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  • horizontal gene tra
  • The resulting alignments were scanned for genes specifically involved in fatty acid biosynthetic pathway I. Phylogenetic analysis of these alignments was used to investigate horizontal gene transfer, gene duplication, and adaptive evolution. (pnas.org)
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most thinking in genetics has focused upon vertical transfer, but horizontal gene transfer is important, and among single-celled organisms is perhaps the dominant form of genetic transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some Lepidoptera (e.g. monarch butterflies and silkworms) have been genetically modified by horizontal gene transfer from the wasp bracovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several mechanisms for horizontal gene transfer: Transformation, the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • A transposable element (TE) (also called a transposon or jumping gene) is a mobile segment of DNA that can sometimes pick up a resistance gene and insert it into a plasmid or chromosome, thereby inducing horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic exchange and recombination still occur, but this is a form of horizontal gene transfer and is not a replicative process, simply involving the transference of DNA between two cells, as in bacterial conjugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome evolution
  • Analysis using the new model not only provides more accurate estimates on gene gains/losses (or insertions/deletions), but also reduces any concern of a systematic bias from applying simplified models to bacterial genome evolution. (genetics.org)
  • This will not only yield more accurate estimates of the rates of gene insertions/deletions, but also provide a quantitative view of the effect of truncated genes on rate estimation, which has been understudied in bacterial genome evolution. (genetics.org)
  • The study of genome evolution involves multiple fields such as structural analysis of the genome, the study of genomic parasites, gene and ancient genome duplications, polyploidy, and comparative genomics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another mechanism of genome evolution is provided by transduction whereby bacteriophages introduce new DNA into a bacterial genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • pseudogenes
  • Pseudogenes could also result from the degradation of transferred genes and might even be acquired directly via lateral gene transfer. (genetics.org)
  • in which Mycobacterium leprae was discovered to have a significantly higher percentage of pseudogenes to functional genes (~40%) than its free-living ancestors. (wikipedia.org)
  • M. leprae has lost many once-functional genes over time due to the formation of pseudogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus over time these genes have lost their function through mechanisms such as mutation causing them to become pseudogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • initiation
  • It is applied to optimize the trimer oligo kernel for the detection of prokaryotic translation initiation sites. (springer.com)
  • A few other mechanisms in E. coli that variously regulate initiation are DDAH (datA-Dependent DnaA Hydrolysis, which is also regulated by IHF), inhibition of the dnaA gene (by the SeqA protein), and reactivation of DnaA by the lipid membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • phylogeny
  • Although not a primary purpose, the model incorporating truncated genes could be potentially used for phylogeny reconstruction using gene family content. (genetics.org)
  • plasmid
  • Infrequently during this process, a plasmid may integrate into the host bacterial chromosome, and subsequently transfer part of the host bacterial DNA to another bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • laci ENCODES AN ALLOSTERICALLY REGULATED REPRESSOR One of the major trans-regulators of the lac operon is encoded by laci, a gene located just upstream from the lac operon (Figure 2). (sciencedocbox.com)
  • This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S18P family. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • This is partly because genes are under multiple evolutionary constraints, and partly because the concept of a gene has both structural and functional aspects that do not always align perfectly. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Ascidians possess one CesA gene, whereas duplicated larvacean genes have evolved distinct temporal and functional specializations. (biologists.org)
  • namely
  • This paper conjecture is tested and verified at microsatellite loci namely D5S818 and TH01 , present in close proximity to human genes implicated in resistance (reproductive fitness) to malaria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • novel
  • The molecular techniques developed and sequence information and knowledge of cellular toxin dynamics gained will facilitate further characterisation of novel dinoflagellate genes. (edu.au)
  • Adaptive evolution (positive Darwinian selection) in protein-coding genes is thought to be an ephemeral event, frequently leading to the generation of novel function, and is generally thought to be the result of selective pressures favoring a high level of replacement substitutions ( 13 - 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • glutamate
  • Benachenhou-Lahfa N, Forterre P, Labedan B (1993) Evolution of glutamate dehydrogenase genes: evidence for paralogous protein families and unusual branching patterns of the archaebacteria in the universal tree of life. (springer.com)
  • Glutamate racemase is a bacterial enzyme that is encoded by the murI gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • D-glutamate is a monomer of the peptidoglycan layer in prokaryotic cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • This technique was also crucial for gene expression studies. (edu.au)
  • 6 Only a Subset of Genes is Expressed at any Given Time It takes lots of energy to express genes Thus it would be wasteful to express all genes all the time By differential expression of genes, cells can respond to changes in the environment Differential expression, allows cells to specialize in multicelled organisms. (sciencedocbox.com)
  • The answer lies in the regulation of gene expression. (sciencedocbox.com)
  • In many cases, higher abundance of a gene s transcripts is correlated with its increased expression. (sciencedocbox.com)
  • In this work we have collected information about all three types of small prokaryotic RNAs in the context of the regulation of toxin gene expression. (mdpi.com)
  • For example, the transcriptional activator VP16 can increase gene expression by up to 25-fold in human cells on a Tet-ON reporter system. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • The host-parasite co-evolutionary processes are well understood by the association of coding variations such as G6PD, Duffy blood group receptor, HLA, and beta-globin gene variants with malaria resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subset
  • Only a subset of all the genes is expressed (i.e. are functionally active) in any given cell participating in a particular biological process. (sciencedocbox.com)
  • distinct
  • Some chloroplasts also contain a second, phage-type single-subunit RNA polymerase known as the nuclear encoded polymerase (NEP), which transcribes DNA from distinct promoter elements found in some chloroplast genes [ 10 , 16 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Unidirectional genes with phase 0 overlap are not considered distinct genes, but rather as alternative start sites of the same gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • While Mendel is given credit as the originator of modern genetics, the word "gene" was not coined until well after his death. (encyclopedia.com)
