• impulsivity
  • In psychology, impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurobiological findings suggest that there are specific brain regions involved in impulsive behavior, although different brain networks may contribute to different manifestations of impulsivity, and that genetics may play a role. (wikipedia.org)
  • High PCL-R scores are positively associated with measures of impulsivity and aggression, Machiavellianism, persistent criminal behavior, and negatively associated with measures of empathy and affiliation. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavioral
  • According to the American Psychiatric Association, physicians stated three criteria to diagnose this disease: (1) physiological problems, such as hand tremors and blackouts, (2) psychological problems, such as excessive desire to drink, and (3) behavioral problems that disrupt social interaction or work performance. (wikipedia.org)
  • As defined by experts with a biomedical background, a mental disorder is "a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or psychological pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present disability or with a significantly increased risk of suffering, death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children with CU traits have distinct problems in emotional and behavioral regulation that distinguish them from other antisocial youth and show more similarity to characteristics found in adult psychopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common areas of study include psychosocial development, environmental factors which contribute to the development of a disorder, outcomes of children with medical conditions, treating the comorbid behavioral and emotional components of illness and injury, and promoting proper health behaviors, developmental disabilities, educating psychologists and other health professionals on the psychological aspects of pediatric conditions, and advocating for public policy that promotes children's health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interventions are not just illness-related, but address behavioral problems as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • traits
  • Callous and unemotional traits (CU) are distinguished by a persistent pattern of behavior that reflects a disregard for others, and also a lack of empathy and generally deficient affect. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interplay between genetic and environmental risk factors may play a role in the expression of these traits as a conduct disorder (CD). (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition "with limited prosocial emotions" to the conduct disorder diagnosis in DSM-5 is to classify a specific subgroup of antisocial youth with distinguishing antisocial behaviors and psychopathic traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoactivity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in combination with CU traits seem to cause antisocial behavior even without external hardships. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children with conduct problems who also exhibit high levels of CU traits reflect a particularly high heritability rate of 0.81, as reflected in longitudinal research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children with CU traits have more severe conduct disorder, and respond to different management. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children with high CU traits are less responsive to time-out and other punishment techniques than are healthy children as they are unperturbed by the threat of punishment and time-out does not seem to bother them, so their behavior does not improve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reward-based disciplining techniques, such as praise and reinforcement, tend to have a greater effect than punishing techniques on children with high CU traits in reducing antisocial behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Childhood-onset CU shows a more aggressive and stable pattern of antisocial behavior with higher rates of CU traits, as well as more severe temperamental and neuropsychological risk factors relative to their adolescent-onset counterparts. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a 20-item inventory of perceived personality traits and recorded behaviors, intended to be completed on the basis of a semi-structured interview along with a review of 'collateral information' such as official records. (wikipedia.org)
  • adolescents
  • Despite being the most commonly studied and diagnosed mental disorder in children and adolescents, the exact cause is unknown in the majority of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pediatric psychology is a multidisciplinary field of both scientific research and clinical practice which attempts to address the psychological aspects of illness, injury, and the promotion of health behaviors in children, adolescents, and families in a pediatric health setting. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least 10% of children and adolescents have functional impairment due to a diagnosed mental health and/or substance abuse disorder (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999), and up to 25% have clinically significant problems that may not (yet) rise to the level of a diagnosable psychiatric disorder (Briggs-Gowan et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Psychiatry
  • 1 , 2 Both the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry have recently developed clinical practice guidelines for this disorder. (aappublications.org)
  • Biological psychiatry has tended to follow a biomedical model focused on organic or "hardware" pathology of the brain, where many mental disorders are conceptualized as disorders of brain circuits likely caused by developmental processes shaped by a complex interplay of genetics and experience. (wikipedia.org)
  • onset
