• Prisoners
  • These periods of prison construction and reform produced major changes in the structure of prison systems and their missions, the responsibilities of federal and state agencies for administering and supervising them, as well as the legal and political status of prisoners themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, names such as the Human Rights Coalition, a 2001 group that aims to abolish prisons, and the California Coalition for Women Prisoners, a grassroots organization dedicated to dismantling the PIC, can all be added to the long list of organizations that desire a different form of justice system. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of December 31, 2010, the International Centre for Prison Studies (ICPS) at King's College London estimated 2,266,832 prisoners from a total population of 310.64 million as of this date (730 per 100,000 in 2010). (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2014 International Center for Prison Studies report stated that about 33% of all female prisoners in the world are held in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a September 2014 study by the International Center for Prison Studies, nearly a third of all female prisoners worldwide are incarcerated in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • This rapid boom of female prisoners is something the primarily male-dominated prison system was not structurally prepared for and, as a result, female prisons often lack the resources to accommodate the specific social, mental, healthcare needs of these women. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, women prisoners were imprisoned alongside men in "general population", where they were subject to sexual attacks and daily forms of degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, in a partial attempt to address these issues, women prisoners were removed from general population and housed separately, but then subject to neglect wherein they did not receive the same resources as men in prisons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Men usually worked in perimeter posts, such as gate posts, rather than having direct contact with female prisoners. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both acts integrated the workforce, and after the acts passed male employees gained increasingly direct contact with female prisoners. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some facilities, most of the prison guards are men: Silja Talvi, author of Women Behind Bars: The Crisis of Women in the U.S. Prison System, argued that in theory gender equality makes sense in all occupations, but in practice having male guards watch over female prisoners is problematic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Men make up the majority of prisoners in the United States, approximately ten times as many as women in 2013, the annual growth rate for women in 2004 was 7.5% compared to that of 5.7% for men. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the International Centre for Prison Studies, the rate for only sentenced prisoners is 120 per 100,000 (as of 2009) and the rate for prisoners including those in administrative detention and pre-trial detainees is 186 per 100,000 (as of 2009). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fannie Bay Gaol operated between from 1883 to 1979, initially housing male and female prisoners, including juveniles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In times of war, prisoners of war or detainees may be detained in military prisons or prisoner of war camps , and large groups of civilians might be imprisoned in internment camps . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Mamertine Prison was located within a sewer system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions, contaminated with human waste . (wikipedia.org)
  • custody
  • By order of any two of the Bridewell's governors, a person could be committed to the prison for a term of custody ranging from several weeks to several years. (wikipedia.org)
  • felons
  • Michelle Alexander states that many felons are not in prison but are instead on parole or probation and are unable to vote, get public housing or food stamps, and cannot obtain certain licenses for a variety of jobs. (wikipedia.org)
  • imprisonment
  • Imprisonment as a form of criminal punishment only became widespread in the United States just before the American Revolution, though penal incarceration efforts had been ongoing in England since as early as the 1500s, and prisons in the form of dungeons and various detention facilities had existed since long before then. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, since the early 1970s, the United States has engaged in a historically unprecedented expansion of its imprisonment systems at both the federal and state level. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the great majority of people have been tricked into believing in the efficacy of imprisonment, even though the historical record clearly demonstrates that prisons do not work. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decreasing terms of imprisonment by abolishing mandatory minimum sentencing Decreasing ethnic disparity in prison populations Prison condition reforms Crime prevention rather than punishment Abolition of specific programs which increase prison population, such as the prohibition of drugs (e.g., the American War on Drugs), gun control, prohibition of sex work, and alcohol restrictions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Australia is the exception where the rate of female imprisonment increased from 9.2 percent in 1991 to 15.3 percent in 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • The accused, an aboriginal woman, pled guilty to manslaughter for the killing of her common law husband and was sentenced to three years' imprisonment. (jdsupra.com)
  • punishment
  • Social justice and advocacy organizations such as Students Against Mass Incarceration (SAMI) at the University of California, San Diego often look to Scandinavian countries Sweden and Norway for guidance in regards to successful prison reform because both countries have an emphasis on rehabilitation rather than punishment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a third stage of development, women in prison were then housed completely separately in fortress-like prisons, where the goal of punishment was to indoctrinate women into traditional feminine roles. (wikipedia.org)
