• mRNA
  • Viral DNA or RNA serves as the template for mRNA production. (issuu.com)
  • Since the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in working memory, and GAD67 and Zif268 mRNA levels are lower in the DLPFC of schizophrenic patients, this molecular alteration may account, at least in part, for the working memory impairments associated with the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • An element present within the virus RNA was hypothesized to govern viral tropism which tissues the virus infected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capillary leak syndrome is characterized by the escape of blood plasma through capillary walls, from the blood circulatory system to surrounding tissues, muscle compartments, organs or body cavities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmission occurs when healthy animals consume tainted tissues from others with the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In turn, consumption (by humans) of bovine-derived foodstuff which contained prion-contaminated tissues resulted in an outbreak of the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the 1990s and 2000s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH), also known as Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, uveomeningitis syndrome and uveomeningoencephalitic syndrome, is a multisystem disease of presumed autoimmune cause, that affects pigmented tissues, which have melanin. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Defining the enzymes involved in triglyceride biosynthesis and the cell biology underlying lipid storage in cells, as a way to understand obesity-related illnesses-such as heart disease and diabetes-at the cellular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prion Diseases
  • Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also known as prion diseases, are a group of progressive, invariably fatal, conditions that affect the brain (encephalopathies) and nervous system of many animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prion diseases of humans include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease-which has four main forms, the sporadic (sCJD), the hereditary/familiar (fCJD), the iatrogenic (iCJD) and the variant form (vCJD)-Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia, kuru, and the recently discovered variably protease-sensitive prionopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • envelope
  • The envelope (Env) proteins of primate lentiviruses interact sequentially with CD4 and a coreceptor to infect cells. (pnas.org)
  • 5. The envelope is the outer coating composed of a phospholipid bilayer, which is composed of viral-encoded glycoproteins and sometimes viralencoded matrix proteins. (issuu.com)
  • The M protein is associated both with the envelope and the RNP and may be the central protein of rhabdovirus assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • The mice began exhibiting symptoms of disease in their central nervous systems between 380 and 660 days after they were given the synthetic prion proteins. (scienceblog.com)
  • Eventually a triggering event such as a cross-reactive viral infection during a time of low vitamin D level will precipitate a large enough autoimmune attack that symptoms become very apparent and the person sees a neurologist. (thisisms.com)
  • In most people with MS (some have Primary Progressive MS), the second stage consists of well-defined attacks separated by periods of remission (R-R MS). New symptoms and disabilities often appear during an attack and many resolve during the following remission as the regulatory side of the immune system regains control. (thisisms.com)
  • While neurochemistry is mostly associated with the effects of neurotransmitters and similarly-functioning chemicals on neurons themselves, clinical neurochemistry relates these phenomena to system-wide symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This understanding of drug action in turn can be extrapolated to account for system-wide or clinical manifestations which are observed as symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite their diversity, diseases featuring lymphocytic pleocytosis share a number of symptoms, most notably headaches and neurological deficits. (wikipedia.org)
  • These conditions form a spectrum of diseases with overlapping signs and symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can result in a variety of symptoms, many of which are severe and can affect the skeleton, brain, skin, heart, and the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason, many symptoms of lysosomal storage diseases remain untreated by ERT, especially neurological symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prodromal phase may have no symptoms, or may mimic a non-specific viral infection, marked by flu-like symptoms that typically last for a few days. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • The abdomen, the central nervous system, and the organs (including the lungs) are typically spared, but the extravasation in the extremities is sufficiently massive to cause circulatory shock and compartment syndromes, with a dangerous hypotension (low blood pressure), hemoconcentration(thickening of the blood) and hypoalbuminemia (drop in albumin, a major protein) in the absence of other causes for such abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alzheimer's
  • The journal is dedicated to providing an open forum for original research that will expedite our fundamental understanding of Alzheimer's disease. (iospress.com)
  • Immunotherapies that target the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have shown promise in animal and human studies. (iospress.com)
  • One of the most prominent protein folding disorders is Alzheimer's disease (AD). (iospress.com)
  • Gladstone Institutes is an independent and nonprofit biomedical research organization whose focus is to better understand, prevent, treat and cure cardiovascular, viral and neurological conditions such as heart failure, HIV/AIDS and Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, the S.D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation helped launch the Center for Comprehensive Alzheimer's Disease Research, while the Roddenberry Foundation helped launch the Roddenberry Stem Cell Center for Biology and Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • These abnormal proteins appear to convert other, normal prions to the abnormal shape. (scienceblog.com)
