• paranasal sinuses
  • Except for compressed air inju- A 33-year-old male patient was involved in a motor ries, the presence of air within the orbit implies a com- vehicle accident, he sustained multiple facial bone frac- munication between an air-containing cavity (the tures, cerebral concussion, and a fracture of the left hu- paranasal sinuses or the nose) and the orbit. (deepdyve.com)
  • paranasal sinuses or the nose) and the orbit. (deepdyve.com)
  • venous
  • This results in short-circuiting of the arterial blood into the venous system of the cavernous sinuses. (medscape.com)
  • As arterial blood under high pressure enters the cavernous sinus, the normal venous return to the cavernous sinus is impeded and this causes engorgement of the draining veins, manifesting most dramatically as a sudden engorgement and redness of the eye of the same side. (wikipedia.org)
  • CT scans classically show an enlarged superior ophthalmic vein, cavernous sinus enlargement ipsilateral (same side) as the abnormality and possibly diffuse enlargement of all the extraocular muscles resulting from venous engorgement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elevated pressure inside the cavernous sinus and alterations in venous drainage account for the observed clinical signs, including conjunctival injection, proptosis, decreased visual acuity, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), and cranial nerve palsies. (harvard.edu)
  • The pattern of venous drainage, either anterior into the ophthalmic veins or posterior into the petrosal sinuses, often dictates the clinical findings and radiographic appearance. (bmj.com)
  • symptoms
  • These fistulae usually have low rates of arterial blood flow and almost always produce symptoms and signs spontaneously, without any antecedent trauma or manipulation. (medscape.com)
  • occurs
  • In children proptosis occurs far more readily than in adults because the eyeball is more distensible and the size of the orbit in relation to that of the eyeball is smaller than in adults. (patient.info)
  • trauma
  • 1 Direct fistulas are high flow, frequently follow trauma, and tend to have a dramatic clinical presentation. (bmj.com)
  • inflammatory
  • Diabetics, individuals with compromised immune systems ( AIDS , cancer) and individuals with certain gastrointestinal diseases (Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease) are at increased risk of developing fistulas. (thefreedictionary.com)