize the foreign antigens. (studyadda.com)
  • Mutation
  • The impaired regulatory ability of TP5 persists for at least several generations after TP5 X chromosomes extracted from a long-term mutant Su(var)205 stock are made homozygous in the absence of the Su(var)205 mutation. (genetics.org)
  • Synthesis
  • classical genetics cloning codominance codon A series of three nucleotides in a coding region of a nucleid acid sequence which code for a particular amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boveri
  • Aided by the rediscovery at the start of the 1900s of Gregor Mendel's earlier work, Boveri was able to point out the connection between the rules of inheritance and the behaviour of the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • polypeptides
  • Each CODON specifies a particular amino acid to be selected, and the sequence of these, in the polypeptides formed, determines the nature of the protein (usually an ENZYME ) synthesized. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • structures
  • The terms chromosome and gene were used long before biologists really understood what these structures were. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Watson and Crick discovery made it possible to express biological concepts (such as the gene) and structures (such as the chromosome) in concrete chemical terms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Schleiden, Virchow and Bütschli were among the first scientists who recognized the structures now familiar as chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter region
  • In this video, we use a stable line of transgenic medaka in which TN-GnRH3 neurons express a transgene containing the promoter region of Gnrh3 linked to enhanced green fluorescent protein 7 to show you how to identify neurons and monitor their electrical activity in the whole brain preparation 6 . (jove.com)
  • pairs
  • The adenine-thymine rich hairpin loops of the Borrelia bacteria range in size from 5 kilobase pairs (kb) to over 200 kb and contain the genes responsible for producing a group of major surface proteins, or antigens, on the bacteria that allow it to evade the immune response of its infected host. (wikipedia.org)
  • By inspection through the microscope, he counted 24 pairs, which would mean 48 chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chromosomes of most bacteria, which some authors prefer to call genophores, can range in size from only 130,000 base pairs in the endosymbiotic bacteria Candidatus Hodgkinia cicadicola and Candidatus Tremblaya princeps, to more than 14,000,000 base pairs in the soil-dwelling bacterium Sorangium cellulosum. (wikipedia.org)