  • In autosomal recessive inheritance, two copies of an abnormal gene must be present in order for the disease to develop. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children who inherit only one abnormal copy of TPP2 will not develop TRIANGLE disease although they may have affected children, particularly if they marry within the family. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Many cases point to a viral infection as the root cause of pleocytosis, in which the immune system produces antibodies against neuronal and vascular antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been proposed that this early spike in lymphocytic concentration is the result of the breaching of the blood-brain barrier during the initial viral infection, giving peripheral antibodies access to the central nervous system and leading to the development of autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Over time, mutations in the viral Env protein can accrue that alter coreceptor dependence and therefore viral tropism. (pnas.org)
  • Mutations in the SMPD1 gene cause Niemann-Pick disease types A and B. They produce a deficiency in the activity of the lysosomal enzyme acid sphingomyelinase, that breaks down the lipid sphingomyelin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in NPC1 or NPC2 cause Niemann-Pick disease, type C (NPC), which affects a protein used to transport lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • TRIANGLE disease is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene TPP2, which stands for tripeptidyl peptidase II. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • There are still no cases reported in Michigan and no evidence has been found linking the disease to humans. (wilx.com)
  • Instead, they are a type of protein normally found within cells in humans and other organisms. (scienceblog.com)
  • Many scientists now believe this conversion process leads to several dementing diseases in humans, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. (scienceblog.com)
  • Endogenous viral elements homologous to the nucleoprotein gene of BoDV-1 have been shown to exist in the genomes of several mammalian species, including humans and non-human primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans also can contract this disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was confirmed with the identification of a Kuru-like disease, called new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, in humans exposed to BSE. (wikipedia.org)
  • tropism
  • Depending on the overall context in which changes are made, alterations in V1 and V2 sequence alone sometimes can alter viral tropism and coreceptor use ( 14 - 18 ), as can changes in the V3 loop ( 11 , 19 - 23 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have monitored the evolution of coreceptor use over time in pig-tailed macaques infected with a simian HIV (SHIV) containing a X4 HIV-1 Env protein ( 35 - 37 ) and correlated this with changes in viral tropism and Env sequence. (pnas.org)
  • Surprisingly, we found that Env proteins derived from multiple SHIV isolates exclusively used CXCR4 as a coreceptor despite the fact that all SIV strains use CCR5 as a coreceptor regardless of tropism ( 30 - 32 , 38 - 40 ). (pnas.org)
  • albumin
  • In general, globular proteins and albumin are in lower concentration in ventricular CSF compared to lumbar or cisternal fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • copies
  • Niemann-Pick disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies, or both alleles of the gene, must be defective to cause the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Associated with the nucleocapsid are copies of P (phosphoprotein) and L (large) protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • innate
  • The CCP domain is found in many proteins of the complement system , a collection of blood and cell surface proteins that is a major primary defense and a clearance component of innate and adaptive immune responses. (virology.ws)
  • Metabolism
  • This disease involves dysfunctional metabolism of sphingolipids, which are fats found in cell membranes, so it is a kind of sphingolipidosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • fevers
  • It is a phenomenon most commonly witnessed in sepsis, and less frequently in autoimmune diseases, differentiation syndrome, engraftment syndrome, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, viral hemorrhagic fevers, and snakebite and ricin poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
  • scrapie
  • Early-20th-century experiments failed to show transmission of scrapie between animals, until extraordinary measures were taken such as the intra-ocular injection of infected nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • No direct link between scrapie and disease in man was suspected then or has been found since. (wikipedia.org)
  • Respiratory
  • A. Respiratory System 1. (issuu.com)
  • In 2008, Boehringer Ingelheim presented the results from more landmark trials in cardiovascular, respiratory and cerebrovascular diseases than any other pharmaceutical company. (boehringer-ingelheim.ca)
  • BVD infection results in a wide variety of clinical signs, due to its immunosuppressive effects, as well as having a direct effect on respiratory disease and fertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • autoimmune
  • In multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), autoaggressive T cells traffic into the CNS and induce disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a demyelinating inflammatory disease of the murine CNS, shares both neuropathological and clinical features with MS ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • During the long pre-clinical stage the immune system is gradually altered such that autoimmunity becomes less well controlled and the potential for more substantial autoimmune reactions increases. (thisisms.com)
  • In some diseases, an infection precipitates an autoimmune response, leading to increased lymphocyte levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disorders
  • Niemann-Pick disease (/niːmənˈpɪk/ nee-mən-PIK) is a group of inherited, severe metabolic disorders in which sphingomyelin accumulates in lysosomes in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Niemann-Pick diseases are a subgroup of lipid storage disorders called sphingolipidoses in which harmful quantities of fatty substances, or lipids, accumulate in the spleen, liver, lungs, bone marrow, and brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • After infection, equines may suddenly die or show progressive central nervous system disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • aberrant
