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  • penis
  • DHT is more concentrated than testosterone and is responsible for the formation of male genitalia, including the prostate, testes, and penis. (health911.com)
  • symptoms
  • The addition of a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor is effective in men with bothersome, moderate to severe BPH symptoms and a documented enlarged prostate when alpha-blocker monotherapy is not effective. (aafp.org)
  • levels
  • In a 1994 report published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , it was concluded that increased estradiol levels led to an enlarged prostate due to a rapid accumulation of cAMP, a common cellular messenger. (health911.com)
  • size
  • Finasteride, a 5-α reductase inhibitor, moderately reduced prostate size over 1 year. (acpjc.org)
  • DHT build-up has long been seen as a cause of BPH, however, there is growing concern in the medical community that DHT's role in prostate enlargement has been misunderstood and that DHT may potentially reduce the size of the prostate. (health911.com)
  • changes
  • Validation of our AR binding site data with transcript expression in vitro and in vivo suggests that the AR target genes we have identified in primary fibroblasts may contribute to clinically significant and biologically important AR-regulated changes in prostate tissue. (ox.ac.uk)
  • biopsy is performed
  • Clinical staging usually occurs before the first treatment and tumour presence is determined through imaging and rectal examination, while pathological staging is done after treatment once a biopsy is performed or the prostate is removed by looking at the cell types within the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • rectal
  • The doctor or nurse inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum and feels the prostate through the rectal wall for lumps or abnormal areas. (cancer.gov)
  • There are currently[update] two methods used: One is the digital rectal examination (DRE), in which the examiner inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum to examine the adjoining prostate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostate cancers detected by PSA screening are detected at an earlier stage and generally take longer to progress without treatment, as compared to cancers detected because of physical findings (abnormal digital rectal examination) and/or symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • biopsies
  • Vaccine site biopsies manifested infiltrates of dendritic cells and macrophages among prostate tumor vaccine cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the context of prostate disease this usually comprises regular PSA blood tests and prostate biopsies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The risk of disease progression and metastasis (spread of the cancer) may be increased, but this increase risk appears to be small if the program of surveillance is followed closely, generally including serial PSA assessments and repeat prostate biopsies every 1-2 years depending on the PSA trends. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • Cullen P.T. (1998) Prostate Disease. (springer.com)
  • Patient care activities are located in the adjacent Gordon and Leslie Diamond Health Care Centre and include a clinic and clinical trials centre as well as the Prostate Cancer Supportive Care Program Drs. Larry Goldenberg, Paul Rennie, Martin Gleave and Nick Bruchovsky founded the VPC (then called The Prostate Centre at VGH) in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998 St Vincent's and other support groups located throughout Australia formed the Association of Prostate Cancer Support Groups to act as their national representative with Australian Prostate Cancer Foundation providing the corporate structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • urethra
  • The prostate glands represent the modified wall of the proximal portion of the male urethra and arise by the 9th week of embryonic life in the development of the reproductive system. (wikipedia.org)
  • With laser prostate surgery a fiber optic cable pushed through the urethra is used to transmit lasers such as holmium-Nd:YAG high powered "red" or potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) "green" to vaporize the adenoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Previous researchers have established that ethnic differences in genes affect prostate tumors. (cancer.org)
  • Yamoah and his fellow researchers believe that genetic information in a prostate tumor may give hints about where the tumors are located, making them easier to find and biopsy. (cancer.org)
  • semen
  • The function of the prostate is to secrete a slightly alkaline fluid, milky or white in appearance, that in humans usually constitutes roughly 30% of the volume of semen along with spermatozoa and seminal vesicle fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prostate also contains some smooth muscles that help expel semen during ejaculation . (wikipedia.org)
  • died of prostate cancer
  • Hal Arkes presents the statistical case as follows: If there were two auditoriums each filled with 1,000 men, one filled with men who had taken PSA screening tests and the other with men who didn't take the test, there would be just as many men (8) "who died of prostate cancer in each auditorium, which leads us to think in the aggregate it didn't do any good. (wikipedia.org)
  • Watchful
  • In cases where the cancer is detected early, an approach called watchful waiting or active surveillance may be adopted if the cancer appears to be slow growing and is confined to a small area of the prostate. (news-medical.net)
  • Active surveillance (AS) or watchful waiting is a management option for localized prostate cancer that can be offered to appropriate patients who would also be candidates for aggressive local therapies (surgery and radiotherapy), with the intent to intervene if the disease progresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the prostate. (cancer.gov)
  • Just three years ago, newspapers were declaring prostate cancer the "hush-hush man-killer," "the silent enemy," and "the disease that dare not speak its name. (slate.com)
  • Tenderness is present in some patients, but this finding is seen in a similar proportion of patients without prostate disease. (springer.com)
  • IMPACT offers free disease-specific treatment to men with prostate cancer who have a low income or who are under- or uninsured. (cancer.org)
  • The exact cause of prostate cancer is not known, so at this time it is not possible to prevent most cases of the disease. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer include: older age, a family history of the disease, and race. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most people with prostate cancer do not end up dying from the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostate cancer can develop into a fatal, painful disease, but it can also develop so slowly that it will never cause problems during the man's lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • Men with prostate cancer may be characterized as low-, intermediate-, or high-risk for having/developing metastatic disease or dying of prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • PSA levels are monitored periodically (e.g., every 6-36 months) after treatment for prostate cancer - more frequently in patients with high-risk disease, less frequently in patients with lower-risk disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • September was first designated National Prostate Health Month by the American Foundation for Urological Disease (AFUD) in 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • The management of localized prostate cancer is controversial and men with localized disease diagnosed today often undergo treatments with significant side effects that will not improve overall health outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incidence and prevalence of prostate cancer increased with widespread PSA testing, as did the length of time that men live with their disease, as compared to the pre PSA era. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the evidence on the outcomes of men that are not treated for prostate cancer comes from those diagnosed in the era prior to PSA screening when the disease was diagnosed at a more advanced state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outcomes of men who are not treated for prostate cancer is dependent on cancer grade (the higher the grade the more aggressive), the life expectancy of the patient with the disease, and whether or not the cancer was detected through screening. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostate cancer remains a significant killer of men in Australia yet understanding about the disease is lacking in many sectors of the broader population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Men's Health
