• species
  • The microsatellite alleles in bacterial species are known to have aided their survival in fatal environmental conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There's a large pool of bacterial species whose sodium channels might have slightly different electrical characteristics to draw from," said Nguyen. (innovations-report.com)
  • That is one of the surprise discoveries made by a pair of Vanderbilt biologists when they sequenced the genome of a virus that attacks Wolbachia, a bacterial parasite that has successfully infected not only black widow spiders but more than half of all arthropod species, which include insects, spiders and crustaceans. (phys.org)
  • Genes responsible for antibiotic resistance in one species of bacteria can be transferred to another species of bacteria through various mechanisms such as F-pilus, subsequently arming the antibiotic resistant genes' recipient against antibiotics, which is becoming medically challenging to deal with. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inter-bacterial gene transfer was first described in Japan in a 1959 publication that demonstrated the transfer of antibiotic resistance between different species of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Pup gene encodes a 64-amino acid protein with a molecular size of 6.944 kDa: In 2017, the presence of Pup homologs in bacterial species outside of the group of gram-positive bacteria was reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transformation is a common mode of DNA transfer, and 67 prokaryotic species are thus far known to be naturally competent for transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence that plant-like genes in Chlamydia species reflect an ancestral relationship between Chlamydiaceae, cyanobacteria, and the chloroplast. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthesis
  • It is proposed that the viomycin gene cluster includes 36.3 kb of contiguous DNA that encodes 20 open reading frames (ORFs) that are involved in the biosynthesis, regulation, and eventual activation viomycin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the NRPS subunits are not suspected to function in the order in which their genes are arranged, a characteristic of viomycin biosynthesis that is unlike typical NRPS-catalyzed peptide synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme glutamate racemase (MurI) is an example of a moonlighting protein, functioning both in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis as well as in gyrase inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to this main function of biosynthesis of bacterial cell walls MurI has been targeted as an antibacterial in drug discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • horizontal gene tra
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most thinking in genetics has focused upon vertical transfer, but horizontal gene transfer is important, and among single-celled organisms is perhaps the dominant form of genetic transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some Lepidoptera (e.g. monarch butterflies and silkworms) have been genetically modified by horizontal gene transfer from the wasp bracovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Richardson and Palmer (2007) state: "Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a major role in bacterial evolution and is fairly common in certain unicellular eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several mechanisms for horizontal gene transfer: Transformation, the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • A transposable element (TE) (also called a transposon or jumping gene) is a mobile segment of DNA that can sometimes pick up a resistance gene and insert it into a plasmid or chromosome, thereby inducing horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic exchange and recombination still occur, but this is a form of horizontal gene transfer and is not a replicative process, simply involving the transference of DNA between two cells, as in bacterial conjugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • The molecular techniques developed and sequence information and knowledge of cellular toxin dynamics gained will facilitate further characterisation of novel dinoflagellate genes. (edu.au)
  • functional
  • This is partly because genes are under multiple evolutionary constraints, and partly because the concept of a gene has both structural and functional aspects that do not always align perfectly. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Ascidians possess one CesA gene, whereas duplicated larvacean genes have evolved distinct temporal and functional specializations. (biologists.org)
  • Prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup) is a functional analog of ubiquitin found in the prokaryote Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • namely
  • This paper conjecture is tested and verified at microsatellite loci namely D5S818 and TH01 , present in close proximity to human genes implicated in resistance (reproductive fitness) to malaria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identification
  • Identification of the transcription start site of a target gene and considering the preferences of sgRNA improves efficiency, as does the presence of accessible chromatin at the target site. (wikipedia.org)
  • composition
  • The similarities in taxonomic composition of the prokaryotic populations present in those ponds were evaluated from the number of restriction bands shared by the different samples. (springer.com)
  • eubacterial
  • Bacterial (eubacterial) diversity estimated from the complexity of the banding pattern obtained by restriction of the amplicons from the different ponds decreased with increasing salinity while for Archaea (archaebacteria) the reverse was true i.e. the higher the salinity the higher the number of bands. (springer.com)
  • rRNA
