• nitric acid
  • Palladium dissolves slowly in concentrated nitric acid, in hot, concentrated sulfuric acid, and when finely ground, in hydrochloric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solutions of PdCl2 in nitric acid react with acetic acid to give palladium(II) acetate, also a versatile reagent. (wikipedia.org)
  • clarification needed
  • clarification needed] Palladium films with defects produced by alpha particle bombardment at low temperature exhibit superconductivity having Tc=3.2 K. Naturally occurring palladium is composed of seven isotopes, six of which are stable. (wikipedia.org)
  • considerable
  • There are considerable price shifts near the edges of the size bands, so a 0.49 carats (98 mg) stone may list at $5,500 per carat = $2,695, while a 0.50 carats (100 mg) stone of similar quality lists at $7,500 per carat = $3,750. (wikipedia.org)
  • Russia
  • Russia also is key to palladium prices because it is the largest supplier with more than two-thirds of world production. (chicagotribune.com)
  • But platinum and palladium prices have slipped every time news from Russia shows that shipments are a step closer, and the market had pulled back slightly last week when acting Russian President Vladimir Putin signed export quotas. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Platinum output in Russia, the next major supplier, was comparatively stable last year. (coinsweekly.com)
  • Leaders of primary platinum production are South Africa and Russia, followed by Canada, Zimbabwe and USA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first and only case when platinum coins were used as a regular national currency was in Russia, where coins were circulated between 1828 and 1845. (wikipedia.org)
  • The practice of regularly issuing platinum coins has continued in modern Russia, and since 1992 the Central Bank of Russia has released 16 sets of platinum coins. (wikipedia.org)
  • A "new Siberian metal", platinum, became known in Russia in 1819. (wikipedia.org)
  • In late 1826, P. G. Sobolevsky (the father of powder metallurgy in Russia) invented a simple way of processing platinum that prompted the idea to use platinum in coins. (wikipedia.org)
  • crude
  • He used crude platinum ore presumably obtained from South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • This product tracks S&P GSCI Crude Oil Enhanced Total Return Index providing a significantly higher level of correlation to the price performance of spot WTI crude oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • silver
  • Palladium is a soft silver-white metal that resembles platinum. (wikipedia.org)
  • They regarded platinum as an unwanted impurity in the silver they were mining. (wikipedia.org)
  • The then-cheap platinum was used for various kinds of frauds, such as substituting it for the more expensive silver. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first coin was sent to the prominent German scientist Alexander von Humboldt, who was previously asked to evaluate the use of platinum as a currency and confirm its price relative to silver. (wikipedia.org)
  • coins
  • Platinum coins are another way to invest in platinum, although relatively few varieties of platinum coins have been minted, due to its cost and difficulty in working. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 1997, the United States Mint has been selling American Platinum Eagle coins to investors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Platinum coins are a form of currency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The issues of legitimate platinum coins were initiated by Spain in Spanish-colonized America in the 18th century and continued by the Russian Empire in the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Platinum was first used for minting coins in Spanish-colonized America. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the late 1820s, the British Royal Mint produced several trial coins as part of experiments on the use of platinum in coins. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of these coins has the same diameter as a farthing and a weak relief owing to the high hardness of platinum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all test coins, the platinum farthing has a high historic and numismatic value. (wikipedia.org)
  • The minting of platinum coins resumed only after 130 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 1977 and 1980, in preparation for the 1980 Summer Olympics, the Soviet Union produced five commemorative coin sets, and since 1988 commemorative platinum coins were issued every year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 1983, other countries have begun regular minting of platinum coins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Available palladium coins include the Canadian Maple Leaf, the Chinese Panda, and the American Palladium Eagle. (wikipedia.org)
  • South America
  • The decree of 24 April 1828 noted that "among the treasures of the Ural Mountains also occurs platinum, which priorly was located almost exclusively in South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Other ways of investing in platinum include spread betting or contracts for difference on the price of the metal, owning shares in mining companies with substantial platinum assets or exposure, owning traded options in platinum (only available in the US market). (wikipedia.org)
  • produces
  • Russia's mining company Norilsk Nickel produces another 44% of palladium, with US and Canada-based mines producing most of the rest. (wikipedia.org)
  • currency
  • You can pick a currency and a unit of weight, enter a unit price as you need to calculate the total value. (etoolsage.com)
  • The price converter converts the price in the currency and measurement unit specified on the left hand side into the price in the currency and the measurement unit specified on the right hand side. (etoolsage.com)
  • Most Swiss banks offer platinum accounts where platinum can be instantly bought or sold just like any foreign currency. (wikipedia.org)
  • troy
  • The industry refers to price guides such as the Rapaport Diamond Report, the Troy Diamond Report, PriceScope, Ajediam Antwerp Diamonds Monthly and The Gem Guide, which are published weekly, monthly or quarterly. (wikipedia.org)
  • react
  • Palladium is a key component of fuel cells, which react hydrogen with oxygen to produce electricity, heat, and water. (wikipedia.org)