**physics**- CARLO ROVELLI is a theoretical physicist, working on quantum gravity and on foundations of spacetime physics. (edge.org)
- E, Statistical physics, plasmas, fluids, and related interdisciplinary topics Physical strength Physical substance Physical system Physical theories modified by general relativity Physicist Physicist and Christian Physics PhysicsWeb Physics (American Physical Society journal) Physics Abstracts Physics Abstracts. (wikipedia.org)
- Theoretical physicist Richard Feynman was one of the first to propose the idea of quantum computers in the 1980s, as a way to overcome the limitations of classical computers in simulating quantum systems in physics. (csmonitor.com)
- Furthermore, with Sommerfeld educating such capable physicists, when they were called to other facilities, they effectively became extensions of Sommerfeld's Institute of Theoretical Physics. (wikipedia.org)
- Today's computers---both in theory (Turing machines) and practice (PCs and smart phones)---are based on classical physics. (cwi.nl)
- 1976 Polish mathematical physicist Roman Stanisław Ingarden publishes a seminal paper entitled "Quantum Information Theory" in Reports on Mathematical Physics, vol. 10, 43-72, 1976. (wikipedia.org)
- The quadratic speedup is not as dramatic as the speedup for factoring, discrete logs, or physics simulations. (wikipedia.org)

**researchers**- The researchers used a top-down nanofabrication technique to embed color centers into a variety of machined structures. (bio-medicine.org)
- A team of researchers compared the performance of a D-Wave Two device to that of a classical computer on a specific set of problems, and failed to find evidence that the quantum computer was faster. (csmonitor.com)
- For the problems they tested, the researchers found no evidence of "quantum speedup," or faster performance, on the D-Wave Two. (csmonitor.com)

**mathematical**- Dozens of mathematical models of the atmosphere and things that affect it are being applied to the problem. (nytimes.com)
- Inverse problems are some of the most important mathematical problems in science and mathematics because they tell us about parameters that we cannot directly observe. (wikipedia.org)
- Linear algebra is useful in understanding the physical and mathematical construction of inverse problems, because of the presence of the transformation or "mapping" of data to the model parameters. (wikipedia.org)
- The course is taught from a mathematical and theoretical computer science perspective, but should be accessible for physicists as well. (cwi.nl)

**Wayback Machine**- Springer, 2001) ISBN 0-387-95179-2 van der Waerden, B. L., editor, Sources of Quantum Mechanics (Dover Publications, 1968) ISBN 0-486-61881-1 Author Catalog: Hönl Archived 2007-02-05 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
- 141-161 (1925) as cited in Arnold Sommerfeld Bibliography Archived 2008-10-03 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
- James T. Russell, The Digital Compact Disc at the Wayback Machine (archived April 2, 2013) Adam Holdorf (November 2000). (wikipedia.org)

**discrete**- In the case of a discrete linear inverse problem describing a linear system, d {\displaystyle d} (the data) and m {\displaystyle m} (the best model) are vectors, and the problem can be written as d = G m {\displaystyle \ d=Gm} where G {\displaystyle G} is a matrix (an operator), often called the observation matrix. (wikipedia.org)
- It solved both the factoring problem and the discrete log problem. (wikipedia.org)

**spacetime**- Objective reduction is proposed to be influenced by non-computable factors imbedded in spacetime geometry which thus may account for the Hard Problem of Consciousness. (wikipedia.org)

**2018**- Burnaby, BC, March 15, 2018--(T-Net)-- D-Wave Systems has announced that anew research study by USC Viterbi shows D-Wave's Two X quantum computing machine has promise for biological research. (bctechnology.com)

**nuclear**- The Fermi paradox, an argument put forth by nuclear physicist Enrico Fermi in 1950, then begs the question, "If extraterrestrial beings are commonplace, where are they? (hubpages.com)

**Turing**- November 7 - Barbara Liskov, American computer scientist, Turing Award winner November 11 - Alf Adams, English physicist. (wikipedia.org)
- Just as a Universal Turing machine can simulate any other Turing machine efficiently, so the universal quantum computer is able to simulate any other quantum computer with at most a polynomial slowdown. (wikipedia.org)
- A quantum Turing machine is a theoretical model of such a computer, and is also known as the universal quantum computer. (wikipedia.org)

**late 1970s**- By the late 1970s, newer machines had reached all of the conditions needed for practical fusion, although not at the same time and in a single reactor. (wikipedia.org)
- From the late-1970s, LLNL developed a series of machines to reach the conditions being predicted by LASNEX and other simulations. (wikipedia.org)
- The first machine, the Shiva laser of the late 1970s, produced compression on the order of 50 to 100 times, but did not produce fusion reactions anywhere near the expected levels. (wikipedia.org)

