• pons
  • Human brain List of regions in the human brain Lobes of the brain Brain Basal ganglia Brain stem including Medulla oblongata, midbrain, pons Cerebellum Cerebral cortex Hypothalamus Limbic including amygdala Neuroanatomy Note - in conducting brain research, information "where the other end connects" is critical to understanding neural connections, and ultimately how the brain functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • injuries
  • Another school of thought focuses on hypothermia's ability to prevent the injuries that occur after circulation returns to the brain, or what is termed reperfusion injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prognosis also ranges widely, from full recovery in rare cases to permanent tetraplegia (also called quadriplegia) in injuries at the level of the neck, and paraplegia in lower injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • cerebral
  • It has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals, but with a more developed cerebral cortex than any other, leading to the evolutionary success of widespread dominance of the human species across the planet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerebral edema is excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain changes in morphology are associated with cerebral edema: the brain becomes soft and smooth and overfills the cranial vault, gyri (ridges) become flattened, sulci (grooves) become narrowed, and ventricular cavities become compressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four types of cerebral edema have been identified: Vasogenic edema occurs due to a breakdown of the tight endothelial junctions that make up the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerebral edema from brain cancer Cancerous glial cells (glioma) of the brain can increase secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which weakens the junctions of the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • High altitude cerebral edema High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a severe and sometimes fatal form of altitude sickness that results from capillary fluid leakage due to the effects of hypoxia on the mitochondria-rich endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, as a result of inadequate blood flow to the brain (cerebral perfusion), the patient will quickly become unconscious and will have stopped breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • injury
  • In recognition of this fact, a subdural hematoma that is not associated with an underlying brain injury is sometimes termed a simple or pure subdural hematoma. (medscape.com)
  • The term complicated has been applied to subdural hematomas in which a significant injury of the underlying brain has also been identified. (medscape.com)
  • This type of head injury also is strongly associated with delayed brain damage, later demonstrated on CT scan. (medscape.com)
  • Neuroendocrine dysfunction, long recognized as a consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), is a major cause of disability that includes physical and psychological involvement with long-term cognitive, behavioral, and social changes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Inflammatory responses within the central nervous system (CNS) are often the result of traumatic injury or exposure to infectious agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorders
  • Without careful assessment and history, delirium can easily be confused with a number of psychiatric disorders or long term organic brain syndromes, because many of the signs and symptoms of delirium are conditions also present in dementia, depression, and psychosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • trials
  • Prognosis research studies too often fall a long way short of the high standards required in other fields, such as therapeutic trials and genetic epidemiology. (bmj.com)
  • This procedure is called therapeutic hypothermia, and it has been shown by a number of large, high-quality randomised trials to significantly improve survival and reduce brain damage after birth asphyxia in newborn infants, almost doubling the chance of normal survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Understanding and improving the prognosis of a disease or health condition is a priority in clinical research and practice. (bmj.com)
  • In clinical medicine, the term prognosis refers to the risk of future health outcomes in people with a given disease or health condition. (bmj.com)
  • Prognosis research findings should thus be integral to clinical decision making, healthcare policy, and discovering and evaluating new approaches to patient management. (bmj.com)
  • spinal
  • Mind concepts (as in mind vs. body), and cognitive and behavioral aspects, are introduced where they have at least a fairly direct connection to physical aspects of the brain, neurons, spinal cord, nerve networks, neurotransmitters, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central nervous system - consists of the brain, and the attached spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The brain roughly floats on top of the ventricular system, a shock absorbing area filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) which also connects to and fills the entire Spinal canal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral nervous system - consists of nerves outside the brain and spinal cord, where they are not protected by the human vertebral column, skull and the protective blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spinal cord - many neurons originate or terminate in the brain and extend down into the spinal column. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spinal cord itself is a bundle of a vast number of neurons, with a total diameter of about 1/2 inch at the brain, thinning to about 1/4 inch diameter at vertebrae L1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spinal cord has three major functions: as a conduit for neurons communicating action information from brain outwards to motor muscles via motor neurons, as a conduit for neurons communicating sensory information, from the senses inwards to the brain (see also: Sensory neuron, Sensory receptor, Proprioception, and Category:Sensory receptors), as a center for coordinating certain automatic reflexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many neurons connect to the brain on one end, with the other end connected to another neuron, with the outside (the brain) junction located within the spinal column. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other neurons bundles which are labeled cranial nerves, connect to the brain on one end, and to locations outside the brain on the other, without having a junction inside the spinal column. (wikipedia.org)
