• monolayers
  • C8:0 and C10:0 decreased the permeability of CA in Caco-2 cell monolayers. (deepdyve.com)
  • Using Caco-2 cell monolayers expressing CYP3A4, we investigated the interplay between metabolism and transport on the first-pass intestinal extraction of the immunosuppressant sirolimus, a CYP3A4/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate. (aspetjournals.org)
  • METHODS Caco-2 monolayers were preincubated with EGF, TGF-α, or vehicle before incubation with ROM (H 2 O 2 or HOCl). (bmj.com)
  • The correlation between the in vitro apparent permeability (P¬app) across Caco-2 monolayers and the in vivo fraction absorbed (fa) is well established.Transwell diagram This application of Caco-2 cells was pioneered in the late 1980s by Ismael Hidalgo, working in the laboratory of Ron Borchardt at the University of Kansas, and Tom Raub, who was at the Upjohn Company at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, considering that poor pharmacokinetic properties accounted for ~40% of drug failures in development in the early 1990s and only ~10% by 2009, an interval in which Caco-2 monolayers were widely used throughout the pharmaceutical industry to predict absorption, it is not unreasonable to attribute some of that shift to this simple yet powerful model. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • 2000. Dithiothreitol enhances Listeria monocytogenes mediated cell cytotoxicity. (purdue.edu)
  • In this study, we conjugated lanreotide to 1, 2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy (poly-(ethylene glycol))-2000] (PEG-DSPE), constructed active targeted micelles (lanreotide-PM), characterized their in vitro and in vivo targeting effect, and explored the receptor mediated transportion. (jove.com)
  • Fluparoxan shows high in vitro permeability in MCDK (Papp nm/s =2500) and Caco-2 (Papp nm/s =2000) cells which correlates well with the known high oral intestinal absorption (100%) in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Apart from the involvement of cellular GSH in proliferation, changes in the cellular GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) redox state (E h ) have been implicated in cell cycle responses such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. (physiology.org)
  • Cells undergoing apoptosis are further oxidized to between −170 mV and −165 mV ( 7 , 17 ). (physiology.org)
  • These findings suggest that as cells progress from proliferation through contact inhibition, differentiation, and finally apoptosis, there is a natural progression from a more reduced to a more oxidized E h . (physiology.org)
  • In vivo, more lanreotide-PM accumulated in SSTR2 high expression tumor xenografts, endocytosed by the tumor cells, induced more apoptosis of tumor cells, and suppressed tumor growth efficiently. (jove.com)
  • Apoptosis (programmed cell death). (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis is usually a mechanism of defense to infection, given that apoptotic cells eventually attract immune cells to remove them and the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, the Shigella effectors IpgD and OspG (a homolog of NleH) block apoptosis, the former by phosphorylating and stabilizing the double minute 2 protein (MDM2) which in turn leads to a block of NF-kB-induced apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In standard cells, loss or disruption of occludin and other tight junction proteins leads to initiation of apoptosis through extrinsic pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • ENPP7 may have important roles in preventing tumorigenesis in the intestinal tract, as ceramide, the product of sphingomyelin hydrolysis, can inhibit cell proliferation and stimulate cell differentiation and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • In the present study, we used an in vitro digestion/Caco 2 cell culture model as the guiding tool for breeding and development of two maize ( Zea mays L.) lines with contrasting Fe bioavailability (ie. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1994. A six-hour in vitro virulence assay for Listeria monocytogenes using myeloma and hybridoma cells from murine and human sources. (purdue.edu)
  • The present review summarizes the latest applications of in vitro and in vivo SILAC-based proteomics in identifying global proteome/phosphoproteome and genome-wide protein-protein interactions that contribute to oncogenesis, highlighting the recent advances in dissecting signaling dynamics in cancer. (jove.com)
  • Butyric acid and zinc effects were tested in an in vitro cell culture model to determine if any positive benefits could be detected. (kemin.com)