  • sequence
  • A modern description of a gene must consider not only its structure, as a length of DNA, but also its function, as a unit of heredity in transmission from one generation to the next and in development as a carrier of coded information of the sequence of a protein or RNA molecule. (encyclopedia.com)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • Bozouklian H, Elmerich C (1986) Nucleotide sequence of the AzospirMum brasilense Sp7 glutamine synthetase structural gene. (springer.com)
  • The Shine-Dalgarno sequence, of the prokaryotic RBS, was discovered by John Shine and Lynne Dalgarno in 1975. (wikipedia.org)
  • An overlapping gene is a gene whose expressible nucleotide sequence partially overlaps with the expressible nucleotide sequence of another gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, a nucleotide sequence may make a contribution to the function of one or more gene products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overprinting refers to a type of overlap in which all or part of the sequence of one gene is read in an alternate reading frame from another gene at the same locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of the same nucleotide sequence to encode multiple genes may provide evolutionary advantage due to reduction in genome size and due to the opportunity for transcriptional and translational co-regulation of the overlapping genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below is the UBact sequence in the bacterium Methylacidiphilum infernorum: Ubiquitin SUMO protein Ubiquitin bacterial (UBact) Pearce, M. J. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxin
  • The basic precursors of the PST molecule(s) have been hypothesised, but no genes coding for toxin production have been definitively identified. (edu.au)
  • organism
  • In this view, genes are those elements responsible for the "phenotype," the set of observable traits that make up the organism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • M. tuberculosis has ≈250 genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, a much higher proportion than in any other organism. (pnas.org)
  • It is beneficial to an organism to rid itself of non-essential genes because it makes replicating its DNA much faster and requires less energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taken together sgRNA and dCas9 provide a minimum system for gene-specific regulation in any organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • pentose phospha
  • Overexpression of the four genes encoding non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway enzymes Transaldolase, Transketolase, Ribulose-5-phosphate epimerase and Ribose-5-phosphate ketol-isomerase led to both higher D-xylulose and D-xylose fermentation rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Given the necessary and present methodological diversity within QBM, the focus is on one fundamental and encompassing biological problem - the control of gene expression in all its aspects, and the interplay of the different control mechanisms in regulatory networks. (lmu.de)
  • A few other mechanisms in E. coli that variously regulate initiation are DDAH (datA-Dependent DnaA Hydrolysis, which is also regulated by IHF), inhibition of the dnaA gene (by the SeqA protein), and reactivation of DnaA by the lipid membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discovered in 1946 by Joshua Lederberg and Edward Tatum, conjugation is a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer as are transformation and transduction although these two other mechanisms do not involve cell-to-cell contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • rRNA gene
  • Sequence analyses of conserve genomic loci such as 16S rRNA gene and 16S/23S intergenic spacer regions have been used to define ' Ca . Liberibacter' species [ 4 , 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, an integrated approach of transcriptome sequencing and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to investigate the synergetic responses of rumen epithelium and rumen microbiota to the increased intake of dietary non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) from 15 to 30% in the goat model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • bacteria
  • In addition to the analysis of the microbial composition and identification of the genes and signaling pathways related to the differentially expressed GPRs and HDACs, the combined data including the expression of HDACs and GPRs, the relative abundance of the bacteria, and the molar proportions of the individual SCFAs were used to identify the significant co-variation of the SCFAs, clades, and transcripts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ARGs encode various cellular functions that enable bacteria to survive in the presence of antibiotics, while MGEs enable ARGs to be transferred among different bacterial strains. (deepdyve.com)
  • In addition, Vampirococcus specifically preys upon various species within the bacterial genus, Chromatium, a freshwater purple sulfur bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial genetics is the subfield of genetics devoted to the study of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibrobacteres is a small bacterial phylum which includes many of the major rumen bacteria, allowing for the degradation of plant-based cellulose in ruminant animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gliding motility known as bacterial gliding in bacteria, is not unique to bacteria since it can also be seen being utilized by the Apicomplexa, a Eukaryota parasite, travelling at fast rates between 1-10μm a second when the Myxococcus xanthus glide at a rate of 5μm a minute. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • A genomic region (CLIBASIA_05640 to CLIBASIA_05650) of ' Ca . L. asiaticus' showing hyper-sequence variation or locus mosaicism was identified and investigated using 262 bacterial strains (188 from China and 74 from Florida). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1988 Notes: ♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN) The phylum Fibrobacteres is considered to be closely related to the CFB [Cytophaga-Flavibacterium-Bacteroides]. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthetic
  • While synthetic bacterial AHLs did not induce persistence, this is potentially due to structural differences between bacterial and archaeal signals, and does not discount a quorum sensing component in haloarchaeal persister formation. (frontiersin.org)
  • molecular
  • Molecular evidence based on the amplification of 16rRNA genes from various environments suggest that the phylum is much more widespread than previously thought. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant
  • The predominance of Fibrobacteres subphylum 2 in cellulolytic fibre-associated bacterial communities in hindguts of wood-feeding Nasutitermes corniger suggests that they play an important role in the breakdown of plant material in higher termites. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • They are labelled "Type I" if the defective gene is for an enzyme involved in the assembly or transfer of the Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-dolichol precursor. (wikipedia.org)
  • rumen
  • The major bacterial clades promoted by the 30% NFC diet were related to lactate metabolism and cellulose degradation in the rumen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • high
  • World leading chip-based gene synthesis platform, Syno ® 3.0, provides gene synthesis with high throughput capabilities and low costs. (synbio-tech.com)