**simulations**- Working in parallel with the laser teams, physicists studying the expected reaction using computer simulations adapted from thermonuclear bomb work developed a program known as LASNEX that suggested Q of 1 could be produced at much lower energy levels, in the kilojoule range, levels that the laser team were now able to deliver. (wikipedia.org)

**tokamak**- By the mid-1960s, experimental machines demonstrated that the tokamak concept was a dramatic improvement over older designs. (wikipedia.org)
- The performance was such an advance that the US abandoned the stellarator approach and converted their latest machine to a tokamak. (wikipedia.org)
- This led to a new series of machines in the 1980s, notably the Joint European Torus and Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, with the explicit goal of reaching breakeven. (wikipedia.org)

**probability**- Richard von Mises poses the birthday problem in probability. (wikipedia.org)

**efficiently**- The laws of quantum mechanics constrain how we can perform computational operations on these qubits, and thus determine how efficiently we can solve a certain computational problem. (cwi.nl)
- For example, Peter Shor in 1994 found a quantum algorithm that can efficiently factor large integers into their prime factors. (cwi.nl)
- On the other hand, quantum computers may be able to efficiently solve problems which are not practically feasible on classical computers. (wikipedia.org)

**solve problems**- I have a Euclidean earthly mind, and how could I solve problems that are not of this world? (wikipedia.org)

**theoretical model**- They developed a theoretical model of electron densities and the atomic scattering factor in solids. (wikipedia.org)

**quantum machine**- We chose to attack the problem using machine learning implemented on a D-Wave quantum annealer, in order to test our ability to translate complicated real-life biology problems to the setting of quantum machine learning, and to look for any advantages this approach might offer over more conventional, yet state-of-the-art classical machine learning techniques," Lidar added . (bctechnology.com)
- The quantum machine was also able to generate conclusions that were consistent with a biologist's current understanding of gene regulation. (bctechnology.com)

**experimental**- The algorithm they developed specifically for the D-Wave Two X quantum annealing machine led to predictions that were in agreement with real-world experimental data. (bctechnology.com)

**Diamonds**- Part I." (English translation from the German) Annalen der Physik 25 (4): 281-308 (1936) P. P. Ewald and H. Hönl "X-ray interference in diamonds as problem of wave mechanics. (wikipedia.org)

**British**- In 1922, Dr. Lewis Fry Richardson, a British physicist with a penchant for grand ideas, described how to forecast the behavior of the atmosphere. (nytimes.com)
- November 1-2 - Physicist Hans Ferdinand Mayer writes the Oslo Report on German weapons systems and passes it to the British Secret Intelligence Service. (wikipedia.org)
- The well-known British physicist and author said technology is partly to blame for the rise in income inequality. (q13fox.com)

**computational**- Chemistry PhD candidate Richard Li, computational nano/bio physicist Rosa Di Felice, quantum computing expert and Viterbi Professor of Engineering Daniel Lidar along with computational biologist Remo Rohs sought to apply machine learning to derive models from biological data to predict whether certain sequences of DNA represented strong or weak binding sites for binding of a particular set of transcription factors. (bctechnology.com)
- However, the real aim is to find computational problems where a quantum computer is much more efficient than classical computers. (cwi.nl)

**theoretically**- Large-scale quantum computers would theoretically be able to solve certain problems much more quickly than any classical computers that use even the best currently known algorithms, like integer factorization using Shor's algorithm or the simulation of quantum many-body systems. (wikipedia.org)

**scientist**- Colin Williams, a quantum computer scientist and D-Wave's director of business development, told Science Magazine that the problems used in the study were "not at all the right choice for probing a quantum speedup. (csmonitor.com)

**parameters**- The inverse problem can be conceptually formulated as follows: Data → Model parameters The inverse problem is considered the "inverse" to the forward problem which relates the model parameters to the data that we observe: Model parameters → Data The transformation from data to model parameters (or vice versa) is a result of the interaction of a physical system with the object that we wish to infer properties about. (wikipedia.org)
- The objective of an inverse problem is to find the best model parameters m {\displaystyle m} such that (at least approximately) d = G ( m ) {\displaystyle \ d=G(m)} where G {\displaystyle G} is an operator describing the explicit relationship between the observed data, d {\displaystyle d} , and the model parameters. (wikipedia.org)
- At the Mercy Cancer Center , three uniquely qualified specialists―a medical physicist, a dosimetrist and a radiation oncologist―work together to determine the parameters for a course of radiation treatment. (dignityhealth.org)

**Professor**- It's the biggest factor," Erik Brynjolfsson, a professor at MIT's Sloan School of Management, told "Technology Review. (q13fox.com)

**advance**- To predict weather 24 hours in advance, he said, 64,000 people with adding machines would have to work nonstop -- for 24 hours. (nytimes.com)
- A second set of results was published in 1968, this time claiming performance far in advance of any other machine. (wikipedia.org)

