• 1912-1956
  • The Spanish colonisation of Morocco (1912-1956) shaped the photojournalist practices such that, a plethora of photographs were focusing on reaffirming Spain's Islamic past and portraying the ethnic, social and cultural ties of Spain to North Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The historical context of the time marked by the Spanish colonisation of Morocco (1912-1956) led to a cultural discourse that emphasised the ties of the Moroccan civilisation to Spain and explored the influences of Spain's Islamic past on Spanish culture and society. (wikipedia.org)
  • Berber
  • The military actions led to the exile of Rif independence leader Muhammad Ibn 'Abd al-Karim al-Khattabi, commonly known as Abd el-Krim, from Ajdir (in the Berber area of Morocco), a locus of the resistance movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Makhzen (Moroccan Arabic: لمخزن, Berber: Elmexzen / Eřmexzen) is the governing institution in Morocco and in pre-1957 Tunisia, centered on the king and consisting of royal notables, top-ranking military personnel, landowners, security service bosses, civil servants and other well-connected members of the establishment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Berber culture of Morocco, the Berber equivalent of "mekhzen" (warehouse) would be agadir. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hubert Lyautey, who served as resident-general of Morocco from 1912 until 1925 during the era of the protectorate, was a fervent proponent of indirect colonisation, especially in Berber-speaking areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doukkala (Berber languages: ⴷⴷⵓ ⴰⴽⴰⵍ,ddu Akal;Arabic: دكالة‎) is a natural region of Morocco made of fertile plains and forests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, "Doukkala" (idukalen) referred to a Berber tribe which occupied the territory from Anfa (Casablanca) to Asfi. (wikipedia.org)
  • spheres of influe
  • In his preface to Jürgen Osterhammel's Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview, Roger Tignor says, "For Osterhammel, the essence of colonialism is the existence of colonies, which are by definition governed differently from other territories such as protectorates or informal spheres of influence. (wikipedia.org)
  • colonial
  • Colonial protectors frequently decided to reshuffle several protectorates into a new, artificial unit without consulting the protectorates, a logic disrespectful of the theoretical duty of a protector to help maintain its protectorates' status and integrity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A similar case is the formal use of such terms as colony and protectorate for an amalgamation, convenient only for the colonizer or protector, of adjacent territories over which it held (de facto) sway by protective or "raw" colonial logic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from documenting the political and military context, the photojournalist trend of the time, that can be also referred to as colonial photography, involved the use of photographs of women and architecture as key visual representations of Spain's ethnic and cultural legacy and its' Islamic heritage. (wikipedia.org)
  • bilateral
  • A protectorate formally enters into the protection through a bilateral agreement with the protector, while international mandates are stewarded by the world community-representing body, with or without a de facto administering power. (wikipedia.org)
  • indirect
  • The protectorate was often reduced to a de facto condition similar to a colony, but using the pre-existing native state as an agent of indirect rule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally, a protectorate was established by or exercised by the other form of indirect rule: a chartered company, which becomes a de facto state in its European home state (but geographically overseas), allowed to be an independent country which has its own foreign policy and generally its own armed forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spanish
  • The term Spanish Question refers to the set of geopolitical and diplomatic circumstances that marked the relationship between Spain and the United Nations between 1945 and 1955, centered on the UN's refusal to admit Spain to the organization due to Francoist Spain's sympathy for the Axis powers, defeated in World War II. (wikipedia.org)
  • The next day the Spanish troops occupied Tangier, an international city that was incorporated in fact to the Spanish Protectorate of Morocco. (wikipedia.org)
  • Photojournalism explored the architectural similarities between main cities of the Spanish Protectorate, like Tétouan or Chefchaouen, and Spanish cities with prominent Islamic heritage, like Seville, Granada, Cordoba or Toledo. (wikipedia.org)
  • This "Green March" catalyzed the transfer of Spanish control of the territory to Morocco and Mauritania, enshrined in the tripartite Madrid Accords of 14 November 1975. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 1920
