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  • BMAA
  • β-Methylamino-L-alanine, or BMAA, is a non-proteinogenic amino acid produced by cyanobacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • BMAA is a derivative of the amino acid alanine with a methylamino group on the side chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • BMAA can be misincorporated into nascent proteins in place of L-serine, possibly causing protein misfolding and aggregation, both hallmarks of tangle diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and Lewy body disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro research has shown that protein association of BMAA can be inhibited in presence of excess L-serine. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study performed in 2015 with vervets (Chlorocebus sabaeus) in St. Kitts, which are homozygous for the apoE4 gene (a condition which in humans is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease), found that vervets orally administered BMAA developed hallmark histopathology features of Alzheimer's Disease including amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangle accumulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, vervets that were co-administered BMAA with serine were found to have 70% less beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles than those administered BMAA alone, suggesting that serine may be protective against the neurotoxic effects of BMAA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sacks and Paul Alan Cox subsequently wrote that a local species of flying fox, which is now extinct due to overhunting, had been feeding on cycads and concentrating β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a known neurotoxin, in its body fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nostoc flagelliforme (fat choy), has no nutritional value, and also contains beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a toxic amino acid that could affect the normal functions of nerve cells and is linked to degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and dementia. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphate
  • The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) cofactor lies in and above the mouth of the alpha/beta barrel and is covalently linked via an aldimine linkage to a lysine residue, which is at the C terminus of the first beta-strand of the alpha/beta barrel. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • β-alanine can undergo a transanimation reaction with pyruvate to form malonate-semialdehyde and L-alanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The traditional mechanism attributed to an alanine racemase reaction is that of a two-base mechanism with a PLP-stabilized carbanion intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • buffer
  • In particular, when bound to β-alanine, the pKa value is 6.83, making this a very efficient intramuscular buffer. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscle
  • Your fast twitch muscle fibers -- as well as your general muscle health -- rely on adequate protein intake. (sfgate.com)
  • Protein makes up a significant portion of your muscle tissue, and your muscle cells must continually generate new protein to maintain themselves. (sfgate.com)
  • balanced diet
  • To best nourish your fast twitch muscles, follow a balanced diet rich in lean proteins, fresh produce, whole grains, legumes and healthy fats. (sfgate.com)
  • form
  • They include the 22 proteinogenic ("protein-building") amino acids, which combine into peptide chains ("polypeptides") to form the building-blocks of a vast array of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • serine
  • Universal protein resource accession number Q7LZE4 for "Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor taicotoxin" at UniProt. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Furthermore, because of the position of the beta amino group, β-alanine dipeptides are not incorporated into proteins, and thus can be stored at relatively high concentrations (millimolar). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • Luciferases are widely used in biotechnology, for microscopy and as reporter genes, for many of the same applications as fluorescent proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • human striated muscles express protein from the TPM1 (α-tropoomyosin), TPM2 (β-tropomyosin) and TPM3 (γ-tropomyosin) genes, with α-tropomyosin being the predominant isoform in striated muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase is firstly processed as a pro-protein or proenzyme, in which the transit peptide, whose role is to transport the enzyme to a specific organelle (in this case the mitochondria), comprises the first 39 amino acids (beginning with a methionine and ending with an alanine). (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • The protein contains a kinase domain located within its short N-terminaldomain and a long C-terminal tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kinase domain has some similarity to the MEKK protein kinase family. (wikipedia.org)
  • WNK1 activates the serum-and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase SGK1, leading to increased expression of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), which also promotes sodium re absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its dephosphorylated state, cMyBP-C binds predominantly to myosin S2 and brakes crossbridge formation, however, when phosphorylated in response to β-adrenergic stimulation through activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), it favours binding to actin, then accelerating crossbridge formation, enhancing force development and promoting relaxation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinases identified thus far to phosphorylate cMyBP-C in the M motif are PKA, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), ribosomal s6 kinase (RSK),protein kinase D (PKD), and protein kinase C (PKC). (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • The encoded protein binds to 11-cis retinal and is activated when light hits the retinal molecule. (genecards.org)
  • cMyBP-C is a myosin-associated protein that binds at 43 nm intervals along the myosin thick filament backbone, stretching for 200 nm on either side of the M-line within the crossbridge-bearing zone (C-region) of the A band in striated muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycine
  • As a member of the WNK family, the kinase's catalytic lysine residue is uniquely located in beta strand 2 of the glycine loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high glycine (and, to a lesser extent, alanine) content allows for tight packing of the sheets, which contributes to silk's rigid structure and tensile strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • Research suggests that taking a drink containing whey protein daily for 2 years does not improve bone density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. (webmd.com)
  • subunits
  • when the two subunits come together and interact, the protein forms a 'super-sandwich' (⍺-β-β-⍺-⍺-β-β-⍺) structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stoichiometry of these subunits is still to be verified, but ENaC is very likely to be a heterotrimeric protein like the recently analyzed acid-sensing ion channel 1 (ASIC1), which belongs to the same family. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Tropomysin is a flexible protein homodimer or heterodimer composed of two alpha-helical chains, which adopt a bent coiled coil conformation to wrap around the seven actin molecules in a functional unit of muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the fetal pancreas has functional beta cells by 14 to 24 weeks of gestation, the amount of insulin that is released into the bloodstream is relatively low. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Expression of mislocalized mutant syntaxin 3 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells leads to basolateral mistargeting of apical membrane proteins, disturbance of tight junction formation, and loss of ability to form an organized polarized epithelium. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that SNARE proteins contribute to the overall specificity of membrane trafficking in vivo, and that the polarity of syntaxin 3 is essential for epithelial cell polarization. (rupress.org)