  • New methods based on PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes from DNA samples extracted directly from the environment allow the description of microbial diversity in natural ecosystems without the need for cultivation. (springer.com)
  • phylogeny
  • Although not a primary purpose, the model incorporating truncated genes could be potentially used for phylogeny reconstruction using gene family content. (genetics.org)
  • distinct
  • Some chloroplasts also contain a second, phage-type single-subunit RNA polymerase known as the nuclear encoded polymerase (NEP), which transcribes DNA from distinct promoter elements found in some chloroplast genes [ 10 , 16 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Unidirectional genes with phase 0 overlap are not considered distinct genes, but rather as alternative start sites of the same gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • While Mendel is given credit as the originator of modern genetics, the word "gene" was not coined until well after his death. (encyclopedia.com)
  • organism
  • In this view, genes are those elements responsible for the "phenotype," the set of observable traits that make up the organism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • It is beneficial to an organism to rid itself of non-essential genes because it makes replicating its DNA much faster and requires less energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taken together sgRNA and dCas9 provide a minimum system for gene-specific regulation in any organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral
  • Truncated genes could also arise from small-scale lateral gene transfer events. (genetics.org)
  • is proposed to have been acquired by lateral gene transfer from a prokaryote. (biologists.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses including Od-CesA s indicate that a single lateral gene transfer event from a prokaryote at the base of the lineage conferred biosynthetic capacity in all tunicates. (biologists.org)
  • In the mid-1980s, Syvanen predicted that lateral gene transfer existed, had biological significance, and was involved in shaping evolutionary history from the beginning of life on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasite
  • The host-parasite co-evolutionary processes are well understood by the association of coding variations such as G6PD, Duffy blood group receptor, HLA, and beta-globin gene variants with malaria resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • regulate
  • A few other mechanisms in E. coli that variously regulate initiation are DDAH (datA-Dependent DnaA Hydrolysis, which is also regulated by IHF), inhibition of the dnaA gene (by the SeqA protein), and reactivation of DnaA by the lipid membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technology uses a catalytically-dead Cas9 (usually denoted as dCas9) protein lacking endonuclease activity to regulate genes in an RNA-guided manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxin
  • The basic precursors of the PST molecule(s) have been hypothesised, but no genes coding for toxin production have been definitively identified. (edu.au)
  • But in this case, "the portion of DNA related to the black widow spider toxin gene is intact and widespread in the phage," said Bordenstein. (phys.org)
  • Wolbachia
  • We suspect it makes pores in the membranes of the arthropod cells that surround Wolbachia, thereby allowing the phage to overcome both the bacterial and arthropod membranes that surround it. (phys.org)
  • chloroplasts
  • Even though chloroplasts contain an elaborate transcriptional machinery capable of regulatory control, the principal mode of gene regulation in chloroplasts has long been considered to be post-transcriptional [ 17 , 18 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Increased global transcription of chloroplast genes in high light enables chloroplasts to keep up with an increased demand for components of the photosynthetic machinery as the rate of photosynthesis increases. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The use of the FtsZ ring in dividing chloroplasts and some mitochondria further establishes their prokaryotic ancestry. (wikipedia.org)
  • evidence
  • 2005) observe, "additional evidence suggests that gene transfer might also be an important evolutionary mechanism in protist evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain types of gene overlap provide evidence that one of the genes in the pair may have originated de novo, rather than from gene duplication or other mechanisms by which new genes are created. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Pup homologs were termed UBact (for Ubiquitin Bacterial), although the distinction has not been proven to be phylogenetically supported by a separate evolutionary origin and is without experimental evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • FtsZ
  • FtsZ is a protein encoded by the ftsZ gene that assembles into a ring at the future site of the septum of bacterial cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, recent work with purified FtsZ on supported lipid bilayers as well as imaging FtsZ in living bacterial cells revealed that FtsZ protofilaments have polarity and move in one direction by treadmilling (see also below). (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • The researchers then delivered three genes to the electrically inactive cells: one bacterial gene for a sodium ion channel and two supporting genes encoding a potassium channel and connexin-43, a protein that helps shuttle electrical signals between cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • When delivered to unexcitable cells taken from the skin, heart and brain, the trio of genes caused the cells to become electrically active, speeding up the electrical signals as they raced across the lines. (innovations-report.com)
  • But when we add the bacterial channel, we can keep them conducting electrical signals under more severe conditions. (innovations-report.com)