  • Neurodegenerative foldopathies are characterized by aberrant folding of proteins leading to the intracellular and extracellular accumulation of insoluble misfolded proteins. (iospress.com)
  • bacteria
  • For the study, Dr. Prusiner and his colleagues produced prion protein fragments in bacteria, folded them into larger protein structures called amyloid fibrils, and then injected them into the brains of susceptible mice. (scienceblog.com)
  • lipid
  • This continuous flow into the venous system dilutes the concentration of larger, lipid-insoluble molecules penetrating the brain and CSF. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • One Env protein (Pnb5), which was isolated from a virus stock (SHIV KU-1 ), obtained from the cerebral spinal fluid of a pig-tailed macaque that developed severe CD4 T cell loss and AIDS ( 36 ), was remarkable for its ability to use CCR2b and to a lesser extent CCR3, STRL33, and APJ to infect cells. (pnas.org)
  • Infiltration of these pathogenic T cells into the CNS has been correlated with the expression of the chemokine IFN-inducible protein (IP)10/CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)10, a chemoattractant for activated T cells, and its receptor CXCR3, in the CNS of both MS patients and mice with EAE. (jimmunol.org)
  • EAE induced by immunization with 5 μg of MOGp35-55 resulted in more severe disease characterized by a greater number of CNS lesions and infiltrating mononuclear cells in IP-10-deficient mice compared with wild-type controls. (jimmunol.org)
  • Our data demonstrated that IP-10 was not required for the trafficking of pathogenic T cells into the CNS in EAE but played an unexpected role in determining the threshold of disease susceptibility in the periphery. (jimmunol.org)
  • Autoreactive T cells that enter the CNS are believed to be important initiators of the disease, controlling subsequent recruitment and activation of effector cells, such as macrophages. (jimmunol.org)
  • The viral infection results in the activation of immune cells which are sensitised to both the virus and to a protein in myelin, the substance that coats the axons in the central nervous system. (thisisms.com)
  • The occurrence of a low vitamin D level at this time ensures that the viral infection is not well controlled and this lack of control allows a substantial pool of memory immune cells to develop. (thisisms.com)
  • These memory immune cells, which are sensitised to the myelin protein as well as the virus, are basically an MS time bomb that most often explodes 20 - 30 years later. (thisisms.com)
  • Creating heart cells from skin samples of patients with many cardiovascular diseases, such as calcification of the aortic valve, to test the safety and efficacy of new or existing drugs to treat or prevent the conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also participate in transplant rejection, Graft-versus-host disease, and the killing of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increases in lymphocyte count are often accompanied by an increase in cerebrospinal protein concentrations in addition to pleocytosis of other types of white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though exact concentrations differ based on the specific disease, mild cases of lymphocytic pleocytosis are considered to begin when lymphocyte counts enter the range of 10-100 cells per mm3. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a lumbar puncture may return a WBC count within the normal range of 0-5 cells per µL, this does not rule out the possibility of a disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the resident macrophage cells, they act as the first and main form of active immune defence in the central nervous system (CNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Microglial cells are extremely plastic, and undergo a variety of structural changes based on location and system needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once inside the body the vector introduces the therapeutic gene into host cells, and the protein encoded by the newly inserted gene is then produced by the body's own cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulated by interleukin 23 (IL-23), T helper 17 cells and cytokines such as interleukin 17 (IL-17) appear to target proteins in the melanocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathological
  • Increased understanding of … the molecular mechanism underlying pathological transformation of tau protein has opened up the possibility of targeting misfolded tau for therapeutic purposes. (iospress.com)
  • virus
  • A Bayesian analysis of Borna disease virus 1 suggests that the current strains diversified ~300 years ago and that avian-host bornaviruses evolved considerably earlier than this. (wikipedia.org)
  • The speed with which the disease spreads depends on the subtype of the VEE virus and the density of mosquito populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infected equines develop an enormous quantity of virus in their circulatory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the majority of VEE outbreaks occur in Central and South America, the virus has potential to outbreak again in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Border disease virus (sheep) and classical swine fever virus (pigs) are other members of this genus that also cause significant financial loss to the livestock industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistently infected animals are the most important source of the virus, continuously excreting a viral load one thousand times that shed by acutely infected animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Joe Bauer of the Illinois Department of Natural Resources says officials will be at hunting check stations in 31 counties to collect tissue samples that will be tested for Chronic Wasting disease. (wifr.com)
  • The notochord releases extracellular molecules that affect the transformation of the overlying ectoderm into nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • sheep
  • In the 5th century BCE, Hippocrates described a disease like TSE in cattle and sheep, which he believed also occurred in man. (wikipedia.org)
  • absence
  • Tau belongs to a family of intrinsically disordered proteins that are characterized by the absence of a rigid three-dimensional structure in their natural environment. (iospress.com)