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  • gene
  • It is now clearly established that AMP-activated protein kinase in the liver decreases glycolytic/lipogenic gene expression as well as genes involved in hepatic glucose production. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Biol
  • I have started measuring in-situ Protein Kinase C activity in permeabilized cells grown in 96-well plates, based on a few references from the literature such as: Heasley L.E., J.Biol.Chem. (bio.net)
  • Substrates
  • While the catalytic domain of these kinases is highly conserved , the sequence variation that is observed in the kinome (the subset of genes in the genome that encode kinases) provides for recognition of distinct substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated Akt can then go on to activate or deactivate its myriad substrates (e.g. mTOR) via its kinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. ROCK is a key regulator of actin organization and thus a regulator of cell migration as follows: Different substrates can be phosphorylated by ROCKs, including LIM kinase, myosin light chain (MLC) and MLC phosphatase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because MAP2 kinases display very little activity on substrates other than their cognate MAPK, classical MAPK pathways form multi-tiered, but relatively linear pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • Most kinases are inhibited by a pseudosubstrate that binds to the kinase like a real substrate but lacks the amino acid to be phosphorylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once released from their inhibitory Regulatory subunit, the catalytic subunits can go on to phosphorylate a huge number of other proteins in the minimal substrate context Arg-Arg-X-Ser/Thr. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus in both cases, ROCK activation by Rho induces the formation of actin stress fibers, actin filament bundles of opposing polarity, containing myosin II, tropomyosin, caldesmon and MLC-kinase, and consequently of focal contacts, which are immature integrin-based adhesion points with the extracellular substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. Other ROCK targets NHE1 (a sodium hydrogen exchanger, involved in focal adhesions and actin organisation) intermediate filament proteins: Vimentin, GFAP (glial fibrillaric acidic protein), NF-L (neurofilament L protein) F-actin binding proteins: Adducin, EF-1α (elongation factor, translation co-factor), MARCKS (myristylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate), Caponin (unknown function), and ERM (involved in linkage of the actin cytoskelton to the plasma membrane). (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • As key components of many cell signaling pathways, protein kinases are implicated in a broad variety of diseases, including cancers and neurodegenerative conditions, and offer considerable potential as tractable targets for therapeutic intervention. (springer.com)
  • Akt1 is also able to induce protein synthesis pathways, and is therefore a key signaling protein in the cellular pathways that lead to skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and general tissue growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In comparison to the three-tiered classical MAPK pathways, some atypical MAP kinases appear to have a more ancient, two-tiered system. (wikipedia.org)
  • As mentioned above, MAPKs typically form multi-tiered pathways, receiving input several levels above the actual MAP kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • downstream effector
  • Besides being a downstream effector of PI 3-kinases, Akt can also be activated in a PI 3-kinase-independent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • ROCK plays a role in a wide range of different cellular phenomena, as ROCK is a downstream effector protein of the small GTPase Rho, which is one of the major regulators of the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of the similar gene in rat suggested that this kinase may act as a downstream effector of Cdc42 in cytoskeletal reorganization. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPK
  • CMGC - containing CDK, MAPK, GSK3 and CLK kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] MAPKs belong to the CMGC (CDK/MAPK/GSK3/CLK) kinase group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since removal of either phosphate groups will greatly reduce MAPK activity, essentially abolishing signaling, some tyrosine phosphatases are also involved in inactivating MAP kinases (e.g. the phosphatases HePTP, STEP and PTPRR in mammals). (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor
  • For example, PI 3-kinases may be activated by a G protein coupled receptor or receptor tyrosine kinase such as the insulin receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • PKR contributes to this response by interacting with several inflammatory kinases such as IKK, JNK, ElF2α, insulin receptor and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • This Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, migration and immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • To inhibit SFKs, CSK is then recruited to the plasma membrane via binding to transmembrane proteins or adapter proteins located near the plasma membrane and ultimately suppresses signaling through various surface receptors, including T-cell receptor (TCR) and B-cell receptor (BCR) by phosphorylating and maintaining inactive several effector molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Similar to the SAPK/JNK pathway, p38 MAP kinase is activated by a variety of cellular stresses including osmotic shock, inflammatory cytokines, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), Ultraviolet light, and growth factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • 1 demonstrated that the potent tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) could stimulate protein kinase C activity, protein kinase C caught the attention of many scientists and has resulted in a vast and ever-growing literature on the role of protein kinase C in numerous biologic processes induced by TPA. (springer.com)
  • The chemical activity of a kinase involves transferring a phosphate group from a nucleoside triphosphate (usually ATP) and covalently attaching it to specific amino acids with a free hydroxyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because protein kinases have profound effects on a cell, their activity is highly regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activity of these protein kinases can be regulated by specific events (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two major factors influence activity of MAP kinases: a) signals that activate transmembrane receptors (either natural ligands or crosslinking agents) and proteins associated with them (mutations that simulate active state) b) signals that inactivate the phosphatases that restrict a given MAP kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this model, transient activation of kinase activity would occur in response to G protein second messengers, while longterm activation of DMPK could be mediated by a membrane associated protease that cleaves DMPK-1 to release cytosolic DMPK-2 in a persistently activated form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human genes encoding proteins with Tau-protein kinase activity include: BRSK1 BRSK2 GSK3A GSK3B Ishiguro K, Ihara Y, Uchida T, Imahori K (September 1988). (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein product of Proto-oncogene RAS can increase activity of p38, and thereby cause excessively high activity of transcription factor NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. Other functions and targets RhoA-GTP stimulates the phospholipid phosphatase activity of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue), a human tumor suppressor protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pro-apoptotic protease, caspase 3, activates ROCK kinase activity by cleaving the C-terminal PH domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • In situations of viral infection, the dsRNA created by viral replication and gene expression binds to the N-terminal domain, activating the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • domain
  • All PKCs contain a C-terminal kinase domain and an N-terminal regulatory domain. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Similar to Src, it contains an SH2 domain, an SH3 domain and the tyrosine kinase domain (SH1, Src homology 1 domain). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The protein kinase domain is a structurally conserved protein domain containing the catalytic function of protein kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The affinity of dimerisation suggested that the kinase domain alone is insufficient for dimerisation in vivo and that the coiled-coil domains are required for stable dimer formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conserved hydrophobic motif at the C-terminal extension of the kinase domain is bound to the N-terminal lobe of the kinase domain, despite being unphosphorylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Akt possesses a protein domain known as a PH domain, or Pleckstrin Homology domain, named after Pleckstrin, the protein in which it was first discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • PKR contains an N-terminal dsRNA binding domain (dsRBD) and a C-terminal kinase domain, that gives it pro-apoptotic (cell-killing) functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein contains a Cdc42/Rac-binding p21 binding domain resembling that of PAK kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kinase domain of this protein is most closely related to that of myotonic dystrophy kinase-related ROK. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoforms
  • Data obtained by using antibodies that detect specific isoforms of DMPK indicate that the most abundant isoform of DMPK is an 80-kDa protein expressed almost exclusively in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • CATH is a hierarchical classification of protein model structures. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database is a largely manual classification of protein structural domains based on similarities of their amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • It also appears to regulate the production and function of important structures inside muscle cells by interacting with other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Broad in its range of techniques and thoroughly detailed to help ensure experimental success, Protein Kinase Protocols offers both novice and experienced investigators powerful tools for understanding the functional roles of specific protein kinases within signaling cascades and for identification and evaluation of novel therapeutic targets. (springer.com)
  • Protein kinase C, epsilon is a novel type of protein kinase C (nPKC). (ebi.ac.uk)