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  • protein
  • MegaTran 1.0 is a polymer based transfection reagent specially designed and manufactured for high volume DNA transfection and large scale protein production in HEK293T, CHO and 293S cells. (origene.com)
  • But, with increasing numbers of biotechnology protein therapeutics and novel scaffolds available, which open the possibility for oral delivery, there is a need for alternatives that more closely recapitulate the physiology of the intestinal epithelial cell. (frontiersin.org)
  • The uptake of ECG in the Caco-2 cells increased 2-fold in the presence of 50 μM 3-[{3-[2-(7-chloroquinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenyl}-(2-dimethylcarbamoylethylsulfanyl)methylsulfanyl] propionic acid (MK-571), suggesting the involvement of multidrug-associated protein (MRP)2 in efflux of ECG. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our observations indicate that apical membrane uptake transporters as well as efflux pumps, such as the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)2 as well as MRP1 and P-glycoprotein, play a major role in cellular accumulation of ECG. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this study, induction of UGT1A1 expression (mRNA, protein, and activity) was investigated in primary human hepatocyte cultures after treatment with chrysin and other prototypical inducers. (aspetjournals.org)
  • mRNA isoforms of trypsin ( PRSS1 , 2 and 3 ) were detected by reverse transcription-PCR, and trypsin-3 protein expression was studied by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. (bmj.com)
  • Gene ontology and protein-protein interaction network analysis showed that groups of proteins with roles in fatty acid synthesis and ATP biosynthesis were highly enriched in the fractions of this population in infected cells. (asm.org)
  • Protein purification involves the isolation of a specific protein of interest from a complex mixture of proteins, often obtained from homogenized cells or tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • SLC22A5 is a membrane transport protein associated with primary carnitine deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukotriene B4 receptor 2, also known as BLT2, BLT2 receptor, and BLTR2, is a Integral membrane protein that is encoded by the LTB4R2 gene in humans and the Ltbr2 gene in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • it also stimulates cells to activate Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), Protein kinase B (also known as Akt), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), Janus kinase (JAK)-STAT protein (i.e. signal transducer and activator of transcription, NADPH oxidase (NOX), and NF-κB pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • HNF-1 protein is present in clear cell carcinoma of ovary In humans, mutations in HNF1A cause diabetes that responds to low dose sulfonylurea agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein is expressed as a precursor protein that is processed into two cell-surface-associated subunits, although the site at which the precursor is cleaved has not been precisely determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ectopic expression of miR-26a influences cell cycle progression by targeting the bona fide oncogene EZH2 which is a polycomb protein and global regulator of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • miR-205 exerts a tumor-suppressive effect in human prostate by counteracting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and reducing cell migration/invasion, at least in part through the down-regulation of protein kinase Cepsilon. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD14 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein that binds the LPS-LBP complex and facilitates the transfer of LPS to MD-2 protein, which is associated with the extracellular domain of TLR4. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MyD88-dependent pathway is regulated by two adaptor-associated proteins: Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response Gene 88 (MyD88) and TIR Domain-Containing Adaptor Protein (TIRAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, the IcsA effector protein triggers actin reorganization by N-WASP recruitment of Arp2/3 complexes, helping cell-to-cell spread. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Concentrations of metabolites of acetaminophen in the cell culture medium were monitored over 24 hours, revealing that the system was capable of reproducing the uptake and first pass metabolism of acetaminophen. (cornell.edu)
  • In this presentation we will discuss a liver cell culture device that could help improve early stage drug testing and also contribute to clarifying the mechanisms that enable hepatocytes to increase their metabolism in response to fluidic cell culture conditions. (cornell.edu)
  • Nutrition & Metabolism (2018) 15:37 Page 2 of 12 Background Mice were fed a basal diet (AIN-93G diet, purchased The latest data from the World Health Organization re- from the Academy of Military Medical Science) during veal that cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), principally the first week for adaptation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Further study demonstrated that UGT1A1 mRNA expression could be induced in human hepatocyte cultures by either increasing the chrysin dosing frequency or by modulating chrysin metabolism, suggesting that the differential induction observed in hepatocytes and HepG2 cells was due to differences in the metabolic clearance of chrysin. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Because studies in humans were limited, other investigators examined disposition, metabolism, and induction potential of chrysin in clinical studies or immortalized human cell lines. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this work, we provide evidence that astrovirus RNA replication and virus assembly occur in contact with cell membranes potentially derived from multiple cell organelles and show that membrane-associated cellular proteins involved in lipid metabolism are required for efficient viral replication. (asm.org)