  • A system of criminal punishment for minors had existed in the Northern Territory since the territory's establishment in 1911. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Romans were among the first to use prisons as a form of punishment, rather than simply for detention. (wikipedia.org)
  • for it is one of the marked features of our times that [-81-] the old Common Jail is becoming as obsolete among us as bull-baiting, and that the one indiscriminate stronghold has been divided and parcelled out into many distinct places of durance, where the reformation of the offender obtains more consideration, perhaps, than even his punishment. (victorianlondon.org)
  • juvenile detention
  • The juvenile detention system is currently the subject of the Royal Commission into Juvenile Detention in the Northern Territory, established by Prime Minister of Australia Malcolm Turnbull on 28 July 2016, following the broadcast of the Four Corners episode "Australia's Shame", which highlighted the abuse of child in the system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, juvenile detention systems operated in the area of Northern Territory as early as settlement in the early 1860s, when the area was in control of the colony of New South Wales and shortly before control of the territory was handed over to South Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • detention center
  • The Wildman River Wilderness Work Camp was also established in 1987 as a male-only, long-term remand and sentenced detention center with a community service system based on the "Outward Bound" model of providing youths with a series of increasingly challenging tasks. (wikipedia.org)
  • offender
  • and we have, therefore, only so many vague terms - as 'Convict' Prisons (though, strictly, every offender - the misdemeanant as well as the transport - is after conviction a convict) and 'Houses of Correction', 'Houses of Detention, ' Bridewells, &c., to prevent us confounding one species of Criminal Prison with another. (victorianlondon.org)
  • local
  • The term jail tends to describe institutions for confining people for shorter periods of time (e.g. for shorter sentences or pre-trial detention ) and are usually operated by local governments. (wikipedia.org)
  • By midyear 1993, local jails employed an estimated 165,500 persons. (druglibrary.org)
  • people
  • It stratifies people by incapacitating them in prison, and making them unable to labor and contribute to society through their work. (wikipedia.org)
  • Critical Resistance, co-founded by Angela Davis and Ruth Wilson Gilmore, is an American organization working towards an "international movement to end the Prison Industrial Complex by challenging the belief that caging and controlling people makes us safe. (wikipedia.org)
  • It explains the many mental health disorders in such a way that people without a medical background can understand, points out the broken mental health system and describes the reasons why the mentally ill are incarcerated. (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • held
  • In 1973 Shakur was held in the Middlesex County Jail in New Jersey, supposedly due to its proximity to the courthouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • She was the first, and last, woman ever imprisoned there, and was held in deplorable conditions including isolation and twenty-four hour observation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in their report in 1973, Hawkins and Misner called for the establishment of a juvenile remand centre, and noted that juveniles could be held in gaol for up to a week before being transferred to Essington House. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3 ACKNOWLEDGMENT This monograph is based on the papers from a technical review on Drug Abuse Treatment in Prisons and Jails held on May 24-25, 1990, in Rockville, MD. The review meeting was sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. (docplayer.net)
  • report
  • A report released 28 February 2008, indicates that more than 1 in 100 adults in the United States are in prison. (wikipedia.org)
  • The data in this report are based on results from the 1993 Census of Jails and the 1994 Annual Survey of Jails. (druglibrary.org)
  • slavery
  • In many cases, citizens were sentenced to slavery , often in ergastula (a primitive form of prison where unruly slaves were chained to workbenches and performed hard labor). (wikipedia.org)
  • drug
  • Drug Abuse Treatment in Prisons and Jails. (docplayer.net)
  • 2 Drug Abuse Treatment in Prisons and Jails Editors: Carl G. Leukefeld, D.S.W. Frank M. Tims, Ph.D. NIDA Research Monograph U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Health Service Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration National Institute on Drug Abuse 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville, MD For sale by te U.S. Government Printing Office Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP. (docplayer.net)
  • During the 1970s it was pointed out that only about half the Nation s State prisons offered drug abuse treatment (Tims 1981), and only about one-quarter of all jails in the United States had any provision for treatment (Newman and Price 1976). (docplayer.net)
  • dramatically
  • These types of cases have dramatically overloaded the system and have caused law enforcement to take drastic measures to overcome what can only be called a dismal failure of the current systems. (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • American
  • When post-revolutionary prisons emerged in United States, they were, in Hirsch's words, not a "fundamental departure" from the former American colonies' intellectual past. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2008 New York Times article, said that "it is the length of sentences that truly distinguishes American prison policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In American English , prison and jail are usually treated as having separate definitions. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • a remarkable timeline of the treatment of mental illness in the past 40 years, and it's a triumphant account of her boldness as a mother, nurse, and woman. (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • Common
  • Join Martha Jefferson gastroenterologist Cynthia Yoshida for a discussion of digestive disorders common to women and learn how to prevent colon cancer. (readthehook.com)
  • often
  • As a result, the prison abolition movement often is associated with humanistic socialism, anarchism and anti-authoritarianism. (wikipedia.org)