• eukaryotes
  • In eukaryotes much of the nuclear DNA does not code for amino acids. (brainscape.com)
  • FtsZ, the first identified prokaryotic cytoskeletal element, forms a filamentous ring structure located in the middle of the cell called the Z-ring that constricts during cell division, similar to the actin-myosin contractile ring in eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Marine sediment slurries enriched for anaerobic, sulfate-reducing prokaryotic communities utilizing glucose and acetate were used to provide the first comparison between stable-isotope probing (SIP) of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and DNA (16S rRNA and dsrA genes) biomarkers. (wiley.com)
  • Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells both have deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the basis for their genes. (news-medical.net)
  • A prokaryotic cell is simpler and requires far fewer genes to function than the eukaryotic cell. (news-medical.net)
  • Understanding the behavior of mutation-prone genes may also give us a clearer picture as to how DNA has evolved over the aeons and what techniques it uses, prokaryote and eukaryote alike, to adapt to its environment. (scienceoveracuppa.com)
  • The EasyGene 1.2 server produces a list of predicted genes given a sequence of prokaryotic DNA. (dtu.dk)
  • In bioinformatics, GLIMMER (Gene Locator and Interpolated Markov ModelER) is used to find genes in prokaryotic DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parasite Trypanosoma brucei, responsible for causing African sleeping sickness is being identified by GLIMMER 2.0" Third version of GLIMMER, "GLIMMER 3.0" was released in 2007 and it was published in the paper Identifying bacterial genes and endosymbiont DNA with Glimmer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first studies that sampled DNA from multiple organisms used specific genes to assess diversity and origin of each sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmid
  • Goldstein E, Drlica K (1984) Regulation of bacterial DNA supercoiling: Plasmid linking numbers vary with growth temperature. (springer.com)
  • During cell division many plasmids are plagued with low copy numbers and thus evolved active segregation to avoid plasmid loss during cell division The process of this segregation is carried out by a small number of components, three to be exact, in the DNA, with incredible efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each repetition is followed by short segments of spacer DNA from previous exposures to foreign DNA (e.g., a virus or plasmid). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Gyrase has at least a 10-fold higher affinity for DNA containing REP sequences than for DNA not containing REP sequences. (nih.gov)
  • Binding effectiveness correlates directly with the number of REP sequences in the DNA. (nih.gov)
  • DNase I footprinting shows that gyrase protects 205 base pairs on a REP-containing DNA fragment enclosing the REP sequences. (nih.gov)
  • The 13 C-acetate-DNA 16S rRNA gene library also contained sequences closely related to SRB, but these were the acetate-utilizing Desulfobacter sp. (wiley.com)
  • The sequences contain snippets of DNA from viruses that have attacked the bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The organization of the repeats was unusual because repeated sequences are typically arranged consecutively along DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In theory, there are two types of palindromic sequences that can be possible in DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metagenomic studies sample DNA from the whole community, and make it available as nucleotide sequences of certain length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylopythia is one supervised classifier developed by researchers at IBM labs, and is basically a support vector machine trained with DNA-kmers from known sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differences
  • While a broad interpretation of this definition could be used to describe nearly any antibiotic, in practice, it usually refers to substances that act at the ribosome level (either the ribosome itself or the translation factor), taking advantages of the major differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosome structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • meanwhile, host DNA is protected by a modification enzyme (a methyltransferase) that modifies the prokaryotic DNA and blocks cleavage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1960s, it was shown in work done in the laboratories of Werner Arber and Matthew Meselson that the restriction is caused by an enzymatic cleavage of the phage DNA, and the enzyme involved was therefore termed a restriction enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to better understand the in vivo role of DNA pol I, E. coli mutants deficient in this enzyme (termed Pol A1−) were generated in 1969 by De Lucia and Cairns. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new polymerase was termed DNA polymerase II, and was believed to be the main replicative enzyme of E. coli for a time. (wikipedia.org)
  • While it might not be as fast as DNA Pol III, it has some abilities that make it an effective enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA Pol II is that it is a high fidelity enzyme with an error rate of substitution: ≤0.2*10-5 and -1 deletions: ≤ 0.1*10-5. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA Pol II is not the most studied polymerase so there are many proposed functions of this enzyme which are all likely functions but are ultimately unconfirmed. (wikipedia.org)
  • actin
  • This system uses actin-like filaments to push plasmids, small DNA molecules within a cell that are physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently, to opposite poles of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In other words, it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, cells have many ways of destroying foreign DNA that manages to enter it, and this all-infecting virus would have to evade all such mechanisms as well. (biology-online.org)
  • Finally, viruses do not really attack the DNA in cells anyway, even though some species can integrate into it. (biology-online.org)
  • Prokaryotic cells are the simplest and most anciet form of life. (coursehero.com)
  • The primary purpose of DNA is to store hereditary information within the cells of all living things. (reference.com)
  • The University of Illinois at Chicago explains that DNA must replicate itself so that during cell division, both daughter cells receive the same genetic in. (reference.com)
