• genes
  • It has been suggested that the pollen expression of pectate lyase genes might relate to a requirement for pectin degradation during pollen tube growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • But then genes coding for proteins homologous to those of the carboxysome shell were identified in the pdu (propanediol utilization) and eut (ethanolamine utilization) operons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the carboxysome, propanediol utilizing (PDU), and ethanolamine utilizing (EUT) BMCs encapsulate different enzymes and therefore have different functions, the genes encoding for the shell proteins are very similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the genes (coding for the shell proteins and the encapsulated enzymes) from experimentally characterized BMCs are located near one another in distinct genetic loci or operons. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • These proteins contain three structural motifs: a signal sequence, a passenger domain located at the N-terminal, and a translocator or autotransporter domain located at the C-terminal, forming a beta barrel structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the BMC shell is architecturally similar to many viral capsids, the shell proteins have not been found to have any structural or sequence homology to capsid proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, structural and sequence comparisons suggest that both BMC-H (and BMC-T) and BMC-P, most likely, have evolved from bona fide cellular proteins, namely, PII signaling protein and OB-fold domain-containing protein, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • deficiency
  • In addition, the lysine 48 residue which is mutated in patients with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency is also found to be necessary for substrate binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme is required for ketogenesis in the liver, and is also responsible for processing the amino acid leucine inside the mitochondrion Mutations in the HMGCL gene cause 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency (HMGCLD), a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by disruption of ketogenesis and L-leucine catabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in this gene are associated with isolated steroid-17α-hydroxylase deficiency, 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency, pseudohermaphroditism, and adrenal hyperplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • Left-handed) Steinbacher S, Seckler R, Miller S, Steipe B, Huber R and Reinemer P. (1994) "Crystal structure of P22 tailspike protein: interdigitated subunits in a thermostable trimer", Science, 265, 383-386. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BMC shell appears icosahedral or quasi-icosahedral, and is formed by (pseudo)hexameric and pentameric protein subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • UniProt
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • green fluores
  • Originally, a green fluorescent protein, mAG, was fused to hGem(1/110) and an orange fluorescent protein (mKO2) was fused to hCdt1(30/120). (wikipedia.org)
  • The green fluorescent protein is made during the S, G2, or M phase and degraded during the G0 or G1 phase, while the orange fluorescent protein is made during the G0 or G1 phase and destroyed during the S, G2, or M phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was a professor of chemistry and biochemistry at the University of California, San Diego and was awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, in collaboration with organic chemist Osamu Shimomura and neurobiologist Martin Chalfie. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2008, Tsien shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Osamu Shimomura and Martin Chalfie for "the green fluorescent protein: discovery, expression and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein. (uniprot.org)
  • This protein is involved in the pathway ubiquinone biosynthesis, which is part of Cofactor biosynthesis. (uniprot.org)
  • It has both 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities, and is a key enzyme in the steroidogenic pathway that produces progestins, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steroid
  • More specifically, CYP17A1 acts upon pregnenolone and progesterone to add a hydroxyl (-OH) group at carbon 17 of the steroid D ring (the hydroxylase activity), or acts upon 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone to split the side-chain off the steroid nucleus (the lyase activity). (wikipedia.org)
  • CYP17A1
  • CYP17A1 has both 17α-hydroxylase activity and 17,20-lyase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 17α-hydroxylase activity of CYP17A1 is required for the generation of glucocorticoids such as cortisol, but both the hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities of CYP17A1 are required for the production of androgenic and oestrogenic sex steroids by converting 17α-hydroxypregnenolone to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • Catalyzes both the 17-alpha-hydroxylation and the 17,20-lyase reaction. (uniprot.org)
  • The catalytic mechanism of the asparagine peptide lyases involves an asparagine residue acting as nucleophile to perform a nucleophilic elimination reaction, rather than hydrolysis, to catalyse the breaking of a peptide bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Timelines of GFP-development involved by Tsien: 1994: Tsien showed the mechanism that GFP chromophore is formed in a chemical reaction which requires oxygen but without help from the other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family
  • Polysaccharide Lyase Family 4. (uniprot.org)
  • Some of the proteins in this family are allergens. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically those carbon-oxygen lyases acting on polysaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family N1: The known autolytic cleavage is mediated by the nodavirus endopeptidase, from the C-terminus of the coat protein and only occurs within the assembled virion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family N8: The known autolytic cleavage is in poliovirus VP0 viral capsid protein into VP2 and Vp4 in the provirion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family N7: The known autolytic cleavage is from the N-terminus of the coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family N6 includes autoprocessing endopeptidases involved in type III protein secretion system, in which autoproteolysis is essential for mediating the secretion of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystal structures of proteins from the EutN/CcmL family (Pfam03319) have been solved and they typically form pentamers (BMC-P). The importance of the BMC-P proteins in shell formation seems to vary among the different BMCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the hydro-lyases, which cleave carbon-oxygen bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins in this family are monooxygenases that catalyze synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids and are involved in drug metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • These structures promote the protein self-transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • The crystal structures of a number of these proteins have been determined, showing that they assemble into cyclical hexamers, typically with a small pore in the center. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • The ten different families of asparagine peptide lyases are distributed in three different types: - Viral coat proteins - Autotransporter proteins - Intein-containing proteins There are five families of viral coat proteins (N1, N2, N8, N7 and N5), two families of autotransporter proteins (N6 and N4) and three families of intein-containing proteins (N9, N10 and N11). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are five families of viral coat proteins in which processing occurs at an asparagine residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • annotation
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein. (uniprot.org)
  • binds
  • p>This subsection of the 'Function' section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. (uniprot.org)
  • typically
  • BMCs are typically about 40-200 nanometers in diameter and are entirely made of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, the gene coding for a protein of interest is fused with the gene for a fluorescent protein, which causes the protein of interest to glow inside the cell when the cell is irradiated with ultraviolet light and allows microscopists to track its location in real time. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • The interaction between CO 2 and nitrogen levels imposed a significant impact on plant secondary metabolite production, protein, PAL activity and fructose levels. (mdpi.com)
  • PAL activity was noted to be highest under 1,200 µmol mol −1 CO 2 + 0 kg N ha −1 coinciding with subsequent recording of the lowest protein content. (mdpi.com)
  • The self-cleaving nature of asparagine peptide lyases contradicts the general definition of an enzyme given that the enzymatic activity destroys the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • All the proteolytic activity of the asparagine peptide lyases is only self-cleavages, then no further peptidase activity occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylation of P450c17 increases 17,20-lyase activity, while dephosphorylation virtually eliminates this activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • The results implied that the increase in plant secondary metabolites production under the tested conditions might be due to diversion of phenylalanine for protein synthesis to production of secondary metabolites. (mdpi.com)
  • Pectate lyase (EC 4.2.2.2) is an enzyme involved in the maceration and soft rotting of plant tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • contain
  • Other proteins that contain beta helices include the antifreeze proteins from the beetle Tenebrio molitor (right-handed) and from the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (left-handed), where regularly spaced threonines on the β-helices bind to the surface of ice crystals and inhibit their growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another subset of BMC-T proteins contain a [4Fe-4S] cluster, and may be involved in electron transport across the BMC shell. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • Type III secretion system secretes proteins directly into host cells by an injectisome, a hollow tubular structure that penetrates into the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A beta helix is a protein structure formed by the association of parallel beta strands in a helical pattern with either two or three faces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Introduction to Protein Structure 2nd ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Other protein-based compartments found in bacteria and archaea include encapsulin nanocompartments and gas vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • The MEROPS protease database includes the following ten families of asparagine peptide lyases, which are included in 6 different clans of proteases. (wikipedia.org)