  • The Caco-2 monolayer is widely used across the pharmaceutical industry as an in vitro model of the human small intestinal mucosa to predict the absorption of orally administered drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell culture Drug development Pre-clinical development PAMPA - a non cell-based permeability assay Fogh J and Trempe G in Human Tumor Cells In Vitro (J. Fogh, ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • 2001. Lactate dehydrogenase release assay from vero cells to distinguish verotoxin producing Escherichia coli from non-verotoxin producing strains. (purdue.edu)
  • Metabolism
  • Nutrition & Metabolism (2018) 15:37 Page 2 of 12 Background Mice were fed a basal diet (AIN-93G diet, purchased The latest data from the World Health Organization re- from the Academy of Military Medical Science) during veal that cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), principally the first week for adaptation. (deepdyve.com)
  • They form 14-15 kDa proteins and are thought to participate in the uptake, intracellular metabolism and/or transport of long-chain fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases that catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids, and other lipids components. (wikipedia.org)
  • MDR1
  • 1. Relative concentrations of mRNAs for transporters (MDR1, MRP1 and MRP2) and a metabolic enzyme (CYP3A) in human enterocytes were about 12-, 3-, 7- and 8000-fold higher than in Caco-2 cells, respectively. (nii.ac.jp)
  • novel
  • Gram negative microbes are also suspected to deploy bacterial outer membrane vesicles to translocate effector proteins and virulence factors via a novel membrane vesicle trafficking secretory pathway, in order to modify their environment or attack/invade target cells, for example, at the host-pathogen interface. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • SREBP-2 gene or mature protein expression was not altered. (biochemj.org)
  • Liver X receptor (LXR) activation by T0901317 increased gene expression of SREBP-1c, SREBP-1a, FAS and acetyl-CoA carboxylase without altering SREBP-2. (biochemj.org)
  • Although only 18:2, 20:4, 20:5 and 22:6 suppressed SREBP-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and FAS expression, all fatty acids decreased the rate of fatty acid synthesis. (biochemj.org)
  • 1998. Unstable expression and thermal instability of species-specific cell surface epitope associated with 66-kilodalton antigen recognized by monoclonal antibody EM-7G1 within serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes grown in nonselective and selective broths. (purdue.edu)
  • mRNA isoforms of trypsin ( PRSS1 , 2 and 3 ) were detected by reverse transcription-PCR, and trypsin-3 protein expression was studied by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. (bmj.com)
  • Expression levels of HCN2 and HCN4 channel mRNAs and proteins were measured in the sinoatrial node, atrium, and pulmonary veins by real-time PCR and Western blotting. (jove.com)
  • Expression levels of HCN2 and HCN4 channel mRNAs and proteins were lower in the sinoatrial node but higher in the atrium and pulmonary veins of aged dogs. (jove.com)
  • There was a reversal in the local tissue distribution of HCN2 and HCN4 channel mRNA and protein, a decrease in sinoatrial node expression, and increase in atrial and pulmonary vein expression with age. (jove.com)
  • The uptake of lanreotide-PM was found to be related to the expression level of SSTR2 in different cell lines and the competitive inhibition phenomenon indicated that the cellular uptake of lanreotide-PM was via a receptor meditated mechanism. (jove.com)
  • Benefits of butyric acid for broilers and swine include the upregulation of the expression of tight junction proteins in the intestines 1,2 and increases antioxidant levels to promote healing in the GI tract. (kemin.com)
  • 9 Zinc increases the microbial diversity in the intestines 10 and similar to butyric acid, it upregulates the expression of tight junction proteins. (kemin.com)
  • The expression levels of mRNAs for transporters and a metabolic enzyme related to oral absorption in Caco-2 cells were quantitatively compared with those in human duodenal enterocytes using real time PCR method. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Alteration in mRNA expression levels of these proteins was also evaluated in Caco-2 cells during culture and passage. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In conclusion, Caco-2 cell lines showed the gene expression profiles of oral absorption related proteins closer to those of human normal colorectal tissue and colorectal adenocarcinoma, rather than human duodenal enterocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • DMT1 may be the major transporter of manganese across the blood brain barrier and expression of this protein in the nasal epithelium provides a route for direct absorption of metals into the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • DMT1 expression is found to be increased in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's patients and in the ventral mesencephalon of animal models intoxicated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) - a neurotoxin widely used experimentally to produce