• Phosphorylation
  • While the N-terminal ( IPR000867 , IGF binding protein domain), and the C-terminal ( IPR000716 , thyroglobulin type-1 repeat) domains are conserved across vertebrate species, the mid-region is highly variable with respect to protease cleavage sites and phosphorylation and glycosylation sites. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Phosphorylation has been reported on approximately 30 of these sites in normal tau proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID
  • The connecting region is cleaved, liberating the active protein, which contains the A and B chains, held together by 2 disulphide bonds [ PMID: 503234 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This region, comprised of Val49, Tyr50, Pro62 and Lys68-Leu75, forms a hydrophobic patch on the surface of the protein [ PMID: 9822601 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • kinase
  • In molecular biology, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) or classical MAP kinases are widely expressed protein kinase intracellular signalling molecules that are involved in functions including the regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The term, "extracellular signal-regulated kinases", is sometimes used as a synonym for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but has more recently been adopted for a specific subset of the mammalian MAPK family. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In the MAPK/ERK pathway, Ras activates c-Raf, followed by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (abbreviated as MKK, MEK, or MAP2K) and then MAPK1/2 (below). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) is also known as "extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2" (ERK2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Intrinsic
  • Intrinsic factor , a glycoprotein ( i.e., a complex compound containing both polysaccharide and protein components) with which vitamin B 1 2 ( cyanocobalamin ) must combine to be absorbed by the gut . (britannica.com)
  • Intrinsic factor is secreted by parietal cells of the gastric glands in the stomach , where it binds with the vitamin. (britannica.com)
  • Thus bound, intrinsic factor protects vitamin B 1 2 from digestion as it passes through the gastrointestinal tract and facilitates the vitamin's absorption in the ileum of the small intestine . (britannica.com)
  • A lack of intrinsic factor may result in inadequate absorption of the vitamin and cause pernicious anemia . (britannica.com)
  • The term intrinsic factor was coined in the late 1920s by the American physician William B. Castle, whose research into the cause of pernicious anemia indicated that two substances were involved: one that is produced in the body (intrinsic) and the other-an extrinsic factor, later identified as vitamin B 1 2 -that is supplied in the diet. (britannica.com)
  • The activation peptide is cleaved by factor IXa (in the intrinsic pathway), or by factor VIIa (in the extrinsic pathway). (abcam.com)
  • humans
  • In humans, IGFBPs are transcribed from the following seven genes: IGFBP1 IGFBP2 IGFBP3 IGFBP4 IGFBP5 IGFBP6 IGFBP7 Insulin-like growth factor receptor Kalus W, Zweckstetter M, Renner C, et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sas3 found in yeast is a homolog of MOZ (monocytic leukemia zinc finger protein), which is an oncogene found in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, these proteins are found mostly in neurons compared to non-neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible that this domain works as part of a complex with other regulator proteins (TRBP in humans, R2D2, Loqs in Drosophila) in order to effectively position the RNaseIII domains and thus control the specificity of the sRNA products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classification
  • MGI protein superfamily detail pages represent the protein classification set for a homeomorphic superfamily from the Protein Information Resource SuperFamily ( PIRSF ) site. (jax.org)
  • Despite this historical classification of HATs, some HAT proteins function in multiple complexes or locations and would thus not easily fit into a particular class. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Their work described the requirement for two protein factors to release ribosomes from mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several regions of the mRNA molecule are not translated into protein including the 5' cap, 5' untranslated region, 3' untranslated region, and the poly(A) tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poly(A) binding protein (PABP) binds to this tail, contributing to regulation of mRNA translation, stability, and export. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • Interactions are determined by geometric criteria as described in K. Stierand, M. Rarey (2010), Drawing the PDB: Protein-ligand complexes in two dimensions, ACS Med. (rcsb.org)
  • neurons
  • For instance,there are indications that both D1 and D2 receptors can trans-activate the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) receptor in neurons (Swift et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • 11. A biologically active tissue factor protein capable of being encoded by a polynucleotide as defined in claim 1 or a biologically active variant or fragment of said tissue factor protein which either lacks glycosylation, or has non-mammalian glycosylation. (epo.org)
  • tissue
  • I. European patent No 0 278 776 with the title 'Methods and deoxyribonucleic acid for the preparation of tissue factor protein' was granted with 26 claims based on European patent application No.88 301 190.0, claiming priority from US 13743 of 12 February 1987, from US 35409 of 7 April 1987 and from US 152698 of 5 February 1988. (epo.org)
  • Claims 4 to 8 were directed to methods for producing the tissue factor protein (TFP) encoded by the polynucleotide of claims 1 or 2. (epo.org)
  • Extrinsic tenase complex is made up of tissue factor, factor VII, and Ca2+ as an activating ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hypothesized that tissue transglutaminase may be involved in the formation of the protein aggregates that causes Huntington's disease, although it is most likely not required. (wikipedia.org)
  • histones
  • Research has emerged, since, to show that lysine acetylation and other posttranslational modifications of histones generate binding sites for specific protein-protein interaction domains, such as the acetyllysine-binding bromodomain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histones are proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antimicrobial peptide: Histones are conserved eukaryotic cationic proteins present in the cells and are involved in the antimicrobial activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • In studies at UC San Francisco of the frog embryo as a model system of cell development, Kirschner identified the first inducer of embryonic differentiation, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), an early finding in the field of signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • Approximately 98% of IGF-1 is always bound to one of six binding proteins (IGF-BP). (wikipedia.org)
  • A transglutaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of an isopeptide bond between a free amine group (e.g., protein- or peptide-bound lysine) and the acyl group at the end of the side chain of protein- or peptide-bound glutamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • cofactor
  • Understanding the process in which an electron is transferred in the protein adduct shows a more precise kinetic model of the FeMo cofactor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation of the FeMo cofactor from nitrogenase is done through centrifugal sedimentation of nitrogenase into the MoFe protein and the Fe protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FeMo cofactor is extracted by treating the MoFe protein with acids5. (wikipedia.org)
  • microtubules
  • Tau proteins (or τ proteins, after the Greek letter with that name) are proteins that stabilize microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathologies and dementias of the nervous system such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease are associated with tau proteins that have become defective and no longer stabilize microtubules properly. (wikipedia.org)
  • This contrasts with MAP6 (STOP) proteins in the proximal portions of axons, which, in essence, lock down the microtubules and MAP2 that stabilizes microtubules in dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Activated by factor XIIa (or XII), which cleaves each polypeptide after Arg-387 into the light chain, which contains the active site, and the heavy chain, which associates with high molecular weight (HMW) kininogen. (abcam.com)
  • Fibrin
  • Factor XIII is activated by thrombin and calcium ion to a transglutaminase that catalyzes the formation of gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysine cross-links between fibrin chains, thus stabilizing the fibrin clot. (abcam.com)
  • Cross-link in fibrin polymerized by factor 13: epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine. (wikipedia.org)