  • It was once thought that prokaryotic cells did not possess cytoskeletons, but advances in visualization technology and structure determination led to the discovery of filaments in these cells in the early 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • 1 γ unit (also dnaX) which acts as a clamp loader for the lagging strand Okazaki fragments, helping the two β subunits to form a unit and bind to DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, Daniel Nathans and Kathleen Danna showed that cleavage of simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA by restriction enzymes yields specific fragments that can be separated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, thus showing that restriction enzymes can also be used for mapping DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The physiological function of Pol I is mainly to repair any damage with DNA, but it also serves to connect Okazaki fragments by deleting RNA primers and replacing the strand with DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas, the DNA lagging strand runs discontinuously in the opposite direction as Okazaki fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • These site-specific deoxyribonucleases catalyse the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The identity of the major glucose-utilizers was unclear as 13 C-enriched PLFA were common (16:0, 16:1, 18:1ω7, highest incorporation) and there was little difference between 12 C- and 13 C-DNA 16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles. (wiley.com)
  • EasyGene - a prokaryotic gene finder that ranks ORFs by statistical significance. (dtu.dk)
  • DNA polymerase II (also known as DNA Pol II or Pol II) is a prokaryotic DNA-Dependent DNA polymerase encoded by the PolB gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • exonuclease activity
  • Pol I possesses four enzymatic activities: A 5'→3' (forward) DNA-Dependent DNA polymerase activity, requiring a 3' primer site and a template strand A 3'→5' (reverse) exonuclease activity that mediates proofreading A 5'→3' (forward) exonuclease activity mediating nick translation during DNA repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • The other members of group B do have at least one other subunit which makes the DNA Pol II unique. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus
  • DnaD alone and the DnaD/DnaB complex then interact with PriA of Bacillus subtilis at several DNA sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerases
  • A total of 15 human DNA polymerases have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA polymerases also cannot initiate DNA chains so they must be initiated by short RNA or DNA segments known as primers. (wikipedia.org)
  • First of all, all DNA polymerases must have both a template strand and a primer strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike RNA, DNA polymerases cannot synthesize DNA from a template strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondly, DNA polymerases can only add new nucleotides to the preexisting strand through hydrogen bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since all DNA polymerases have a similar structure, they all share a two-metal ion-catalyzed polymerase mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The X-ray structures of the polymerase domain of all DNA polymerases have been said to resemble that of a human's right hand. (wikipedia.org)
  • All DNA polymerases contain three domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many different ways that DNA can be damaged, from UV damage to oxidation, so it is logical that there are different types of polymerases to fix these damages. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • There the plasmids are segregated and can replicate without interference from the chromosomal DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process by which the plasmids are segregated from the chromosomal DNA is not an extremely complicated one and contains just three components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism
  • Bliska J, Cozzarelli N (1987) Use of site-specific recombination as a probe of DNA structure and metabolism in vivo. (springer.com)
  • mechanism
  • The catalytic mechanism of DNA polymerase III involves the use of two metal ions in the active site, and a region in the active site that can discriminate between deoxyribonucleotides and ribonucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • strand
  • It is hypothesized that DNA stretching by DnaA bound to the origin promotes strand separation which allows more DnaA to bind to the unwound region. (wikipedia.org)
  • The removal of the RNA primer allows DNA ligase to ligate the DNA-DNA nick between the new fragment and the previous strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • This "hand" closes around a strand of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • One important role that DNA Pol II is the major polymerase for is the repairing of inter-strand cross-links. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • DNA Pol II has a high quantity of copies in the cell, around 30-50, whereas the level of DNA Pol III in a cell is five times fewer. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Lecture 008 Summary - Lecture 008 Cell Division Prokaryotic. (coursehero.com)
  • It contains the DNA-related functions of the large cell in a smaller enclosure to ensure close proximity of materials and increased efficiency for cellular communication and functions. (news-medical.net)
  • The materials are already fairly close to each other and there is only a 'nucleoid' which is the central open region of the cell where the DNA is located. (news-medical.net)
  • Instead, a prokaryotic DNA is free-floating within the cell. (reference.com)
  • Next, they find the ParR and ParC that are headed to DNA molecules and push them to opposite poles of the cell in order to segregate them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without replicating its DNA, a cell cannot divide and share its genetic information to progeny. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroplasts, like mitochondria, contain their own DNA, which is thought to be inherited from their ancestor-a photosynthetic cyanobacterium that was engulfed by an early eukaryotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmids
  • The CRISPR/Cas system is a prokaryotic immune system that confers resistance to foreign genetic elements such as those present within plasmids and phages that provides a form of acquired immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • To initiate the purification of DNA Polymerase, the scientists added Streptomycin sulfate to the E. coli extract which created a precipitate that consisted of nucleic acid-free supernatant (S-fraction) and nucleic acid-containing precipitate (P-fraction). (wikipedia.org)
  • E. coli DNA Pol I consists of four domains with two separate enzymatic activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA Polymerase I was the first DNA-Directed DNA polymerase to be isolated from E. coli. (wikipedia.org)