• genomic
  • The first complete genome sequences among all three domains of life were released within a short period during the mid-1990s: The first bacterial genome to be sequenced was that of Haemophilus influenzae, completed by a team at The Institute for Genomic Research in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • The decreasing cost of genomic mapping has permitted genealogical sites to offer it as a service, to the extent that one may submit one's genome to crowd sourced scientific endeavours such as DNA.land at the New York Genome Center, an example both of the economies of scale and of citizen science. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of genome evolution involves multiple fields such as structural analysis of the genome, the study of genomic parasites, gene and ancient genome duplications, polyploidy, and comparative genomics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic changes may lead to both increases or decreases of genomic complexity due to adaptive genome streamlining and purifying selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyses
  • Genome-wide comparative and phylogenetic analyses show that HGT in animals typically gives rise to tens or hundreds of active 'foreign' genes, largely concerned with metabolism. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This analyses suggest that while fruit flies and nematodes have continued to acquire foreign genes throughout their evolution, humans and other primates have gained relatively few since their common ancestor [ 10 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Association analyses of these 316 genes revealed three novel AVR genes, AVR-Pia , AVR-Pii , and AVR-Pik/km/kp , corresponding to five previously known AVR genes, whose products are recognized inside rice cells possessing the cognate R genes. (plantcell.org)
  • Preliminary data from comprehensive transcriptome analyses have revealed that transposable elements seem to play a key role for the adaptation to temperature, and we are curious to see how this is linked with DNA methylation. (mocklab.com)
  • Based upon phylogenetic analyses, IVS was acquired through horizontal transfer after C. burnetii 's divergence from an ancestral bacterium and has been subsequently maintained by vertical transfer. (frontiersin.org)
  • evolutionary
  • demonstrates that extensive gene loss and horizontal gene transfer leading to innovation are the two dominant evolutionary processes. (panspermia.org)
  • In the mid-1980s, Syvanen predicted that lateral gene transfer existed, had biological significance, and was involved in shaping evolutionary history from the beginning of life on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2005) observe, "additional evidence suggests that gene transfer might also be an important evolutionary mechanism in protist evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Darwinian paradigm holds that copying mistakes and the shuffling of existing genes are sufficient to write the new genes needed for evolutionary advances. (panspermia.org)
  • Instead, for a species to make evolutionary progress, new genes must first be installed into its genome from outside. (panspermia.org)
  • Transcriptional rewiring is a term used for defining the modification of transcriptional circuits over evolutionary time, due to changes in transcription factors (TFs) and/or cis- regulatory elements. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Repeated formation of new species (speciation), change within species (anagenesis), and loss of species (extinction) throughout the evolutionary history of life on Earth are demonstrated by shared sets of morphological and biochemical traits, including shared DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The four most widely recognised evolutionary processes are natural selection (including sexual selection), genetic drift, mutation and gene migration due to genetic admixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • photosynthesis
  • Grafting of one plant to another can transfer chloroplasts (organelles in plant cells that conduct photosynthesis), mitochondrial DNA, and the entire cell nucleus containing the genome to potentially make a new species. (wikipedia.org)
  • All members of the Melainabacteria and Sericytochromatia lack photosynthetic machinery, indicating that phototrophy was not an ancestral feature of the Cyanobacteria and that Oxyphotobacteria acquired the genes for photosynthesis relatively late in cyanobacterial evolution. (panspermia.org)
  • bacteriophages
  • After a DNA fragment coding for the production of msDNA in E. coli was discovered, it was conjectured that bacteriophages might have been responsible for the introduction of the RT gene into E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • DNA polymerases (which include RT) share highly conserved structural features, which means that their active catalytic sites vary little from species to species, or even between DNA polymerases using DNA as a template, versus DNA polymerases using RNA as a template. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another project discovered the "Space Invaders," or SPIN elements, that were highly conserved between seven distantly related species from diverse lineages. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We will discuss well-known processes which can install new genes into the genome of a given species. (panspermia.org)