  • Suspension or plated cultures of primary hepatocytes or hepatocyte-like cell lines (HepG2, HepaRG) can be used to study and quantify metabolism of chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The participation of HNF-1α in glucose metabolism and diabetes has been reported, including the involvement in GLUT1 and GLUT2 transporter expression in pancreatic β-cells and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene expression in pancreatic islets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effector proteins can alter the metabolism of the target cell, for instance leading to the lysis of vacuolar membranes or reorganization of actin polymerization to facilitate intracellular motility of Shigella bacteria inside the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crawford (2010) in his chapter Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human brain evolution reported, with regard to the language of lipids, that the importance of the increased complexity of these lipids was brought about by aerobic metabolism, whereby the simple language of prokaryotes, with only a few words, was developed into a vocabulary of over 1,000 words of eukaryote cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • In vitro and in vivo targetability of anti-G M3 and anti-Le x immunoliposomes to B16BL6 mouse melanoma cells and HRT-18 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells were monitored with a fluorescence microscopy, and analyzed by biodistribution assay of the immunoliposome in mice bearing the tumor tissues. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • The Caco-2 assay has achieved wide popularity among pharmaceutical companies in the past two decades as an in vitro method for estimation of in vivo oral bioavailability of pharmaceutical compounds during preclinical characterization. (stanford.edu)
  • Despite its popularity, this assay suffers from a severe underprediction of the transport of drugs which are absorbed paracellularly, that is, which pass through the cell-cell tight junctions of the absorptive cells of the small intestine. (stanford.edu)
  • Here, we propose that simply replacing the collagen I matrix employed in the standard Caco-2 assay with an engineered matrix, we can control cell morphology and hence regulate the cell-cell junctions that dictate paracellular transport. (stanford.edu)
  • uptake
  • The oral uptake of acetaminophen was simulated with a two-organ microfluidic cell culture platform. (cornell.edu)
  • The saturable ECG uptake by the Caco-2 cells was sodium-independent but clearly dependent on a pH gradient. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The main purpose of this study was to examine the Caco-2 cell uptake of ECG and EGCG, the tea flavonoids that have been shown to be the most biologically active, in comparison with EC and its geometric isomer (+)-catechin. (aspetjournals.org)
  • About 500 million years ago, some nervous cells and some gut cells of vertebrates, migrated and specialized in a more complex nervous system: the brain, and in uptake and storage of iodocompounds: the follicular thyroid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis
  • Cells undergoing apoptosis are further oxidized to between −170 mV and −165 mV ( 7 , 17 ). (physiology.org)
  • AP-1 transcription factor has been shown to have a hand in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therapeutic miR-26a delivery using adeno-associated virus (AAV) is able to inhibit cancer cell formation while also inducing tumour-specific apoptosis and providing dramatic protection from disease progression without toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It further induces apoptosis, inhibition of colony formation and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its re-expression induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and resulted in a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, such as up-regulation of E-cadherin and reduction of cell locomotion and invasion, and in the down-regulation of several oncogenes known to be involved in disease progression (i.e., interleukin 6, caveolin-1, EZH2). (wikipedia.org)
  • These biochemical signals among cells, since contact and modification of membranes in multicellular organisms formed the bases of adaptation to terrestrial environments, and their alterations are important in the mechanism of apoptosis, carcinogenesis and degenerative diseases, as well as for understand some problems discussed regarding human evolution (as Aquatic ape hypothesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Various tumor-associated antigens have been identified as carbohydrates bound to lipids or to proteins expressed on tumor cell membranes. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • Since positive-sense RNA viruses have frequently been found to replicate in association with membranous structures, in this work we characterized the replication of the human astrovirus serotype 8 strain Yuc8 in Caco-2 cells, using density gradient centrifugation and free-flow zonal electrophoresis (FFZE) to fractionate cellular membranes. (asm.org)
  • The results indicated that membranes derived from multiple cell organelles were present in the population. (asm.org)
  • These results strongly suggest that astrovirus RNA replication and particle assembly take place in association with modified membranes potentially derived from multiple cell organelles. (asm.org)
