• Eunuch
  • Eunuch is a more general term, since historically many eunuchs were castrated after puberty and thus the castration had no impact on their voices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Young Chinese men were selected by the Vietnamese for castration to become eunuch slaves to the Vietnamese. (wikipedia.org)
  • Twelve of them were enslaved to work as agricultural laborers, but since he was the youngest, Wu Rui was selected for castration since he was the only young man and became a eunuch attendant at the Vietnamese imperial palace in Thang Long. (wikipedia.org)
  • cattle
  • Reducing pain caused by disease or veterinary procedures is an important aspect of maintaining farm animal welfare and historic studies have suggested that the use of analgesics in cattle has lagged behind their use in companion animals, although this study suggests that things are improving. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The research, which was a student project, surveyed more than 240 cattle practitioners about their perceptions of pain in cattle, their use of NSAIDs for a range of 27 different conditions and procedures, and their opinions on acceptable costs for analgesia. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The results showed that generally the more painful the condition or procedure, the more likely it was that the practitioner would use NSAIDs - however, this pattern was not found in disbudding and castration in calves, and dystocia and dehorning in adult cattle which, despite being recognised with a high pain score, were associated with lower use of the painkillers. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The British Cattle Veterinary Association and British Veterinary Association have been calling for the routine introduction of NSAIDs in addition to local anaesthesia when conducting husbandry procedures. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • British Veterinary Association President Gudrun Ravetz said: "Pain recognition, management and treatment of calves during routine husbandry procedures was identified by BVA and British Cattle Veterinary Association as a priority animal welfare problem following the launch of BVA's Animal welfare strategy last year, and we have been working together closely to progress this issue since. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • This invention relates in general to methods and apparatuses for raising meat producing cattle to achieve superior growth of such animals and, in particular, relates to a method and apparatus for weaning, feeding and castration of cattle to improve the profitability of a cattle raising operation. (google.ca)
  • Banding as a medical procedure is commonly used in livestock for male castration of sheep and cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • She is known for her foundational research on assessing welfare in beef cattle including the impacts of long-distance transportation, developing producer-friendly pain mitigation strategies for castration and other painful procedures and assessing and mitigating lameness in feedlot cattle that has informed regulations and guidelines for the commercial beef cattle industry in North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • painful
  • It also found that female practitioners and those who graduated after 2010 were more likely to perceive conditions and procedures as painful, while male practitioners and those who graduated before 1990 were more likely to give significantly lower pain scores. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • bulls
  • Furthermore, late castration of bulls (at approximately 5 to 14 months) is employed, wherein the tool of (c) provides a substantially stress-free ligation technique. (google.ca)
  • male
  • Castration, as well as the elimination of hormonally-driven behavior associated with a stallion, allows a male horse to be calmer and better-behaved, making the animal quieter, gentler and potentially more suitable as an everyday working animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the procedure, the male vas deferens are cut and tied or sealed so as to prevent sperm from entering into the urethra and thereby prevent fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • In ancient times, castration often involved the total removal of all the male genitalia. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • Early failure rates, i.e. pregnancy within a few months after vasectomy, typically result from unprotected sexual intercourse too soon after the procedure while some sperm continue to pass through the vasa deferentia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small animals are most often placed under general anesthesia due to the types of procedures typically performed, the small size of the patient, their suitability to general anesthesia, and the greater degree of control. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • According to researchers at the University of Nebraska, using blood cortisol as an indicator, calves experience acute stress immediately after castration. (nmsu.edu)
  • However, researchers in New Zealand showed that the combination of local anesthetic (lidocaine) and a systemic anti-inflammatory agent (ketoprofen) eliminates the cortisol increase (stress) during the first 8 hours after castration. (nmsu.edu)
  • calves
  • Two studies in Ireland showed that calves lost weight during the first 7 days after castration, but by 35 days after castration there was generally no difference in calf weight between castrated and uncastrated calves. (nmsu.edu)
  • Using similar methods, scientists in Ireland reported similar weight gain in both castrated and uncastrated calves for the first 7 days after castration when local anesthetic and anti-inflammatory agents were used. (nmsu.edu)
  • Calves may not be receiving the right level of pain relief when undergoing routine animal husbandry procedures including castration and disbudding, new research has found. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • However, whilst this should be commended, the apparent lack of use of appropriate analgesia specifically in calves undergoing routine husbandry procedures such as castration and disbudding requires urgent action. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Although costs allocated to procedures such as disbudding and castration were lower compared to more major procedures, the small size of calves means that the cost of providing this additional analgesia is low. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • A 2011 study that surveyed 639 farmers found that 52% of farmers reported that disbudding caused pain lasting more than 6 hours, that only 10 percent of the farmers used local anesthesia before cauterization, 5 percent provided calves with postoperative analgesia, and that farmers "indicated limited willingness to pay the cost of analgesia or to call a veterinarian to perform the procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • veterinary