**physical**- Physical Factors Pertaining to Use of Electron Accelerators for Food Irradiation. (wikipedia.org)

**model**- Their work has been referenced in the literature as the Ewald-Hönl-Brill model (after the German physicist Rudolf Brill). (wikipedia.org)

**Dozens**- By the mid-1970s, dozens of similar machines were in use around the world. (wikipedia.org)

**accelerators**- This interesting field led to John Dawson's discovery of plasma accelerators, which can shrink the size of machines for high-energy particle research by a factor of 1000! (ebooks.com)
- Radiation Protection Problems Associated with Electron Accelerators. (wikipedia.org)

**large**- It allowed a quantum computer to factor large integers quickly. (wikipedia.org)

**early**- citation needed] The early physicist Leucippus (fl. (wikipedia.org)
- The hypothesis was put forward in the early 1990s by theoretical physicist Roger Penrose and anaesthesiologist and psychologist Stuart Hameroff. (wikipedia.org)

**work**- These experiments led to a better understanding of the theoretical nature of the problem, which in turn led to major work by John Bryan Taylor on a general theory of high-current electric discharges in magnetic fields. (wikipedia.org)
- Theoretical physicist James Clerk Maxwell is best known for his work in formulating the equations of electromagnetism. (wikipedia.org)

**science**- An inverse problem in science is the process of calculating from a set of observations the causal factors that produced them: for example, calculating an image in X-ray computed tomography, source reconstruction in acoustics, or calculating the density of the Earth from measurements of its gravity field. (wikipedia.org)
- We do not see any evidence of quantum speedup in the D-Wave device ," said Matthias Troyer, a theoretical physicist at ETH Zurich, in Switzerland, and co-author of the study, detailed today (June 19) in the journal Science. (csmonitor.com)
- The course is taught from a computer science perspective but should be accessible for physicists as well. (cwi.nl)
- Physicists also contributed to the war effort, developing wireless communication technologies and sound-based methods of detecting U-boats, resulting in the first tenuous long-term connections between academic science and the military. (wikipedia.org)

**paper**- A 1992 paper by physicists Andrei Lossev and Igor Novikov labeled such items without origin as Jinn, with the singular term Jinnee. (wikipedia.org)

**poor**- Everyone can enjoy a life of luxurious leisure if the machine-produced wealth is shared, or most people can end up miserably poor if the machine owners successfully lobby against wealth redistribution," he said in a Reddit AMA (ask me anything) post last week. (q13fox.com)

**once**- The biggest models have improved substantially in the last few years, with many no longer requiring ''flux adjustments'' -- essentially fudge factors -- that were once needed to prevent the machine-generated, theoretical climates from drifting out of the realm of the possible. (nytimes.com)

**device**- Harwell operated the largest, most powerful and most sophisticated fusion device, the ZETA (fusion reactor) machine. (wikipedia.org)
- Further, the diamond nanowire is designed to overcome hurdles that have challenged other state-of-the-art systemssuch as those based on fluorescent dye molecules, quantum dots, and carbon nanotubesas the device can be readily replicated and integrated with a variety of nano-machined structures. (bio-medicine.org)
- Or, it could be that the D-Wave's qubits are not ideal - the device uses qubit technology that is a decade old, so the bits may only stay in position for about 10 nanoseconds (10 billionths of a second), even though it takes 20 microseconds (2,000 times as long) to solve a problem, Troyer said. (csmonitor.com)

**known**- The proteins that regulate which genes are expressed are known as transcription factors (TFs). (bctechnology.com)
- Comparing the driver energy input to the fusion energy output produces a number known as fusion energy gain factor, labelled Q. A Q value of at least 1 is required for the system to produce net energy. (wikipedia.org)

**made**- Even with the best computers, though, important parts of the climate puzzle still elude both the machines and the theoreticians, although progress is being made. (nytimes.com)
- Helmut Hönl (February 10, 1903 in Mannheim, Germany - March 29, 1981 in Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German theoretical physicist who made contributions to quantum mechanics and the understanding of atomic and molecular structure. (wikipedia.org)

**national**- The system was first formally discussed in the December 1976 National Reference Designs Study, which examined the technical and economic feasibility of a machine with the design capacity of 20 TeV per proton. (wikipedia.org)

**find**- He does not find this paradoxical, and attributes problems regarding the validity of time travel to other factors in the interpretation of general relativity. (wikipedia.org)

**increases**- The resulting enhanced optical properties increases photon collection by nearly a factor of ten relative to natural diamond devices. (bio-medicine.org)

**computers**- Quantum computers are thought to be able to solve complex problems thousands of times faster than classical computers, and scientists have been working on developing them for more than a decade. (csmonitor.com)
- This problem is generally believed to take exponential time on even the best classical computers, and its assumed hardness forms the basis of much of modern cryptography (particularly the widespread RSA system). (cwi.nl)