  • These membranes are flat sheets that form a continuous barrier around all cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell membranes of almost all living organisms and many viruses are made of a lipid bilayer, as are the membranes surrounding the cell nucleus and other sub-cellular structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bilayers are particularly impermeable to ions, which allows cells to regulate salt concentrations and pH by transporting ions across their membranes using proteins called ion pumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phospholipids with certain head groups can alter the surface chemistry of a bilayer and can, for example, serve as signals as well as "anchors" for other molecules in the membranes of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both these cells synthesized iodolipids, as novel words of the chemical lipid language developed among cell membranes during the evolution of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • permeability
  • Intestinal cells were assessed by marker expression through immunocytochemical and mRNA expression analyses, monolayer integrity through Transepithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER) measurements and molecule permeability, and functionality by taking advantage the well-characterized intestinal transport mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • A particularly important example in animal cells is cholesterol, which helps strengthen the bilayer and decrease its permeability. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The cellular proteins associated with this membrane population in infected and mock-infected cells were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. (asm.org)
  • For example, microorganisms or cells can be studied in artificial culture media, and proteins can be examined in solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • LPS stimulation induces a series of interactions with several accessory proteins which form the TLR4 complex on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because bilayers define the boundaries of the cell and its compartments, these membrane proteins are involved in many intra- and inter-cellular signaling processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shigella uses a type-III secretion system, which acts as a biological syringe to translocate toxic effector proteins to the target human cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • This commentary discusses early studies specifically aimed toward developing in situ-based gene therapies that can generate cytotoxic activities in localized prostate cancers and/or the generation of an immune response in the primary tumor that would affect systemic disease. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • Doxorubicin encapsulated in anti-G M3 immunoliposomes was able to reduce in vivo tumor growth and metastasis of B16BL6 mouse melanoma cells more greatly than any other formulations of the drug. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • Restoring normal miRNA levels in tumor cells can reverse that aberrant signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of miR-26a in glioma primarily results from amplification at the miR-26a-2 locus, a genomic event strongly associated with monoallelic PTEN loss.miR-26a-mediated PTEN repression in a murine glioma model both enhances de novo tumor formation and precludes loss of heterozygosity and the PTEN locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, miR-200 silencing was also reported in cancer stem cells, implying that miR-200 deregulation is a key event in multiple levels of tumor biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Trypsin-3 was able to signal to human submucosal enteric neurons and mouse sensory neurons, and to induce visceral hypersensitivity in vivo, all by a protease-activated receptor-2-dependent mechanism. (bmj.com)
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma miR-26a has been found to induce cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, in part through direct downregulation of cyclin D2 and cyclin E2. (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatocytes
  • We tested the performance of this cell culture device by co-culturing human primary non-parenchymal cells (fibroblasts, stellate, and Kupffer cells) with human primary hepatocytes for 14 days, finding that hepatocytes produced albumin and urea at elevated levels compared to static cultures. (cornell.edu)
  • Endogenous nuclear receptor-mediated UGT1A1 induction was studied using transient transfection reporter assays in primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Results indicated that induction of UGT1A1 expression was minimal in human hepatocytes treated with chrysin compared with that in HepG2 cells (1.2-versus 11-fold, respectively). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Subsequent experiments to determine whether the differential response was due to its metabolic stability revealed strikingly different elimination rate constants between the two cell systems (half-life of 13 min in human hepatocytes versus 122 min in HepG2 cell suspensions). (aspetjournals.org)
  • bacteria
  • It cooperates with LY96 (also referred as MD-2) and CD14 to mediate in signal transduction events induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) found in most gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Primary b-cell gastric lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Current projects include tissue engineering for spinal cord and blood vessel regeneration, designing injectable materials for use in stem cell therapies, and the design of microfluidic devices to study the directed migration of cells (i.e., chemotaxis). (stanford.edu)
  • Viruses, which only replicate in living cells, are studied in the laboratory in cell or tissue culture, and many animal virologists refer to such work as being in vitro to distinguish it from in vivo work in whole animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Invasion
