• thebaine
  • p. 69) Binghamton NY: The Haworth Press Inc. LCCN 86-646860 BENTLEY, K. W. & HARDY, D. G. (1967) Novel analgesics and molecular rearrangements in the morphine-thebaine group. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latest development is at Kyoto University in Japan, where researchers have learned how to tweak E coli bacteria so that they pump out thebaine, a morphine precursor that can be modified to make opioid pain relievers. (painnewsnetwork.org)
  • Recovery of thebaine and cryptopine from Indian opium (UNODC) "Particulars of the organisation, its functions and duties" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thebaine is without analgesic effect but is of great pharmaceutical value due to its use in the production of semisynthetic opioidmorphine analogues such as oxycodone (Percodan), dihydromorphenone (Dilaudid), and hydrocodone (Vicodin). (buenastareas.com)
  • As part of a research programme to establish an analytical method for the simultaneous detection of the five major opium alkaloids in poppy seeds by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) it was discovered that the inclusion of thebaine produced two peaks for the same compound. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • cocaine
  • Some drugs, like cocaine and morphine, are extracted from plant sources and refined with the aid of chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemicals critical to the production of cocaine, heroin, and synthetic drugs are produced in many countries throughout the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, numerous laws attempting to regulate importation, availability, use, and treatment have been passed, and the concern with opium addiction per se has largely been replaced by concern with heroin, cocaine , marijuana , and other illegal drugs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • China is a major source of precursor chemicals necessary for the production of cocaine, heroin, MDMA and crystal methamphetamine, which are used by many Southeast Asian and Pacific Rim nations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United States is assailed by opium from Asia as a base, by cocaine with South America as a base and by heroin and synthetic drugs with Europe as a base. (druglibrary.org)
  • Modern chemistry, responsible for morphine, cocaine and heroin, as yet offers no sure defense against the Frankenstein of its own creation, nor has medical science been able to cope with this merciless exploitation of the human race. (druglibrary.org)
  • What controlled substances are considered illegal drugs varies by country, but usually includes methamphetamines, heroin, cocaine, and club drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • only heroin, crack cocaine, and methamphetamines are judged to be more harmful. (wikipedia.org)
  • Earlier treaties had only controlled opium, coca, and derivatives such as morphine, heroin and cocaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The League of Nations adopted several drug control treaties prior to World War II, such as the International Opium Convention, and International Convention relating to Dangerous Drugs (1925) specifying uniform controls on addictive drugs such as cocaine and opium, and its derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cultivation
  • In the United States, domestic cultivation of P. bracteatum was proposed by president Richard Nixon's Office of Management and Budget in the early 1970s as an alternative to Turkish opium poppies, which the administration was attempting to eliminate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growers usually make more for opium than for other crops, and the cultivation and refining employ hundreds of thousands of people, but the real profits go to the drug traffickers. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The law regulates drug use and possession, prohibits trafficking in drugs, and allows the government to control the cultivation, production and use of some drugs, for medicinal purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The native range of opium poppy is probably the Eastern Mediterranean, but extensive cultivation and introduction of the species throughout Europe since ancient times have obscured its origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • First of all, it seems like the information about opium cultivation and preparation and other chemistry came from a 1993 Department of Justice publication that was sponsored by DEA. (buenastareas.com)
  • Through centuries of cultivation and breeding for opium, the speciessomniferum evolved. (buenastareas.com)
  • Illicit cultivation of the opium poppy in China is negligible in provinces such as Yunnan, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, and the remote regions of the northwest frontier. (wikipedia.org)
  • illicit
  • The term clandestine lab is generally used in any situation involving the production of illicit compounds, regardless of whether the facilities being used qualify as a true laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical control offers a means of attacking illicit drug production and disrupting the process before the drugs have entered the market. (wikipedia.org)
  • Governments often place restrictions on the purchase of large quantities of chemicals that can be used in the production of illicit drugs, usually requiring licenses or permits to ensure that the purchaser has a legitimate need for them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite laws and agreements to control its use, a worldwide illicit opium traffic persists. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since then, "kompot"/"Polish heroin" has all but disappeared, except in a few rural areas where cheaper, purer, more potent drugs have not overwhelmed the illicit marketplace. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although China has taken actions through legislation and regulation of production and exportation of precursor chemicals, extensive action is required to control the illicit diversion and smuggling of precursor chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1972 Protocol to this Convention calls for increased efforts to prevent illicit production of, traffic in and use of narcotics as defined by the Convention, while highlighting the need to provide treatment and rehabilitation services to drug abusers. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2015, increased rates of recreational use and addiction are attributed to over-prescription of opioid medications and inexpensive illicit heroin. (wikipedia.org)