**power**- Derek Charles Robinson FRS (27 May 1941 - 2 December 2002) was a physicist who worked in the UK fusion power program for most of his professional career. (wikipedia.org)
- The Kite Wind Generator (KWG) or KiteGen is claimed to eliminate all the static and dynamic problems that prevent the increase of the power (in terms of dimensions) obtainable from the traditional horizontal-axis wind turbine generators. (wikipedia.org)

**research**- The research was conducted on a D-Wave Two X machine at the USC Information Sciences Institute . (bctechnology.com)
- Nonetheless, toward the end of the Second World War, this article, written by the 20-year-old Ambartsumian, was found by Swedish mathematicians and formed the starting point for a whole area of research on inverse problems, becoming the foundation of an entire discipline. (wikipedia.org)

**time**- He had details wrong but the basic concept right: a suite of equations that, when applied to measurements of heat, cloudiness, humidity and the like, could project how those factors would change over time. (nytimes.com)
- H.G. Wells famously employed the concept of a higher temporal dimension in his 1895 book The Time Machine. (wikipedia.org)

**general**- But moving beyond that general conclusion presents enormous problems. (nytimes.com)

**prime**- Later, mathematician Peter Shor showed that a quantum computer could factor an integer into prime numbers, an ability that could be used to crack encryption algorithms on the Internet. (csmonitor.com)

**forward**- This is the inverse of a forward problem, which starts with the causes and then calculates the results. (wikipedia.org)

**classical**- They posed a thousand random optimization problems to the machine, and measured how long it took to solve them, compared with a classical PC. (csmonitor.com)
- An algorithm is composed of a fixed sequence of quantum logic gates and a problem is encoded by setting the initial values of the qubits, similar to how a classical computer works. (wikipedia.org)

**people**- So even as the evidence grows that earth's climate is warming and that people are responsible for at least part of the change, the toughness of the modeling problem is often cited by those who oppose international action to cut the emissions of heat-trapping gases. (nytimes.com)
- Shorter Stephen Hawking: 'For hundreds of years, people who claimed that machines reduce jobs have looked silly. (q13fox.com)

**study**- One novelty of the study was the mapping of a biological problem using actual protein-DNA binding data to a quantum chip. (bctechnology.com)
- In basic experiments, he and his students were among the first to study Brillouin and Raman scattering, two instabilities that cause problems even in laser-produced plasmas. (ebooks.com)

**test**- Designed to pinpoint patients who might be helped by the drug Iressa, the new test hunts for mutations in a gene called epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ), whose protein Iressa targets. (sciencemag.org)
- Perhaps, the scientists simply didn't test the machine on the right set of problems. (csmonitor.com)

**modern**- The idea of a fourth dimension has been a factor in the evolution of modern art, but use of concepts relating to higher dimensions has been little discussed by academics in the literary world. (wikipedia.org)

**project**- The project was cancelled in 1993 due to budget problems. (wikipedia.org)
- Prominent condensed matter physicists, such as Philip W. Anderson and Nicolaas Bloembergen, testified before Congress opposing the project. (wikipedia.org)
- With the problem of ignition unsolved, the LIFE project was cancelled in 2013. (wikipedia.org)

**German**- Helmut Hönl "The intensity problem of spectral lines" (Translated from the German) Annalen der Physik 79 (1926) 273-323. (wikipedia.org)

**Technology**- The key problem: Technology has replaced many blue collar jobs that paid well. (q13fox.com)
- Machine Irradiation Sources and Irradiation Technology. (wikipedia.org)

**reach**- the machine appeared to reach 5 million degrees, hot enough to be generating fusion at a low rate, within an order of two of the number of neutrons one would expect to generate at that temperature. (wikipedia.org)

**towards**- In their public statements (but not necessarily in their private statements), scientists express a generally negative attitude towards the UFO problem, and it is interesting to try to understand this attitude. (hubpages.com)

**field**- The field of inverse problems was first discovered and introduced by Soviet-Armenian physicist, Viktor Ambartsumian. (wikipedia.org)

**major**- This presents a major problem if you want to interface a color center and integrate it into real-world applications," explains Loncar. (bio-medicine.org)

**complex**- They instead demonstrated a new series of problems that limited their performance and demonstrated that a successful machine would have to be larger and more complex. (wikipedia.org)

**real**- To date, much has been stated about the promise of quantum computing for myriad of applications but there have been few examples of a quantum advantage for real-world problems of practical interest. (bctechnology.com)

**team**- As the nature of these problems became clear, the ZETA team turned from attempting fusion to developing dramatically improved diagnostic tools for characterizing the plasma. (wikipedia.org)