  • Indole induced expression of genes related to efflux-mediated multidrug resistance, including ramA and acrAB , and repressed those related to host cell invasion encoded in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1, and flagella production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Commonly
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma miR-26a is commonly downregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma samples and cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Human adenocarcinoma-derived intestinal cell lines, such as Caco-2, offer conveniences of easy culture maintenance and scalability, but do not fully recapitulate in vivo intestinal phenotypes. (frontiersin.org)
  • In spite of convincing observations in animal and cell culture models, extrapolation of these in vitro findings for tea polyphenols to the in vivo situation is difficult, because the accumulation at target tissues is unknown. (aspetjournals.org)
  • miR-26a again suppresses tumorigenesis in nasopharyngeal cells in vivo, with suppressed expression of c-myc, cyclins D3 and E2, and cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context. (wikipedia.org)
  • often not italicized in English) studies are conducted using components of an organism that have been isolated from their usual biological surroundings, such as microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • BLT2 is a Cell surface receptor that functions by recognizing, binding, and mediating responses to a particular set of messenger molecules or ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later chemical libraries of synthetic small molecules, natural products or extracts were screened in intact cells or whole organisms to identify substances that have a desirable therapeutic effect in a process known as classical pharmacology. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Microphysiologic Cell Culture Systems are microfluidic platforms on which multiple in vitro tissues can communicate with each other via soluble metabolites that re-circulate through a medium stream. (cornell.edu)
  • Design Trypsin-like activity was determined in tissues from patients with IBS and in supernatants of Caco-2 cells stimulated or not. (bmj.com)
  • In vitro diagnostics refers to a wide range of medical and veterinary laboratory tests that are used to diagnose diseases and monitor the clinical status of patients using samples of blood, cells, or other tissues obtained from a patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • If a typical mammalian cell (diameter ~10 micrometers) were magnified to the size of a watermelon (~1 ft/30 cm), the lipid bilayer making up the plasma membrane would be about as thick as a piece of office paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • A membrane lipid is a compound which belongs to a group of (structurally similar to fats and oils) which form the double-layered surface of all cells (lipid bilayer). (wikipedia.org)
  • By forming a double layer with the polar ends pointing outwards and the nonpolar ends pointing inwards membrane lipids can form a 'lipid bilayer' which keeps the watery interior of the cell separate from the watery exterior. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bilayer formed by membrane lipids serves as a containment unit of a living cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These PUFAs are incorporated into the phospholipidic membrane of all the cells of an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Glutathione (GSH) is the major low molecular weight thiol in cells and plays a central role in controlling cellular thiol/disulfide redox state, which is essential for normal redox signaling ( 19 ). (physiology.org)
  • ORF1a is translated into nsp1a, a nonstructural polyprotein precursor that is subsequently processed by viral and cellular proteases ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • systemic
  • Mutations in this gene are the cause of systemic primary carnitine deficiency (CDSP), an autosomal recessive disorder manifested early in life by hypoketotic hypoglycemia and acute metabolic decompensation, and later in life by skeletal myopathy or cardiomyopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • However, the extent and mechanisms of accumulation of these flavonoids in cells is unknown. (aspetjournals.org)
  • considerable evidence demonstrates that redox signaling mechanisms function in cell regulation and growth control. (physiology.org)
  • encodes
  • ORF1b encodes nsp1b, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ( 2 , 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Each of the Shigella genomes includes a virulence plasmid that encodes conserved primary virulence determinants. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Mice with serum TC levels that were 2 standard . (deepdyve.com)
  • Intracellular GSH levels are higher in actively proliferating cells ( 7 , 34 ) and decrease gradually during serum starvation as cells become quiescent ( 34 ). (physiology.org)
  • growth
  • C-fos has also been shown to increase in expression in response to the introduction of growth factors in the cell, further supporting its suggested involvement in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • It directly represses expression of the oncogene EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2), which in turn causes inhibition of cell growth and cell-cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • CYP3A4 promotes the growth of various types of human cancer cell lines in culture by producing (±)-14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids which stimulate these cells to grow, The cytochrome P450 is also reported to have fatty acid monooxgenase activity for metabolizing arachidonic acid to 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional roles of lipids are in fact many: They serve as regulatory agents in cell growth and adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • TurboFectin 8.0 is the recommended for the delivery of TrueClone/TrueORF clones (for over-expression) and HuSH-29 constructs (shRNA for expression knock-down) in many established cell lines and cell types. (origene.com)
