• IDDM
  • Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM), or type 1 diabetes, is a genetic autoimmune disorder that accounts for 15% of all cases of diabetes and whose incidence is determined by both environmental and genetic factors. (davidson.edu)
  • If the patient has the DQ allele but has the gene for aspartic acid at postion 57 of both chromosomes, then he / she has a varying degree of immunity to IDDM. (davidson.edu)
  • This particular allele codes for alanine at postion 57 of the Beta chain of the MHC II molecule, making the patient susceptible to IDDM. (davidson.edu)
  • The most common model uses mice infected with IDDM, also known as nonobese diabetic mice (NOD mice)) expressing aspartic acid in position 57 in the I-A chain of their MHC II, showed a low to nonexistent rate of diabetes occurence. (davidson.edu)
  • One of the leading and more realised hypotheses is that viral infection mediates the introduction of a superantigen into the patients body, and the activation of a wide assortment of T cells, some autoreactive, triggers the onset of IDDM. (davidson.edu)
  • 2000
  • WHO estimates suggest that there were 171 million people in the world with diabetes mellitus in 2000, a figure projected to increase to 366 million by 2030. (vin.com)
  • In 2000, Dr. James Shapiro and colleagues published a report describing seven consecutive patients who achieved euglycemia following islet transplantation using a steroid-free protocol and large numbers of donor islets, since referred to as the Edmonton protocol. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiovascular events
  • We appreciate the recommendations in this editorial, and agree that smoking cessation, blood pressure control, the use of metformin (Glucophage) as first-line therapy for diabetes mellitus, and the addition of statins to prevent cardiovascular events are important. (aafp.org)
  • It will be imperative to prove that future PPAR agonists not only prevent atherosclerotic events but also result in a net reduction on total cardiovascular events without significant noncardiovascular adverse effects with long-term use. (hindawi.com)
  • polyuria
  • Play media The classical symptoms of type 1 diabetes include: polyuria (excessive urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), dry mouth, polyphagia (increased hunger), fatigue, and weight loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are weight loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger). (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose intolerance
  • Prednisolone suppresses the immune system, but its long-term use at high doses causes a multitude of side effects, including glucose intolerance and diabetes, weight gain, osteoporosis, muscle weakness, hypercholesterolemia, and cataract formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetic patients
  • Their immunomodulatory and proangiogenic roles can be used to help arrest β-cell destruction, preserve residual β-cell mass, facilitate endogenous β-cell regeneration and prevent disease recurrence, thereby making them ideal candidates for the comprehensive treatment of diabetic patients. (omicsonline.org)
  • commonly
  • Although other subcategories are recognised, type 1 disease tends to occur most commonly in young lean individuals who are totally dependent on insulin to prevent ketoacidosis and death (hence previously known as juvenile onset or insulin dependent). (vin.com)
  • 1 The most commonly affected organs are the lungs (pneumonia) and central nervous system (meningitis). (scielo.org.za)
  • The Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, commonly known as the Baker Institute, is an Australian independent medical research institute headquartered in Melbourne, Victoria. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic kidney
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus remains the leading cause of chronic kidney disease worldwide. (ahajournals.org)
  • As such, ACE inhibitors should be the drug treatment of choice for patients with chronic kidney disease regardless of race or diabetic status. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baker IDI's teams comprising medical specialists, scientists and public health experts are focussed on bringing their knowledge and expertise to bear on these areas: Metabolism and Inflammation: What is the role of inflammation in the initiation and progression of heart disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and heart failure? (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • It has been considered that β-cell dysfunction and death in type 1 diabetes results from a combination of inflammation, autoimmunity, β-cell stress, and insulin resistance ( 1 - 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The activation of the JNK signal transduction pathway by MAP4K4 has been implicated in apoptotic regulation of many different cell types, tumorigenesis and/or inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This association can be explained by shared genetic factors, and inflammation or nutritional deficiencies caused by untreated celiac disease, even if type 1 diabetes is diagnosed first. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cases of drug-induced hepatitis can manifest with systemic signs of an allergic reaction including rash, fever, serositis (inflammation of membranes lining certain organs), elevated eosinophils (a type of white blood cell), and suppression of bone marrow activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • dysfunction
  • clearly indicate that ER stress is an important pathogenic component of β-cell dysfunction before the onset of type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The most intriguing question might be, what are the consequences of ER stress-mediated β-cell dysfunction in type 1 diabetes? (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1 A recent review of patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction revealed an underuse of ACE inhibition (48 percent of eligible candidates) and a greater likelihood of being started on an ACE inhibitor if under the care of a cardiologist rather than a noncardiologist. (aafp.org)
  • CABG is performed to relieve angina unsatisfactorily controlled by maximum tolerated anti-ischemic medication, prevent or relieve left ventricular dysfunction, and/or reduce the risk of death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2005 ACC/AHA guidelines further state that CABG is the preferred treatment with other high-risk patients such as those with severe ventricular dysfunction (i.e. low ejection fraction), or diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • islets
  • Another interesting possibility is that ER stress in β-cells may trigger autoimmunity and the severe infiltration of T cells into the islets ( Fig. 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Subsequent studies showed that transplanted islets could reverse diabetes in both rodents and non-human primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human islets, on the other hand, are only sparsely innervated, with most neurons contacting intraislet smooth muscle cells ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Pancreatic islets are highly vascularized and receive 10% of pancreatic blood flow despite comprising only 1-2% of tissue mass. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • tissue
