• cell membrane
  • The cell membrane is composed of proteins and lipids, and this structure provides properties essential for physiological cell function such as deformability and stability while traversing the circulatory system and specifically the capillary network. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammatory
  • The field of vaccination is now rapidly expanding to encompass a new class of vaccines (i.e., the tolerogenic vaccines) that induce immunological tolerance to alleviate the inflammatory autoimmune diseases as well as other inflammatory diseases of metabolism, neurodegeneration, allergic hypersensitivity, and transplantation rejection. (advancedrejuvenationinstitute.com)
  • For example, some diseases like Susac's syndrome (MS has an important vascular component), leukoaraiosis, myalgic encephalomyelitis (aka chronic fatigue syndrome) or autoimmune variants of peripheral neuropathies like Guillain-Barré syndrome or progressive inflammatory neuropathy could be included assuming the autoimmune model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caselli RJ in 1999 reported five patients, age 54 to 80 years, presented between 3 weeks and 18 months after symptomatic onset of progressive cognitive decline, psychosis, and unsteady gait that proved to be due to a steroid-responsive nonvasculitic autoimmune inflammatory meningoencephalitic syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • GFAP
  • There are also multipotent progenitors in subependymal tissue that express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and generate progeny cells that migrate towards sites of injury after trauma or stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • The development of sensitive immunochemical diagnosis for three autoimmune neurological diseases ( MG, NMO and LEMS ). (pasteur.gr)
  • Diagnosis of autoimmune encephalopathy is based on the clinical course, serologic evidence of autoimmunity, severe but nonspecific slowing on electroencephalography, and evidence of intrathecal inflammation in the cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging by MRI. (wikipedia.org)
  • astrocytes
  • Aquaporin-4 is highly expressed in the human body primarily at the end-feet of astrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Anti-AQP positive variants, CNS astrocytes, which are the basis for the glymphatic system are the target of the autoimmune attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these cases, astrocytes are the victims of the autoimmune attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aquaporin 4 is found in the astrocytes that surround the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a system responsible for preventing substances in the blood from crossing into the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insults to neurons in the central nervous system caused by infection, trauma, ischemia, stroke, autoimmune responses, or other neurodegenerative diseases may cause reactive astrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myelitis
  • Glial fibrillary acidic protein IgG related myelitis: characterisation and comparison with aquaporin-4-IgG myelitis. (mayo.edu)
  • Trident sign trumps Aquaporin-4-IgG ELISA in diagnostic value in a case of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. (mayo.edu)
  • paraneoplastic
  • Suggested mechanisms that may trigger AIE include tumors (paraneoplastic), infections (parainfectious), or it may be cryptogenic 4 . (scielo.br)
  • Autoimmune and Paraneoplastic Myelopathies. (mayo.edu)
  • The diseases are not invariably cancer-related and are therefore different from the classical paraneoplastic neurological diseases that are associated with, but not caused by, Abs to intracellular proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • pores
  • Ion channels may be classified by the nature of their gating, the species of ions passing through those gates, the number of gates (pores) and localization of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Th1 cells produce cytokines (interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2, tumour-necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and lymphotoxin) that are commonly associated with cell-mediated immune responses against intracellular pathogens, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, and induction of organ-specific autoimmune diseases. (jove.com)
  • water
  • There also is lipid/protein bilayer that protects against water-soluble substances, an enzymatic barrier that removes unwanted peptides and other small molecules, and efflux pumps that transport certain molecules back into the blood that have passed into the brain. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The cell membranes of a variety of different bacteria, fungi, animal and plant cells contain aquaporins through which water can flow more rapidly into and out of the cell than by diffusing through the phospholipid bilayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1990, Verkman's experiments demonstrated functional expression of water channels, indicating that water channels are effectively proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • However the first report of protein-mediated water transport through membranes was by Gheorghe Benga in 1986, prior to Agre's first publication on the topic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water moves through cells in an organized way, most rapidly in tissues that have aquaporin water channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • Typically, NMO has a worse outcome than MS, with frequent and early relapses ( 4 , 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • patients
  • therefore, a careful neurological evaluation is usually recommended in the global assessment of SS patients [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • barrier
  • Other substances that are necessary for the metabolic activities of the brain, such as glucose for energy, oxygen for respiration, and amino acids for building proteins, are allowed to pass through this barrier. (newworldencyclopedia.org)