  • These targeting signals are thought to be recognized in the TGN or endosomes, which leads to the sorting of cargo proteins into transport vesicles destined for the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
  • The blockage is caused by a "ball" of amino acids connected to the main protein by a string of residues on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • It belongs to the EHD protein family, a group of four membrane remodeling proteins related to the Dynamin superfamily of large GTPases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This domain is often related to the regulation of protein transport, sorting and membrane trafficking. (wikipedia.org)
  • triggers
  • Light-induced isomerization of 11-cis to all-trans retinal triggers a conformational change leading to G-protein activation and release of all-trans retinal. (genecards.org)
  • Acetylation
  • Other posttranslational modifications of cMyBP-C exist, which occur throughout the protein and are not thoroughly characterised yet, such as acetylation, citrullination, S-glutathiolation, S-nitrosylation and carbonylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • Pathology may begin when these amplify from a protein template, or seed, whose structure is unknown. (elifesciences.org)
  • It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elastases form a subfamily of serine proteases, characterized by a distinctive structure consisting of two beta barrel domains converging at the active site that hydrolyze amides and esters amongst many proteins in addition to elastin, a type of connective tissue that holds organs together. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary structure of a protein is related to which amino acids a protein is made of. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tertiary structure of a protein involves the domains it is formed of. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • This is a short domain that can be found at the beginning of a protein, also known as N-terminus, of many dynamins and EF-hand domain-containing proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is found in all of the EHD proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also been found that these EHD proteins bind to the Rab11-effector Rab11-FIP2 via EH-NPF interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, a coordinated role for EHD proteins and Rab11-FIP2 has been found in mediating endocytic recycling and concretely for EHD3, early endosome to ERC transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • The conversion of a protein from a monomer to a large, ordered multimer could occur by several mechanisms, but the first step probably involves the formation of a seed. (elifesciences.org)
  • addition
  • In addition, we compared two different selection markers, one based on antibiotic (erythromycin) resistance, and the other based on complementation selection using alanine racemase ( alr ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, unlike fluorescent proteins, luciferases do not require an external light source, but do require addition of luciferin, the consumable substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore
  • The FLP protein was thermolabile (denatured at elevated temperatures) and therefore was not useful in the mammalian model due to elevated body temperatures of these model systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • another
  • Aggregates form when individual proteins stick together in repetitive patterns, much like the way a single Lego block might attach to another identical one. (elifesciences.org)
  • cells
  • For instance, TAFIIs 105 is now encoded, a subunit of the TATA binding protein for RNA polymerase in ovarian follicle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the middle stage until term, the beta cells continue to increase in number until they reach an approximate 1:1 ratio with the alpha cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Some evidence shows that taking a specific whey protein extract daily for 8 weeks can reduce psoriasis symptoms. (webmd.com)
  • Some research shows that taking a specific whey protein supplement daily for 6 weeks can improve shortness of breath but not lung function or quality of life in people with COPD. (webmd.com)
  • Like all proteins, tau is built from a string of amino acids that folds into a specific shape. (elifesciences.org)
  • excited state
  • Light emission in some bioluminescent bacteria utilizes 'antenna' such as 'lumazine protein' to accept the energy from the primary excited state on the luciferase, resulting in an excited lulnazine chromophore which emits light that is of a shorter wavelength (more blue), while in others use a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) with FMN as the chromophore and emits light that is red-shifted relative to that from luciferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • domain
  • Dinoflagellate luciferase is a multi-domain protein, consisting of an N-terminal domain, and three catalytic domains, each of which preceded by a helical bundle domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal domain is conserved between dinoflagellate luciferase and luciferin binding proteins (LBPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • In plants, there are two distinguishable groups in regard to substrate specificity: those with high hydrolytic activity towards arylacetonitriles and those with high activity towards β-cyano-ʟ-alanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse transgenic studies in which the phosphorylation site in α-tropomyosin is mutated to Alanine have shown that phosphorylation may function to modulate tropomyosin polymerization, head-to-tail interactions between adjacent tropomyosin molecules, cooperativity, myosin ATPase activity, and the cardiac response to stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • Targeting information is usually present in the cargo proteins themselves. (rupress.org)
  • Fibroin is an insoluble protein present in silk created by spiders, the larvae of Bombyx mori, other moth genera such as Antheraea, Cricula, Samia and Gonometa, and numerous other insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • Research shows that infants who consume whey protein by mouth during the first 3-12 months of life have a lower risk of developing red, itchy skin by the age of 3 years. (webmd.com)
  • Research shows that infants who consume whey protein by mouth during the first 3-12 months of life are less likely to be prone to allergies and allergic reactions compared to infants who receive standard formula. (webmd.com)
  • Some research shows that taking whey protein by mouth can help decrease weight loss in people with HIV. (webmd.com)
  • Other research suggests that taking whey protein supplements does not improve lung function, muscle function, or exercise in people with COPD. (webmd.com)
  • Most research suggests that taking whey protein alone, along with dietary changes, or while following an exercise plan does not seem to further reduce weight for overweight and obese adults. (webmd.com)