  • In 1927, Dámaso had been awarded the title of Count of Xauen for his military actions in the conquest of Xauen, North Morocco, in 1920. (wikipedia.org)
  • sultan
  • The adjective form of the word is "sultanic", and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate (سلطنة salṭanah). (wikipedia.org)
  • in Dubuque, Iowa (d. 2008) Mulai Abd-el-Hafid was acknowledged to be the rightful Sultan of Morocco by France and other European powers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Western Sahara
  • Morocco was on the defensive against highly motivated and tactically superior POLISARIO mobile units, which conducted a war of attrition against Moroccan forces within Western Sahara and southern Morocco. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Morocco responded by tripling the size of its armed forces to approximately 150,000, stationing more than half of them in Western Sahara, and conducting large-scale sweeps of its own. (encyclopedia.com)
  • and even though the status of the territory remains unresolved, all maps in Morocco show [[Western Sahara]] as an integrated part of the country. (wikitravel.org)
  • Spain
  • He was born in Madrid, the son of an officer who went on to become a General and the High Military Commissioner of Spain in Morocco. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 9 July 1915 to 27 January 1919, he served his first of two terms as High Commissioner of Spain in Morocco, the third registered since April 1913. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 11 July, 2002, Morocco stationed six gendarmes on Perejil Island, which was at the time a source of complaint by Spain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moroccan
  • Concurrently, Morocco poured hundreds of millions of dollars into the region, building schools, hospitals, and telecommunications facilities, staffed by tens of thousands of Moroccan civilians. (encyclopedia.com)
  • political
  • It discusses the distinction between colonialism and imperialism and states that "given the difficulty of consistently distinguishing between the two terms, this entry will use colonialism as a broad concept that refers to the project of European political domination from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries that ended with the national liberation movements of the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • POLISARIO's goal was to render the economic and political cost too great for Morocco to bear. (encyclopedia.com)
  • term
  • the term may also refer to the state, but this usage is increasingly rare and is primarily used by the older generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present, the term refers mainly to the latter. (wikipedia.org)
  • More broadly, the term Sephardim has today also come sometimes to refer to traditionally Eastern Jewish communities of West Asia and beyond who, although not having genealogical roots in the Jewish communities of Iberia, have adopted a Sephardic style of liturgy and Sephardic law and customs imparted to them by the Iberian Jewish exiles over the course of the last few centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • fact
  • In fact, protectorates were declared despite not being duly entered into by the traditional states supposedly being protected, or only by a party of dubious authority in those states. (wikipedia.org)
  • terms
  • Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In amical protection, the terms are often very favorable for the protectorate. (wikipedia.org)
  • British
  • Cape of Good Hope stamps were introduced to British Bechuanaland in 1895 but, conversely, British Bechuanaland types were retained for use in the neighbouring Bechuanaland Protectorate from 1890 to 1897. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • In practice, a protectorate often has direct foreign relations only with the protecting power, so other states must deal with it by approaching the protector. (wikipedia.org)
  • The city of '''[[Meknes]]''' is often called the 'Versailles of Morocco' for its beauty. (wikitravel.org)
  • remains
  • However, a state which remains under the protection of another state but still retains independence is known as a protected state and is different from protectorates. (wikipedia.org)
  • main
  • The main protagonists were Morocco, which claimed the territory as an integral part of its historical patrimony, and the Algerian-backed POLISARIO independence movement. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The main feature of this dialect is the heavy influence of the Jebli Arabic dialect of northern Morocco. (wikipedia.org)
  • year
  • Pre-Islamic poetry indicates that in the year 600 "Arab" referred to the Semitic-speaking tribes of the Arabian Peninsula. (encyclopedia.com)
  • word
  • Quranic usage and other Arabian sources suggest that the word referred primarily to the pastoral Bedouin tribes of the region. (encyclopedia.com)