• treaty
  • As part of the Treaty of Versailles the major part of German East Africa was handed over to British control but Ruanda-Urundi, twice the size of Belgium but only about 2% of the size of the Congo, was confirmed as a Belgian protectorate by a League of Nations mandate in 1924, later renewed as a United Nations Trust Territory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Belgian
  • By the time Belgian independence was universally recognized in 1839, most European powers already possessed colonies and protectorates outside Europe and had begun to form spheres of influence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Berber
  • The military actions led to the exile of Rif independence leader Muhammad Ibn 'Abd al-Karim al-Khattabi, commonly known as Abd el-Krim, from Ajdir (in the Berber area of Morocco), a locus of the resistance movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Makhzen (Moroccan Arabic: لمخزن, Berber: Elmexzen / Eřmexzen) is the governing institution in Morocco and in pre-1957 Tunisia, centered on the king and consisting of royal notables, top-ranking military personnel, landowners, security service bosses, civil servants and other well-connected members of the establishment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Berber culture of Morocco, the Berber equivalent of "mekhzen" (warehouse) would be agadir. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doukkala (Berber languages: ⴷⴷⵓ ⴰⴽⴰⵍ,ddu Akal;Arabic: دكالة‎) is a natural region of Morocco made of fertile plains and forests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, "Doukkala" (idukalen) referred to a Berber tribe which occupied the territory from Anfa (Casablanca) to Asfi. (wikipedia.org)
  • spheres of influe
  • In his preface to Jürgen Osterhammel's Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview, Roger Tignor says, "For Osterhammel, the essence of colonialism is the existence of colonies, which are by definition governed differently from other territories such as protectorates or informal spheres of influence. (wikipedia.org)
  • bilateral
  • A protectorate formally enters into the protection through a bilateral agreement with the protector, while international mandates are stewarded by the world community-representing body, with or without a de facto administering power. (wikipedia.org)
  • indirect
  • The protectorate was often reduced to a de facto condition similar to a colony, but using the pre-existing native state as an agent of indirect rule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally, a protectorate was established by or exercised by the other form of indirect rule: a chartered company, which becomes a de facto state in its European home state (but geographically overseas), allowed to be an independent country which has its own foreign policy and generally its own armed forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • geopolitical
  • The term Spanish Question refers to the set of geopolitical and diplomatic circumstances that marked the relationship between Spain and the United Nations between 1945 and 1955, centered on the UN's refusal to admit Spain to the organization due to Francoist Spain's sympathy for the Axis powers, defeated in World War II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Algeria 's patronage of POLISARIO was rooted in its larger geopolitical and ideological clash with Morocco. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 1920
  • In 1927, Dámaso had been awarded the title of Count of Xauen for his military actions in the conquest of Xauen, North Morocco, in 1920. (wikipedia.org)
  • Berbers
  • His family name was el Mezouari, from a title given an ancestor by Ismail Ibn Sharif in 1700, while El Glaoui refers to his chieftainship of the Glaoua (Glawa) tribe of the Berbers of southern Morocco, based at the Kasbah of Telouet in the High Atlas and at Marrakesh. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morocco is composed mainly of Arabs and Berbers or a mixture of the two. (wikitravel.org)
  • sultan
  • El Glaoui became head of the Glaoua upon the death of his elder brother, Si el-Madani, and as an ally of the French protectorate in Morocco, conspired with them in the overthrow of Sultan Mohammed V. Until the second half of the 20th century, Moroccan society was in a state of feudalism very close to that which pertained in Europe during medieval times. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adjective form of the word is "sultanic", and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate (سلطنة salṭanah). (wikipedia.org)
  • in Dubuque, Iowa (d. 2008) Mulai Abd-el-Hafid was acknowledged to be the rightful Sultan of Morocco by France and other European powers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Western Sahara
  • Morocco was on the defensive against highly motivated and tactically superior POLISARIO mobile units, which conducted a war of attrition against Moroccan forces within Western Sahara and southern Morocco. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Morocco responded by tripling the size of its armed forces to approximately 150,000, stationing more than half of them in Western Sahara, and conducting large-scale sweeps of its own. (encyclopedia.com)
  • and even though the status of the territory remains unresolved, all maps in Morocco show [[Western Sahara]] as an integrated part of the country. (wikitravel.org)
  • Morocco annexed much of the Western Sahara , a former territory of Spain, in 1975. (wikitravel.org)
  • Spain
  • He was born in Madrid, the son of an officer who went on to become a General and the High Military Commissioner of Spain in Morocco. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 9 July 1915 to 27 January 1919, he served his first of two terms as High Commissioner of Spain in Morocco, the third registered since April 1913. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 11 July, 2002, Morocco stationed six gendarmes on Perejil Island, which was at the time a source of complaint by Spain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arab
  • Pre-Islamic poetry indicates that in the year 600 "Arab" referred to the Semitic-speaking tribes of the Arabian Peninsula. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The foreign policy of independent Morocco has often differed from that of its Arab neighbours. (wikitravel.org)
  • Throughout the Cold War, Morocco generally sided with the western European powers and the United States rather than with the Eastern bloc, whereas other Arab states usually chose neutral or even pro-Soviet positions. (wikitravel.org)
  • Moroccan
  • Concurrently, Morocco poured hundreds of millions of dollars into the region, building schools, hospitals, and telecommunications facilities, staffed by tens of thousands of Moroccan civilians. (encyclopedia.com)
  • political
  • It discusses the distinction between colonialism and imperialism and states that "given the difficulty of consistently distinguishing between the two terms, this entry will use colonialism as a broad concept that refers to the project of European political domination from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries that ended with the national liberation movements of the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • POLISARIO's goal was to render the economic and political cost too great for Morocco to bear. (encyclopedia.com)
  • British
  • Cape of Good Hope stamps were introduced to British Bechuanaland in 1895 but, conversely, British Bechuanaland types were retained for use in the neighbouring Bechuanaland Protectorate from 1890 to 1897. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mauritania
  • This "Green March" catalyzed the transfer of Spanish control of the territory to Morocco and Mauritania, enshrined in the tripartite Madrid Accords of 14 November 1975. (encyclopedia.com)
  • remains
  • However, a state which remains under the protection of another state but still retains independence is known as a protected state and is different from protectorates. (wikipedia.org)
  • term
  • the term may also refer to the state, but this usage is increasingly rare and is primarily used by the older generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • terms
  • Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • European
  • Belgians tended to refer to their overseas possessions as "the colonies" rather than "the empire", as in some other European countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • this, however, may not constitute any real sacrifice, as the protectorate may not have been able to have similar use of them without the protector's strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • word
  • Quranic usage and other Arabian sources suggest that the word referred primarily to the pastoral Bedouin tribes of the region. (encyclopedia.com)