  • Vasectomies are usually performed in a physician's office, medical clinic, or, when performed on an animal, in a veterinary clinic-hospitalization is not normally required as the procedure is not complicated, the incisions small, and the necessary equipment routine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous procedures performed on domestic animals are more invasive than purely cosmetic alterations, but differ from types of veterinary surgery that are performed exclusively for urgent health reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such procedures have been grouped together under the technical term "mutilatory" by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons in a report describing the reasons for their being conducted and their welfare consequences, and by others. (wikipedia.org)
  • discomfort
  • While the horse was gelded because the undescended testicle caused him noticeable discomfort and his manners also improved after castration, his success in horse racing has led to considerable discussion over whether it would have been better to opt for surgically correcting the condition instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the procedure is minimally invasive, many vasectomy patients find that they can resume their typical sexual behavior within a week, and do so with little or no discomfort. (wikipedia.org)
  • removal
  • In this work, Achillinus also gives directions as how to proceed with certain dissections and procedures such as castration, extraction of stone, and removal of the rib cage to further examine the heart and lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • sexual
  • Wim Deetman was criticized by the Dutch parliament for excluding evidence of castration in his report on sexual abuse by the Roman Catholic Church, where ten children were allegedly "punished" by castration in the 1950s for reporting sexual abuse by Roman Catholic priests. (wikipedia.org)
  • method
  • This guide summarizes research comparisons of methods of castration and age at which castration is performed so that managers can make informed decisions about castration method and timing. (nmsu.edu)
  • The use of local anesthetics alone has yielded mixed results in reducing castration stress, and the results seem to depend on castration method. (nmsu.edu)
  • Because the procedure is considered a permanent method of contraception and is not easily reversed, men are usually counseled/advised to consider how the long-term outcome of a vasectomy might affect them both emotionally and physically. (wikipedia.org)
  • pain
  • Pain is inherently a part of castration and cannot be avoided. (nmsu.edu)
  • Minimizing castration-induced pain is important for animal welfare, growth performance, and immune suppression that may be associated with castration. (nmsu.edu)
  • The sensation and effects of chronic pain may be best measured by evaluating weight change following castration. (nmsu.edu)
  • These results indicate that the chronic pain associated with castration lasts around 1 week. (nmsu.edu)
  • NSAIDs are useful in the management of post-operative dental pain following invasive dental procedures such as dental extraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anesthesia is required for many surgical procedures which require the patient to be immobile, unaware, and without pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • Surgery called a cryptorchidectomy is used to remove the retained testicle, but different procedures are used, depending on the location inside the body cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • History
  • Much of Spain was under Muslim rulers during the Middle Ages, and castration had a history going back to the ancient Near East. (wikipedia.org)
  • Involuntary castration appears in the history of warfare, sometimes used by one side to torture or demoralize their enemies. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • The procedure is not often encouraged for young single men as their chances for biological parenthood are thereby more or less permanently reduced to almost zero. (wikipedia.org)
  • The procedure is regarded as permanent because vasectomy reversal is costly and often does not restore the male's sperm count or sperm motility to prevasectomy levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • certain
  • Castration was frequently used for religious or social reasons in certain cultures in Europe, South Asia, Africa, and East Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, certain diagnostic procedures require anesthesia, notably stomach or airway endoscopy, bone marrow sampling, and occasionally ultrasound. (wikipedia.org)
  • animal
  • Their definition is a narrower one: "covering all procedures, carried out with or without instruments which involve interference with the sensitive tissues or the bone structure of an animal, and are carried out for non-therapeutic reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • horse
  • The effects of housing and management systems, training procedures, reproduction management, exercise and work on horse welfare. (weebly.com)
  • TAT should be administered to any horse not properly vaccinated when the known tetanus risk is high (when there are wounds, foot abscesses, emergency procedures, etc. (thehorse.com)
  • Many procedures can be performed on the standing horse with heavy sedation alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Events
  • Castration before puberty (or in its early stages) prevents a boy's larynx from being transformed by the normal physiological events of puberty. (wikipedia.org)
  • Records
  • The earliest records for intentional castration to produce eunuchs are from the Sumerian city of Lagash in the 21st century BC. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • Castration methods are generally divided into two categories: surgical or bloodless. (nmsu.edu)
  • There are several methods by which a surgeon might complete a vasectomy procedure, all of which occlude (i.e. "seal") at least one side of each vas deferens. (wikipedia.org)