Parkinsonian symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, studies in which mice were deprived of occludin expression showed morphological stability in several epithelial tissues but also found chronic inflammation and hyperplasia in the gastric epithelium, calcification in the brain, testicular atrophy, loss of cytoplasmic granules in straited duct cells of salivary gland, and thinning of the compact bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies involving high levels of expression of occludin in cancer cells have shown that occludin mitigates several important cancer proliferation properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CYP3A4 protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum, and its expression is induced by glucocorticoids and some pharmacological agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Although M2 was formed from purified seco-rapamycin (20 μM) in the homogenates, it was not detected in cells when seco-rapamycin was added to the apical compartment, because seco-rapamycin was essentially impermeable to the apical membrane. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Sirolimus, seco-rapamycin (basolaterally dosed), and M2 were all actively secreted across the apical membrane, and secretion of each was inhibited by the P-gp inhibitor LY335979 [(2 R )-anti-5-{3-[4-(10,11-difluoromethanodibenzo-suber-5-yl)piperazin-1-yl]-2-hydroxypropoxy}quinoline trihydrochloride]. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Peripheral plasma membrane protein CASK is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASK gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the digestive tract, it is located on the apical membrane of enterocytes, where it carries out H+ coupled transport of divalent metal cations from the intestinal lumen into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occludin is a 65-kDa (522-amino acid polypeptide -human) integral plasma-membrane protein located at the tight junctions, described for the first time in 1993 by Shoichiro Tsukita. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sphingomyelin is a lipid constituent of cell membrane, and a dietary component being particularly abundant in milk, cheese, egg, and meat. (wikipedia.org)
  • TRANSPORTER
  • The divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), also known as natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 2 (NRAMP 2), and divalent cation transporter 1 (DCT1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC11A2 (solute carrier family 11, member 2) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • DMT1 represents a large family of orthologous metal ion transporter proteins that are highly conserved from bacteria to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • knockdown
  • PLEKHA7 knockdown studies in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells indicated its requirement for the AJ localization of paracingulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • CYP3A4
  • Modified Caco-2 cells metabolized [ 14 C]sirolimus to the predicted amounts of CYP3A4-mediated products based on CYP3A4 content, which was ∼20% of that measured in human small intestinal mucosal homogenate. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In humans, the CYP3A4 protein is encoded by the CYP3A4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • CYP3A4 promotes the growth of various types of human cancer cell lines in culture by producing (±)-14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids which stimulate these cells to grow, The cytochrome P450 is also reported to have fatty acid monooxgenase activity for metabolizing arachidonic acid to 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). (wikipedia.org)
  • tight junction
  • The protein encoded by this immunoglobulin superfamily gene member is an important regulator of tight junction assembly in epithelia. (wikipedia.org)
  • F11 receptor has been shown to interact with MLLT4, CASK and Tight junction protein 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nine domains are as follows: N-terminus domain (66 aa) transmembrane domain 1 (23 aa) extracellular loop 1 (46 aa) transmembrane domain 2 (25 aa) intracellular loop (10 aa) transmembrane domain 3 (25 aa) extracellular domain 2 (48 aa) transmembrane domain 4 (22 aa) C-terminus domain (257 aa) The C-terminus domain has been shown experimentally to be required for correct assembly of tight junction barrier function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occludin is an important protein in tight junction function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occludin has been shown to interact with Tight junction protein 2, YES1 and Tight junction protein 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Trypsin-3 was able to signal to human submucosal enteric neurons and mouse sensory neurons, and to induce visceral hypersensitivity in vivo, all by a protease-activated receptor-2-dependent mechanism. (bmj.com)