  • Within a species, the vast majority of nucleotides are identical between individuals, but sequencing multiple individuals is necessary to understand the genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA damage is mostly caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and includes modification by oxidation, resulting in single- and double-strand breaks (DSBs), formation of DNA adducts and cross-links [ 19 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • proteins
  • Bacterial surface proteins play a major role in GBS binding to and invasion of different host surfaces. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The scpB and lmb genes, coding for fibronectin-binding and laminin-binding surface proteins, are present in almost all human GBS isolates. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Resistance often follows the gene-for-gene model in which plant resistance ( R ) gene products recognize avirulence (AVR) proteins, a subset of pathogen-secreted virulence proteins known as effectors, to trigger hypersensitive cell death and immunity. (plantcell.org)
  • The repeat-rich regions contain genes coding for host interaction proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • The identified PMPs represent a conservative dataset of very recent or conserved events of mobilization of non-coding DNA and thus they constitute evidence of an extensive reservoir of recyclable regulatory sequences for rapid transcriptional rewiring. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It can evolve de novo by the creation of cis- regulatory elements through point mutations and indels ( 12 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Evolution
  • Edward C. Holmes, "The Evolution of Endogenous Viral Elements" [ abstract ], doi:10.1016/j.chom.2011.09.002, p 368-377 v 10, Cell Host & Microbe , 20 Oct 2011. (panspermia.org)
  • May we not feel that in the virus, in their merging with the cellular genome and their re-emerging from them, we observe processes which, in the course of evolution, have created the succesful genetic patterns that underlie all living things? (panspermia.org)
  • The genes present on MGE are subject to continuous processes of evolution and environmental changes, largely induced or significantly accelerated by man. (frontiersin.org)
  • Anecdotal evidence coming from experimental evolution studies in bacterial systems has shown the promptness of adaptation upon appropriate selective pressure. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Experimental evolution studies in Pseudomonas putida ( 14 ), Lactoccocus lactis ( 15 , 16 ) and E. coli ( 17-19 ) have found promoter recruitment to be the main mechanism driving transcriptional activation or rewiring of silent genes, through mobilization of partial or complete promoters by transposable elements ( 20 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • introns
  • The non-coding portions of the gene, known as introns, which are largely not present in prokaryotes, are removed by RNA splicing before translation of the protein can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • facilitate
  • Molecular identification of M. oryzae AVR genes will tremendously facilitate race identification of blast fungus and help rapid and effective deployment of R genes in rice cultivation. (plantcell.org)
  • processes
  • Cosmic Ancestry holds that these processes cannot write useful new genes. (panspermia.org)
  • AVR-Pia and AVR-Pii have evolved by gene gain/loss processes, whereas AVR-Pik/km/kp has evolved by nucleotide substitutions and gene gain/loss. (plantcell.org)
  • sequences
  • Since it is not known whether retron sequences per se represent mobile elements, retrons are functionally defined by their ability to produce msDNA while deliberately avoiding speculation about other possible activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Twenty-six strains representing these three genetic configurations were selected to investigate the transcription and expression levels of scpB and lmb genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Deletion of the IS 1548 sequence between scpB and lmb genes in a CC19 serotype III GBS strain substantially reduced the transcription of lmb gene (13.5-fold), the binding ability to laminin (6.2-fold), and the expression of Lmb protein (5.0-fold). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • mutation
  • The rare exception is the back-mutation, which merely undoes the damage of a previous mutation and restores the affected strand of DNA to its original condition. (panspermia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, bisulfite sequencing will reveal the role of DNA methylation for acclimation and adaptation of diatoms to low and high temperatures. (mocklab.com)
  • found
  • The resultant DNA/RNA chimera possesses two stem-loops joined by a branch similar to the branches found in RNA splicing intermediates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biosynthesis of msDNA is purported to follow a unique pathway found nowhere else in DNA/RNA biochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • IVSs are parasitic genetic elements that are found in 16S and 23S rRNA genes and are transcribed as part of the rRNA precursor. (frontiersin.org)