  • pods of the opium
  • The so-called kompot method of making a crude opiate "cocktail" intended for injection involves stewing the pods of the opium poppy in nearly boiling water and an acid, and using the strained liquid (essentially like kompot is produced from the raw ingredients). (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • This effect was shown in animals when a nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine, reversed morphine-induced changes in gut motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, Sato and colleagues engineered E coli to synthesize reticuline, another morphine precursor. (painnewsnetwork.org)
  • What is considered one of the last important missing steps, a way to efficiently grow a morphine precursor, (S)-reticuline, in brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was published in Nature Chemical Biology on Monday by scientists from the University of California, Berkeley, and Canada's Concordia University. (nytimes.com)
  • The leader of the Berkeley team, John E. Dueber , said it was not trying to make morphine but 2,500 other alkaloids for which reticuline is a precursor, some of which might become antibiotics or cancer drugs. (nytimes.com)
  • methadone
  • Morphine is also available as a slow-release formulation for opiate substitution therapy (OST) in Austria, Bulgaria, and Slovenia, for addicts who cannot tolerate either methadone or buprenorphine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Probably the most effective therapy for narcotics addicts involves the synthetic opiate methadone , which, though itself addictive, blocks the addict's craving for heroin and provides no disruptive euphoric effects of its own. (britannica.com)
  • diacetylmorphine
  • The amount of opiates can be high provided that the end product is not overly diluted during production, but the amount of diacetylmorphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine created depends on the skills of people making it and the time and conditions of acetylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1898 heroin , or diacetylmorphine, was developed from morphine by the Bayer Company in Germany. (britannica.com)
  • invention of the hypodermic
  • Morphine was more widely used after the invention of the hypodermic syringe in 1853-1855. (wikipedia.org)
  • The invention of the hypodermic needle in the mid-19th century allowed morphine to be administered by injection, which is useful in medicine because injections of morphine produce much greater effects than taking the same amount of drug orally. (britannica.com)
  • potent
  • It is then converted to heroin which is two to four times as potent, and increases the value by two to four times. (wikipedia.org)
  • While related to opium, Polish heroin more nearly resembles poppy tea in its impurity, but can be very potent. (wikipedia.org)
  • And the opium you get is about 50% more potent than what you get from the ordinary "slicing and collecting from pods" method. (shroomery.org)
  • 9. When all water is vaporized it should be a sticky matter left in the pot, this is the opium, and is about 50% more potent then when slicing, because you now have an extract. (shroomery.org)
  • Morphine carries a reputation for its common usage as an anesthetic and painkiller in medicine, as well as an infamous reputation for its extremely potent addictiveness, common overdoses, and difficult withdrawals when abused recreationally. (therecover.com)
  • Papaveraceae
  • A poppy is a flowering plant in the subfamily Papaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Papaveraceae differ from the rest of the Ranunculales in some important characteristics but they share others such as the presence of isoquinoline-derived alkaloids. (wikipedia.org)
  • amounts
  • Gene silencing can stop the opium poppy producing morphine and instead force it to produce large amounts of a compound useful in the fight against malaria. (usmessageboard.com)
  • Although making small amounts of morphine will soon be feasible, they say, the yeasts are so fragile and the fermentation process so delicate that it is not close to producing salable quantities of heroin. (nytimes.com)
  • alcohol and opium
  • Beginning in the late 1600s until the discovery of anesthesia in the mid-1800s, a preparation of alcohol and opium, usually given in whisky or rum, was the drug most widely used to prepare patients for surgery. (encyclopedia.com)
  • reticuline
  • There is an urgent need for new anti-malarial drugs, and poppies modified by RNAi silencing or mutation could be an ideal source of reticuline, says Larkin. (usmessageboard.com)
  • There is currently only a small market for reticuline, but the mutant poppy might provide an alternative, if Tasmanian Alkaloids was willing to distribute it freely, says Facchini. (usmessageboard.com)
  • 19th
  • China has one-fifth of the world's population and a large and expanding economy while Opium has played an important role in the country's history since before the First and Second Opium Wars in the mid-19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pharmacologically active components of opium were isolated during the first half of the 19th century. (britannica.com)
  • This lineage includes opium, which remained popular throughout the 19th century, followed by morphine, and later heroin during the mid-20th century. (therecover.com)
  • mainly
  • Polish heroin was used mainly in Central and Eastern Europe prior to the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the end of communist control of the countries of the Warsaw Pact or Eastern Bloc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second is to produce opium for use mainly by the pharmaceutical industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Southwest Asian heroin (mainly from Afghanistan) represents as much as 22 percent of the heroin entering northwest China. (wikipedia.org)
  • world's
  • ambiguous] The upper Asian belt of Afghanistan, Pakistan, northern India, and Burma still account for the world's largest supply of opium. (wikipedia.org)
  • the vast majority of the world's opium is currently produced in Afghanistan. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Much of the commercial opium poppy industry in Tasmania - which produces about 40% of the world's legal opiates - has now been turned over to growing this mutant, says Larkin. (usmessageboard.com)