  • Tourette syndrome is an inherited neurological disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by the presence of motor and phonic tics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The onset of directed attention fatigue can be triggered by a number of activities, all of which involve use of the brain's inhibitory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Such patterns of comorbidity among psychiatric disorders highlight possible common etiological processes, genetic influences, or maintaining factors among subsets of disorders, and may also have implications for treatment selection and responsiveness to specific therapies ( Krueger, 1999 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon constructed computer programs that simulated the thought processes people go through when solving different kinds of problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • personality
  • This temporary condition is not a clinical illness or a personality disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • PCL-R Factors 1a and 1b are correlated with narcissistic personality disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factor 1 has been correlated with narcissistic personality disorder, low anxiety, low empathy, low stress reaction and low suicide risk but high scores on scales of achievement and social potency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormal
  • In contrast to the abnormal movements of other movement disorders (for example, choreas, dystonias, myoclonus, and dyskinesias), the tics of Tourette's are temporarily suppressible, nonrhythmic, and often preceded by an unwanted premonitory urge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormal functioning of neurotransmitter systems has been implicated[citation needed] in several mental disorders, including serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine and glutamate systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • schizophrenia
  • Family studies indicate that the closer a person's genetic relatedness to a person with schizophrenia, the greater the likelihood of developing the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnostic
  • Non-random patterns of diagnostic comorbidity among some combinations of psychiatric disorders are common and likely meaningful. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In several recent reports, confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) methods have been used to evaluate competing hierarchical models of psychiatric disorders based on concurrent, 12-month, or lifetime diagnostic comorbidity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A frequent assumption underlying this research is that the resultant measurement models reveal a "liability spectrum," whereby certain psychiatric disorders are regarded as expressions of latent liabilities that, in turn, explain diagnostic comorbidity or the increased risk for spectrum-related disorders during one's lifetime ( Krueger & Markon, 2006 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 ) [ American: 2015 ] generally designates the same codes as ICD-10 does, but its publisher, the American Psychiatric Association, prohibits our including their codes or descriptions. (medicalhomeportal.org)
  • Tourette's was classified by the fourth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) as one of several tic disorders "usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence" according to type (motor or phonic tics) and duration (transient or chronic). (wikipedia.org)
  • A CU specifier has been included as a feature of conduct disorder in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • full citation needed] The causes of mental disorders are generally complex and vary depending on the particular disorder and the individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have indicated[citation needed] that variation in genes can play an important role in the development of mental disorders, although the reliable identification of connections between specific genes and specific categories of disorder has proven more difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspects of the wider community have also been implicated,[citation needed] including employment problems, socioeconomic inequality, lack of social cohesion, problems linked to migration, and features of particular societies and cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • Some fMRI studies have shown that directed attention involves changes in the anterior cingulate cortex and the lateral prefrontal cortex, perhaps as a consequence of increased connectivity between these two areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • comorbidity
  • To address this apparent contradiction, confirmatory factor analytic methods and information-theoretic criteria were used to evaluate four theoretically plausible measurement models based on lifetime comorbidity patterns of seven putative externalizing disorders. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • tasks
  • To clarify this issue, future neuropsychological investigations are encouraged to employ tasks with significantly more trials and direct manipulations of bottom-up mechanisms with larger samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Often has trouble keeping attention on tasks or play activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although one's efforts may involve very different tasks, each incoming stimulus calls upon the same directed attention mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] Directed attention, or voluntary attention, requires a great deal of concentration and focus, and is employed in tasks such as problem solving. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies that require participants to carry out attention-demanding tasks under conditions of high distraction reveal how unpleasant a mentally fatigued person can be. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatigue that is experienced by participants of these kinds of studies is induced by attention-intensive tasks, and the observed effects of such fatigue are correlated with decline in inhibitory control. (wikipedia.org)
  • alcohol
  • For example, if the "Chief Enabler" (the main enabler in the family) will often turn a blind eye to the addict's drug/alcohol use as this allows for the enabler to continue to play the victim and/or martyr role, while allowing the addict to continue his/her own destructive behavior. (wikipedia.org)