  • In most cases, marker expression for primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived cells appeared to be as good as or better than Caco-2. (frontiersin.org)
  • Primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived intestinal cells exhibit expected marker expression and demonstrate basic functional monolayer formation, similar to or better than Caco-2. (frontiersin.org)
  • signals
  • We hypothesised that intestinal epithelium is a major source of trypsin-like activity in patients with IBS and this activity signals to primary afferent and enteric nerves and induces visceral hypersensitivity. (bmj.com)
  • These messenger ligands are any one of a range of structurally different arachidonic acid metabolites made and released by nearby cells to act as paracrine signals for coordinating responses between cells or autocrine signals for modulating their parent cells' responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • From a study on transcriptional regulation of the miR-200 and miR-205 loci in bladder tumors and bladder cell lines, the miR-200 and miR-205 loci were found specifically silenced and gain promoter hypermethylation and repressive chromatin marks in muscle invasive bladder tumors and undifferentiated bladder cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • respectively
  • Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane in oxygen, followed by urethane (1.25 g/kg body weight, i.p.) for long-term anesthesia, plus additional doses of a mixture of ketamine and xylazine (20 and 2 mg/kg, respectively), as needed. (jneurosci.org)
  • Electrophysiological recordings and Ca 2+ imaging in response to trypsin-3 were performed in mouse primary afferent and in human submucosal neurons, respectively. (bmj.com)
  • The miR-26 family is composed of miR-26a-1, miR-26a-2 and miR-26b located in chromosomes 3, 12 and 2, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • Axo-axonic interneurons, innervating exclusively axon initial segments, and parvalbumin-expressing basket interneurons, targeting somata, dendrites, and spines of pyramidal cells, have been proposed to control neuronal activity in prefrontal circuits. (jneurosci.org)
  • In parallel, ectodermic cells, differentiated into neuronal cells, became the primitive nervous system and brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • line
  • In order to investigate the effects of silver nanoparticles on human intestinal cells, we used the Caco-2 cell line and peptide-coated silver nanoparticles with defined colloidal, structural and interfacial properties. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, in Eph4 cell line, PLEKHA7 is recruited to E-cadherin based AJ by Afadin, independently of p120. (wikipedia.org)
  • This down regulation was also observed in breast cancer cell lines, including MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 compared to the non-malignant cell line MCF-10A. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • These biochemical signals among cells, since contact and modification of membranes in multicellular organisms formed the bases of adaptation to terrestrial environments, and their alterations are important in the mechanism of apoptosis, carcinogenesis and degenerative diseases, as well as for understand some problems discussed regarding human evolution (as Aquatic ape hypothesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Therapeutic miR-26a delivery using adeno-associated virus (AAV) is able to inhibit cancer cell formation while also inducing tumour-specific apoptosis and providing dramatic protection from disease progression without toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It further induces apoptosis, inhibition of colony formation and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meanwhile, the overexpression of miR-26a in the A549 human lung cancer cell line dramatically inhibits cell proliferation, blocks G1/S phase transition, induces apoptosis, and inhibits cell metastasis and invasion in vitro.Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a potential target of miR-26a. (wikipedia.org)
  • biologically
  • In this research we possess modified a technique for culturing cells on biologically relevant smooth substrates using ECM-conjugated polyacrylamide (Pennsylvania) gel that can period the tightness range of 100 PaC150,000 Pennsylvania. (techtasys.com)
  • Human
  • Evaluation of human being malignancy cell lines is definitely generally performed using cells cultured on strict plastic material, or in Matrigel or smooth agar, the mechanised properties of which are badly described and/or hard to modulate. (techtasys.com)
  • Crawford (2010) in his chapter Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human brain evolution reported, with regard to the language of lipids, that the importance of the increased complexity of these lipids was brought about by aerobic metabolism, whereby the simple language of prokaryotes, with only a few words, was developed into a vocabulary of over 1,000 words of eukaryote cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma miR-26a has been found to induce cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, in part through direct downregulation of cyclin D2 and cyclin E2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast cancer There is downregulation of miR-26a in breast cancer specimens and cell lines, and it has been shown to functionally antagonise human breast carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • miR-26a is found to be downregulated in primary human Burkitt lymphoma and MYC-driven lymphoma cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shigella uses a type-III secretion system, which acts as a biological syringe to translocate toxic effector proteins to the target human cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • CYP3A4 promotes the growth of various types of human cancer cell lines in culture by producing (±)-14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids which stimulate these cells to grow, The cytochrome P450 is also reported to have fatty acid monooxgenase activity for metabolizing arachidonic acid to 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). (wikipedia.org)