  • juice
  • Tablets found at Nippur, a Sumerian spiritual center south of Baghdad, described the collection of poppy juice in the morning and its use in production of opium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first undisputed (certain) writings about poppy juice were by Greek philosopher Theophrastus in the third century b.c. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The poppy is also referred to in Homer's works the Iliad and the Odyssey (850 B.C.). Hippocrates (460-357 B.C.) prescribed drinking the juice of the white poppy mixed with the seed of nettle. (buenastareas.com)
  • drugs
  • This drug was also considered by Eastern Bloc addicts to be one of last resort when refined heroin, morphine, or other similar drugs were unavailable, as was often the case during the 1950s through the end of the Soviet era. (wikipedia.org)
  • as after 1991 the availability of heroin and other drugs smuggled into those countries from abroad increased enormously. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the availability of morphine injections led to serious problems of abuse, and laws were introduced to control the use, production, and trade of narcotics and other dangerous drugs. (britannica.com)
  • An international conference began last week at Geneva under the auspices of the League of Nations to devise further restrictions by all nations upon the production of habit-forming drugs. (druglibrary.org)
  • The production and distribution of these drugs constitutes a profitable traffic of vast proportions extending to all corners of the earth. (druglibrary.org)
  • The principal objectives of the Convention are to limit the possession, use, trade, distribution, import, export, manufacture and production of drugs exclusively to medical and scientific purposes, and to address drug trafficking through international cooperation to deter and discourage drug traffickers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morphine remains one of the most deadly recreational drugs found today due to its potency, its common use alongside substances that can produce deadly potentiation of the drug's effects, negative physiological effects, and how easy it is to build a tolerance to it. (therecover.com)
  • Pain Reliever
  • Opium is believed to have been used by the people of Babylonia (an ancient empire in southwest Asia) in 4000 b.c. as a pain reliever and to promote sleep. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 2016
  • A 2016 Cochrane review concluded that morphine is effective in relieving cancer pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently both the Ghazipur and Nimach factories are referred to as sources of illegal smuggling for opium manufacture in the movie "Udta Punjab" (2016). (wikipedia.org)
  • preparations
  • Highly praised by peoples of many civilizations since that time, opium preparations were given the name laudanum (from the Latin word "laudare," meaning "to praise") by the Swiss physician Paracelsus (1493-1541). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The noted Chinese surgeon Hua To of the Three Kingdoms (220-264 A.D.) used opium preparations and Cannabis indica for his patients to swallow before undergoing major surgery. (buenastareas.com)
  • plant
  • The Ebers Papyrus, c. 1500 BCE, describes a way to "stop a crying child" using grains of the poppy plant strained to a pulp. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Power of the Poppy: Harnessing Nature's Most Dangerous Plant Ally, By Kenaz Filan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plant was known in Europe at least 4,000 years ago as evidenced by fossil remains of poppy seed cake and poppy pods found in theNeolithic Swiss Lake Dwellings. (buenastareas.com)
  • The active alkaloids, pseudoephedrine and ephedrine, are chemically extracted from the plant material and processed for pharmaceutical purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are created with chemicals that are not derived from the poppy plant or opium or morphine. (blogspot.com)
  • What normally was done with the opium as I have seen, is smoking it, often mixed with tobacco or some of the leftover plant materials that should be dried first of course. (shroomery.org)
  • grown
  • opium was grown in the United States as well as imported. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This poppy is grown as an agricultural crop on a large scale, for one of three primary purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The opium poppy was once native to Asia Minor (a large penninsula in western Asia between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean), but it is now grown legally and illegally in many parts of the world. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Poppies are herbaceous plants, often grown for their colourful flowers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poppies are a type of flower common all over the world, but are grown in particular abundance throughout the Middle East and particularly in Afghanistan where they are grown, harvested, and sold in the opium trade. (therecover.com)
  • respiratory depression
  • Relative contraindications to morphine include: respiratory depression when appropriate equipment is not available Although it has previously been thought that morphine was contraindicated in acute pancreatitis, a review of the literature shows no evidence for this. (wikipedia.org)
  • Greek
  • Bought through a management buy out in 1990, Macfarlan Smith was floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1993 under the holding company Meconic, the Greek language word for Poppy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our word opium is derived from the Greek. (buenastareas.com)
  • In Greek and Roman myths, poppies were used as offerings to the dead. (wikipedia.org)
  • injection
  • But the company fortunes were made from 1855, when the first Morphine injection was developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidural ( Morphine Sulfate Injection): Dosis inicial habitual para inyección intermitente es 5 mg. b Alivio inadecuado del dolor dentro de 1 hora después de la administración de la dosis inicial: Las dosis epidurales adicionales se puede. (buenastareas.com)
  • cannabis
  • Opium smoking and eating, coca leaf chewing, cannabis resin smoking and the non-medical use of cannabis are prohibited. (wikipedia.org)