  • dysfunction
  • Like its components (inability to focus attention, mental confusion and various impairments in awareness and temporal and spatial orientation), delirium is the common manifestation of new organic brain dysfunction (for any reason). (wikipedia.org)
  • arachnoid membrane
  • A subdural hematoma (SDH) is a collection of blood below the inner layer of the dura but external to the brain and arachnoid membrane (see the images below). (medscape.com)
  • symptoms
  • Brain damage often presents with signs and symptoms that can easily mask the typical symptoms of hypopituitarism ( Hellawell and Pentland, 2001 ), and physicians who care for such patients have little awareness about the possibility of pituitary deficiencies and their impact on the prognosis, resulting in misdiagnosed cases as an endocrine assessment is not usually considered. (frontiersin.org)
  • hydrocephalus
  • This should not be confused with hydrocephalus, which is an accumulation of excess cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This sometimes proves to provide a misdiagnosis of differential diagnoses including bilaterally symmetric schizencephaly (a less destructive developmental process on the brain), severe hydrocephalus (cerebrospinal fluid excess within the skull), and alobar holoprosencephaly (a neurological developmental anomaly). (wikipedia.org)
  • blood-brain b
  • The blood-brain barrier (BBB) or the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier may break down, allowing fluid to accumulate in the brain's extracellular space. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cytotoxic edema, the blood-brain barrier remains intact but a disruption in cellular metabolism impairs functioning of the sodium and potassium pump in the glial cell membrane, leading to cellular retention of sodium and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • basal
  • Infarction in the pars libera of the column of fornix including pre (cholinergic)- and post (circuit of Papez fiber tracts)-commissural fibers causes "basal forebrain" amnesia. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Delirium
  • Delirium may be caused by a disease process outside the brain that nonetheless affects the brain, such as infection (urinary tract infection, pneumonia) or drug effects, particularly anticholinergics or other CNS depressants (benzodiazepines and opioids). (wikipedia.org)
  • Delirium must by definition be caused by an organic process, i.e., a physically identifiable structural, functional, or chemical problem in the brain (see organic brain syndrome), and thus, fluctuations of mentation due to changes in purely psychiatric processes or diseases, such as sudden psychosis from schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, are (by definition) not termed delirium. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • Usually the cerebellum and brain stem are formed normally, although in some cases the cerebellum may also be absent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Edema
  • It is this swelling of the individual cells of the brain that is seen as the main distinguishing characteristic of cytotoxic edema, as opposed to vasogenic edema, wherein the influx of fluid is typically seen in the interstitial space rather than within the cells themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Altered metabolism may cause brain cells to retain water, and dilution of the blood plasma may cause excess water to move into brain cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally, the presence of blood leads to irritation of the lining of the brain, which may cause neck rigidity and intolerance to bright light, as well as a decreased level of consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • The study of prognosis has never been more important, as globally more people are living with one or more disease or health impairing condition than at any previous time. (bmj.com)
  • subdural
  • Chronic subdural hematomas develop over the course of weeks and are hypodense compared with the brain. (medscape.com)
  • skull
  • The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the human brain: Human brain - central organ of the nervous system located in the head of a human being, protected by the skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • care
  • Rates of mortality and morbidity can be high, even with the best medical and neurosurgical care (see Prognosis). (medscape.com)
  • impact
  • However, there is a concerning gap between the potential and actual impact of prognosis research on health. (bmj.com)
  • Additional studies are still needed to know the impact of post-traumatic hypopituitarism and to assess the impact of hormone replacement in the prognosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • damage
  • Memory disturbances frequently occur after brain damage, but can be associated with psychiatric illnesses as well. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • research
  • Prognosis research. (bmj.com)
  • Prognosis research is thus the investigation of the relations between future outcomes (endpoints) among people with a given baseline health state (startpoint) in order to improve health (see supplementary figure on bmj.com). (bmj.com)
  • Research into amnesia has increased exponentially, probably because of the availability of modern brain-imaging techniques. (uni-bielefeld.de)