  • T cell-extrinsic CD18 attenuates antigen-dependent CD4+ T cell activation in vivo. (yale.edu)
  • Wu X, Lahiri A, Sarin R, Abraham C. T cell-extrinsic CD18 attenuates antigen-dependent CD4+ T cell activation in vivo. (yale.edu)
  • proliferation
  • The aim of this study was to determine the redox state of cellular GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) and Trx as a consequence of progression from proliferation to contact inhibition and spontaneous differentiation in colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells. (physiology.org)
  • A relationship between cellular GSH concentration and proliferation has been demonstrated in several studies, wherein GSH precursors or increasing cellular GSH has been found to enhance cell proliferation ( 2 , 16 , 39 ). (physiology.org)
  • Intestinal epithelium is maintained by continual cell proliferation, with a turnover of the entire epithelial layer every 4-6 days in humans. (physiology.org)
  • 2 Butyric acid increases epithelial proliferation 3 and host defense peptides, 4 while also reducing inflammation. (kemin.com)
  • They may also be responsible in the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • NOD2 regulates CXCR3-dependent CD8+ T cell accumulation in intestinal tissues with acute injury. (yale.edu)
  • Wu X, Lahiri A, Haines, GK III, Flavell RA, Abraham C. NOD2 regulates CXCR3-dependent CD8+ T cell accumulation in intestinal tissues with acute injury. (yale.edu)
  • interacts
  • It interacts with the transcription factor TBR1 and binds to several cell-surface proteins including amyloid precursor protein, neurexins and syndecans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-terminus also interacts with several cytoplasmic proteins of the junctional plaque and interacts with signaling molecules responsible for cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • Regulation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) by fatty acid flux was investigated in CaCo-2 cells. (biochemj.org)
  • Therefore, the measured 40-mV oxidation of the cellular GSH/GSSG couple or the 28-mV oxidation of the extracellular cysteine/cystine couple should be sufficient to function in signaling or regulation of differentiation in Caco-2 cells. (physiology.org)
  • considerable evidence demonstrates that redox signaling mechanisms function in cell regulation and growth control. (physiology.org)
  • Parallel regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 and the enzymes of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis but not ceramide synthesis in cultured human keratinocytes and murine epidermis. (nih.gov)
  • barrier
  • 1 2 Indeed, several intestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are characterised by abnormal mucosal barrier function. (bmj.com)
  • Tight junctions represent one mode of cell-to-cell adhesion in epithelial or endothelial cell sheets, forming continuous seals around cells and serving as a physical barrier to prevent solutes and water from passing freely through the paracellular space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligand
  • Pattern Recognition Receptor Signaling in Human Dendritic Cells is Enhanced by ICOS Ligand and Modulated by the Crohn's Disease ICOSLG Risk Allele. (yale.edu)
  • In addition, the encoded protein can act as (1) a receptor for reovirus, (2) a ligand for the integrin LFA1, involved in leukocyte transmigration, and (3) a platelet receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteomic analysis
  • Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomic analysis represents one of the most promising comparative quantitative methods that has been extensively employed in proteomic research. (jove.com)
  • molecular
  • Glutathione (GSH) is the major low molecular weight thiol in cells and plays a central role in controlling cellular thiol/disulfide redox state, which is essential for normal redox signaling ( 19 ). (physiology.org)
  • The encoded protein has 926 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 105,123 Daltons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract
  • Abstract Lanreotide is an octapeptide analog of endogenous somatostatin, specifically binding with tumors over-express somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2). (jove.com)
  • secretion
  • Bacterial effectors are proteins secreted by pathogenic bacteria into the cells of their host, usually using a type 3 secretion system (TTSS/T3SS), a type 4 secretion system (TFSS/T4SS) or a Type VI secretion system (T6SS). (wikipedia.org)
  • basolateral
  • In 2015, researchers discovered that PLEKHA7 recruits the so-called microprocessor complex (association of Drosha and DGCR8 proteins) to a growth-inhibiting site (apical zonula adherens) in epithelial cells instead of sites at basolateral areas of cell-cell contact containing tyrosine-phosphorylated p120 and active Src. (wikipedia.org)