  • Men's Health Network maintains the Prostate Health Month website at http://www.prostatehealthmonth.com and the Prostate Cancer Awareness Month website at http://prostatecancerawarenessmonth.com which lists links to organizations that are actively promoting events and prostate cancer education during that month. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transurethral
  • Additionally, transurethral resection of the prostate is associated with a low risk of mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chief Editor: Edward David Kim, MD Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Medscape: Rassweiler J, Teber D, Kuntz R, Hofmann R (November 2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • rectum
  • The doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and feels the rectum, anus, and prostate (in males) to check for anything abnormal. (cancer.gov)
  • A procedure in which a probe that is about the size of a finger is inserted into the rectum to check the prostate. (cancer.gov)
  • An ultrasound probe is inserted into the rectum to check the prostate. (cancer.gov)
  • A probe that gives off radio waves is inserted into the rectum near the prostate. (cancer.gov)
  • On April 27, Larry King devoted an entire show to Giuliani's prostate-an hour that included Sam Donaldson describing how he examined his groin in the shower and King urging his male viewers to get a prostate exam, the "old-fashioned digital, the finger in the rectum. (slate.com)
  • This is a test performed by a nurse or doctor to feel for abnormalities of the prostate through the wall of the rectum. (news-medical.net)
  • A biopsy procedure with a higher rate of cancer detection is template prostate mapping (TPM) or transperineal template-guided mapping biopsy (TTMB), whereby typically 50 to 60 samples are taken of the prostate through the outer skin between the rectum and scrotum, to thoroughly sample and map the entire prostate, through a template with holes every 5mm, usually under a general or spinal anaesthetic. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Prostate Cancer UK (PCUK) has convened an independent panel of clinical experts across a broad range of disciplines to develop consensus statements on aspects of PSA testing where robust evidence is lacking. (www.gov.uk)
  • Prostate cancer stage can be assessed by either clinical or pathological staging methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical practice guidelines for prostate cancer screening vary and are controversial due to uncertainty as to whether the benefits of screening ultimately outweigh the risks of overdiagnosis and over treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • In a Phase I human gene therapy trial, eight immunocompetent prostate cancer (PCA) patients were treated with autologous, GM-CSF-secreting, irradiated tumor vaccines prepared from ex vivo retroviral transduction of surgically harvested cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When a cancer cell leaves the main tumor in the prostate and invades another organ, cancer spreads. (cancer.org)
  • Cancer Research
  • PCF's efforts and advocacy have helped produce a 20-fold increase in government funding for prostate cancer research. (wikipedia.org)
  • PCF set itself apart at its founding in 1993, when prostate cancer research was considered a dead end. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new model has turned prostate cancer research into one of the most vibrant and impactful fields of medical research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Jonathan Simons, a physician-scientist, medical oncologist, and leader in prostate cancer research is currently President, Chief Executive Officer, and David H. Koch Chair of the Foundation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citing a major lack of funding for prostate cancer research and roadblocks that existed within the grant application process, Milken created PCF to spur both private and government support in the field of research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the Prostate Cancer Foundation's unique funding structure, PCF funding has been a major part of some of the most significant discoveries in the field of prostate cancer research. (wikipedia.org)
  • To accelerate prostate cancer research and reduce red tape, PCF employs a "fast-track" awards process designed to maximize the time researchers spend searching for better treatments and a cure for prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1995 he persuaded fellow club members to join him in forming the Prostate Cancer Research Foundation to raise funds for research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the succeeding four years a number of eminent urologists, cancer research scientists, business leaders and representatives of Rotary joined the Prostate Cancer Research Foundation Board of Directors. (wikipedia.org)
  • They were successful in raising funds, some of which were distributed in the form of travelling scholarships for scientists working in prostate cancer research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1999 Prostate Cancer Research Foundation affiliated with the Cancer Society of Australia and then merged with the Australian Prostate Cancer Foundation based at St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the merger of Prostate Cancer Research Foundation and Australian Prostate Cancer Foundation in 1999, the name Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia was chosen to reflect the new organisation's widened agenda. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiotherapy
  • The team that manages patients with prostate cancer may be made up of multiple specialists including a urologist or specialist in urology, an oncologist or cancer specialist and a radiotherapist who specializes in radiotherapy techniques. (news-medical.net)
  • Under a general anaesthetic, the radioactive seeds are injected through fine needles directly into the prostate, so that the radiotherapy can destroy the cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • A study stated that prostate volume among patients with negative biopsy is related significantly with weight and height ( body mass index ), so it is necessary to control for weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Us Too Prostate Cancer Support Community connects patients, families, friends and caregivers to enhance the quality of life for all those affected by prostate cancer. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Since the expected harm relative to risk of death are perceived by patients as minimal, men found to have prostate cancer usually (up to 90% of cases) select to receive treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physicians are sent information on how NPHW can be used as a way to remind their patients about prostate health. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the meantime, active surveillance for the treatment of low risk prostate cancer is now being offered to more and more patients where it is generally considered that prostate cancer will not cause the man harm during his lifetime if treatment is delayed or avoided. (wikipedia.org)