  • The decrease is caused by expression of a few mutant forms of ENPP7, which lack exon 4, resulting in total inactivation of the enzyme, as found in human colon and liver cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Because bilayers define the boundaries of the cell and its compartments, these membrane proteins are involved in many intra- and inter-cellular signaling processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A549
  • The two rigidity-independent cell lines (Computer-3 and mPanc96) grew well in gentle (lung) tissues, while the solidity reliant cell lines (A549 and MDA-MB-231) do not really develop well in the lung. (techtasys.com)
  • MDA-MB-231 breasts cancer tumor cells and A549 lung cancers cells), and rigidity-independent cells which grew similarly well across the range of examined matrix rigidity (elizabeth.g. (techtasys.com)
  • Actin
  • For instance, the IcsA effector protein triggers actin reorganization by N-WASP recruitment of Arp2/3 complexes, helping cell-to-cell spread. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ectopic
  • Ectopic expression of miR-26a influences cell cycle progression by targeting the bona fide oncogene EZH2 which is a polycomb protein and global regulator of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • This program was utilized to determine how adjustments in the solidity of the ECM modulate the natural properties of growth cells, including development, morphology, and migratory properties. (techtasys.com)
  • These findings recommend that the mechanised properties of the matrix environment play a significant function in controlling the growth and the morphological properties of cancers cells, and that the solidity profile is certainly an inbuilt property or home of each cancers cell series. (techtasys.com)
  • C-fos has also been shown to increase in expression in response to the introduction of growth factors in the cell, further supporting its suggested involvement in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional roles of lipids are in fact many: They serve as regulatory agents in cell growth and adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • It directly represses expression of the oncogene EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2), which in turn causes inhibition of cell growth and cell-cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancers
  • We driven the development profile of fourteen cancers cell lines by plating the cells on the soft-plate96 and calculating the flip transformation in cell amount after five times using a neon DNA-binding absorb dyes (Fig. 2). (techtasys.com)
  • lipid bilayer
  • A membrane lipid is a compound which belongs to a group of (structurally similar to fats and oils) which form the double-layered surface of all cells (lipid bilayer). (wikipedia.org)
  • By forming a double layer with the polar ends pointing outwards and the nonpolar ends pointing inwards membrane lipids can form a 'lipid bilayer' which keeps the watery interior of the cell separate from the watery exterior. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a typical mammalian cell (diameter ~10 micrometers) were magnified to the size of a watermelon (~1 ft/30 cm), the lipid bilayer making up the plasma membrane would be about as thick as a piece of office paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • marker
  • SEL1L, an UPR response protein, a potential marker of colonic cell transformation. (howard.edu)
  • has-miR-205 was identified as a highly specific marker for squamous cell lung carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, unlike the non-coeliacs, the treated coeliac cells produce the disease marker nitrite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • miR-26a again suppresses tumorigenesis in nasopharyngeal cells in vivo, with suppressed expression of c-myc, cyclins D3 and E2, and cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • One hypothesis is that IL-15 induces the highly inflammatory Th1 response that activates T-helper cells (DQ2 restricted gliadin specific) that then orchestrate the destructive response, but the reason why inflammatory cells develop prior to gliadin specific helper cells is not known. (wikipedia.org)
  • transformation
  • The development dating profiles of the cell lines dropped into one of two types: rigidity-dependent cells, at least a 2-fold transformation in cell amount across the range of extracellular solidity examined (y.g. (techtasys.com)
  • tissues
  • We evaluated the development of four characteristic cell lines chosen from these two types by presenting the cells into the gentle tissues environment of the lung. (techtasys.com)
  • It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • It can be subdivided into innate responses (direct stimulation of immune system), class II mediated presentation (HLA DQ), class I meditiated stimulation of killer cells, and antibody recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, other cytokines such as IL12 and IL2, which are typically associated with T-helper cell stimulation, are not involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Significantly
  • Even more significantly, seeding the cell lines into the GATA3 lung area of naked rodents uncovered that the capability of cells to develop on gentle skin gels related with their capability to develop in a gentle cells environment and . (techtasys.com)
  • Significantly, cells which grew poorly on soft skin gels showed decreased scattering and migration under these circumstances also. (techtasys.com)
  • carbon cycle
  • The speciation of dissolved inorganic carbon in the marine carbon cycle is a primary controller of acid-base chemistry in the oceans. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth and its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by photosynthetic organisms and geological phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Innate immunity to gluten refers to an immune response that works independently of T-cell receptor or antibody recognition of the 'innate' peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other peptide that may have innate behavior is the "CXCR3" receptor binding peptides, the receptor exists on enterocytes, the brush border membrane cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung
  • 2. Chan, K. M. Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and equity of donor lung allocation in the era of the lung allocation score: are we there yet? (addexbio.com)
  • Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol, 292: L1202-1210, 2007. (addexbio.com)
  • lines
  • Use only Express Delivery (overnight) for cell lines. (addexbio.com)
  • The cell lines examined diverged into two groups centered on their expansion information: solidity reliant lines generally exhibited raising cell development as extracellular solidity improved, while rigidity indie lines grew well across the whole tested range of matrix rigidity equally. (techtasys.com)
  • Outcomes Rigidity-dependent development of malignancy cell lines To measure the development of malignancy JTT-705 (Dalcetrapib) IC50 cell lines as a function of matrix solidity we modified a book 96-well assay program (soft-plate96) that uses collagen covalently combined to polyacrylamide gel as substrates in place of ECM-coated strict plastic material. (techtasys.com)
  • This down regulation was also observed in breast cancer cell lines, including MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 compared to the non-malignant cell line MCF-10A. (wikipedia.org)
  • From a study on transcriptional regulation of the miR-200 and miR-205 loci in bladder tumors and bladder cell lines, the miR-200 and miR-205 loci were found specifically silenced and gain promoter hypermethylation and repressive chromatin marks in muscle invasive bladder tumors and undifferentiated bladder cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Later chemical libraries of synthetic small molecules, natural products or extracts were screened in intact cells or whole organisms to identify substances that have a desirable therapeutic effect in a process known as classical pharmacology. (wikipedia.org)
  • activate
  • Once inside, α-9 gliadin 31-55 shows the ability to activate undifferentiated immune cells that then proliferate and also produce inflammatory cytokines, notably interleukin 15 (IL-15). (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • The peptide displaces an immune factor and signals the disruption of the membrane seal, the tight junctions, between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • IL-15 appears to induce increases in MICA and NKG2D that may increase brush-border cell killing. (wikipedia.org)
  • IRP targets monocytes and increases the production of IL-15 by an HLA-DQ independent pathway, a subsequent study showed that both this region and the "33mer" could create the same response, in cells from both treated coeliacs and non-coeliacs. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • The activity of ENPP7 depends specifically on two types of primary bile salts, taurocholate (TC) and taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC) at critical micelle concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • A particularly important example in animal cells is cholesterol, which helps strengthen the bilayer and decrease its permeability. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • The mature miRNA of miR-26a-1 and miR-26a-2 possesses the same sequence, with the exception of 2 different nucleotides in mature miR-26b. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • This suggests that the development properties of a particular malignancy cell collection in response to JTT-705 (Dalcetrapib) IC50 substrate solidity may become identified by its hereditary or epigenetic structure. (techtasys.com)
  • target
  • The Charles River assay development and screening department offers a unique combination of target class and cell biology expertise together with state-of-the-art instrumentation to provide services tailored to your requirements. (scienceexchange.com)
  • found
  • The release of IL15 is a major factor in coeliac disease as IL15 has been found to attract intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) that characterize Marsh grade 1 and 2 coeliac disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, in Eph4 cell line, PLEKHA7 is recruited to E-cadherin based AJ by Afadin, independently of p120. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cause of miR-200 silencing in naturally occurring cancer cells, however, remains largely unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a rare disease characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure with no apparent cause. (addexbio.com)
  • Depending on the health of the host, fewer than 100 bacterial cells can be enough to cause an infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, Shigella cells may cause dysentery. (wikipedia.org)
  • HNF-1 protein is present in clear cell carcinoma of ovary In humans, mutations in HNF1A cause diabetes that responds to low dose sulfonylurea agents. (wikipedia.org)