  • Investigators as early as the English surgeon Charles Pybus (1882-1975) attempted to graft pancreatic tissue to cure diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune complexes (a type III reaction) and inflammatory cells are deposited within the mucous membranes of the airways, leading to necrosis (tissue death) and eosinophilic infiltration. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, MAP4K4 has been found to be expressed in all tissue types with a relatively more pronounced expression in the brain and testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple isoforms of MAP4K4 can be present at any given time in the same cell but the abundance of each isoform in the cell differs depending on the cell-type or tissue-type. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kidney was the easiest organ to transplant: Tissue typing was simple, the organ was relatively easy to remove and implant, live donors could be used without difficulty, and in the event of failure, kidney dialysis was available from the 1940s. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood glucose
  • Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. (aafp.org)
  • Impaired fasting glycaemia or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) refers to a condition in which the fasting blood glucose or the 3-month average blood glucose (A1C) is elevated above what is considered normal levels but is not high enough to be classified as diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of new classes of blood glucose-lowering medications to supplement the older therapies, such as lifestyle-directed interventions, insulin, sulfonylureas, and metformin, has increased the treatment options for type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Whether used alone or in combination with other blood glucose-lowering interventions, the availability of the newer agents has provided an increased number of choices for practitioners and patients and heightened uncertainty regarding the most appropriate means of treating this widespread disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Intraislet ECs are thin and highly fenestrated, allowing for sensitive detection of blood glucose levels and rapid dissemination of secreted insulin ( Fig. 1 ), and it has been postulated that every β-cell is in contact with a vascular EC. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hypoglycemia is traditionally defined by 1 ) the development of symptoms (autonomic or neuroglycopenic), 2 ) a low plasma glucose level, and 3 ) reversal of symptoms when the blood glucose level is restored to normal (Whipple's triad). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Recently, the American Diabetes Association Workgroup on Hypoglycemia ( 5 ) agreed on how hypoglycemia must be defined and reported: the biochemical definition of hypoglycemia is a blood glucose concentration ≤70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/l) ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although most experts agree that the total carbohydrate intake from a meal or snack is a relatively reliable predictor of postprandial blood glucose ( 18 , 20 - 22 ), the impact and relative importance that the type or source of carbohydrate has on postprandial glucose level has continued to be an area of debate ( 23 - 26 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The specific type of carbohydrate (e.g., starch versus sucrose) present in a particular food does not always predict its effect on blood glucose ( 28 , 29 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • pancreas
  • Other specific types of diabetes are less common, but include some genetic disorders of insulin secretion or action, diseases of the pancreas (pancreatitis, carcinoma etc.), various endocrinopathies (growth hormone, cortisol, glucagon and catecholamine excess) or prolonged diabetogenic drug administration. (vin.com)
  • Around 1,300 T1DM patients receive pancreas or β- pancreatic islet transplants from cadaveric donors each year in the USA as an alternative to insulin administration [ 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • environmental
  • Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that evolves over years in genetically susceptible individuals who are exposed to unknown environmental triggers. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Unlike the genetic factors the contribute to the disease, namely being a carrier for the HLA-DQ allele in the IDDM1 region, the environmental factors that cause type 1 diabetes are relatively unknown. (davidson.edu)
  • Environmental factors can influence expression of type 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • In 2002, the estimated annual national cost of diabetes in the USA was €132 billion with an expected increase to €192 billion by 2020. (vin.com)
  • 2002 Aug 1;66(3):461-469. (aafp.org)
  • mortality
  • 1 Photocoagulation rates are an excellent example of disease-oriented evidence, which supports interventions that affect intermediate outcomes, but not patient-oriented outcomes such as morbidity and mortality. (aafp.org)
  • Stamler J, Vaccaro O, Neaton JD, Wentworth D. Diabetes, other risk factors, and 12-yr cardiovascular mortality for men screened in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. (springer.com)
  • renal disease
  • An estimated 10 million persons in this country are known to have diabetes and 3.6 million to have renal disease, incurring annual health care costs of $98 billion and $11 billion, respectively. (aafp.org)
  • We conducted a systematic review to assess the effect modification of the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene on any outcome in patients treated with ACE inhibitors for cardiovascular and/or renal disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The objective of our study was to systematically review all randomised, placebo-controlled trials that had evaluated to what extent the ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism influences treatment effects of ACE inhibitors on any surrogate and on any clinically relevant parameters in patients with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, renal transplantation and/or renal disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • reversal
  • The first successful trial of human islet allotransplantation resulting in long-term reversal of diabetes was performed at the University of Pittsburgh in 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pre-diabetes individuals with increased microalbuminuria even in the so-called normal range is associated with increased progression to diabetes and decreased reversal to normoglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • juvenile
  • Examples of chromosome abnormalities associated with cataracts include 1q21.1 deletion syndrome, cri-du-chat syndrome, Down syndrome, Patau's syndrome, trisomy 18 (Edward's syndrome), and Turner's syndrome, and in the case of neurofibromatosis type 2, juvenile cataract on one or both sides may be noted. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Because early detection and prompt treatment may reduce the burden of diabetes and its complications, screening for diabetes may be appropriate under certain circumstances. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It is an experimental treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • in type 2 diabetes, more intensive treatment strategies have likewise been demonstrated to reduce complications ( 6 - 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Patients with asthma and symptoms of ongoing infection, who do not respond to antibiotic treatment, should be suspected of ABPA. (wikipedia.org)
  • dihydropyridines: amlodipine cilnidipine clevidipine felodipine isradipine lercanidipine levamlodipine nicardipine nifedipine nimodipine nisoldipine nitrendipine non-dihydropyridines: diltiazem verapamil JNC8 recommends calcium channel blockers to be a first-line treatment either as monotherapy or in combination with thiazide-type diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor antagonists for all patients regardless of age or race. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment partly depends on the underlying cause, but the goal is often to prevent worsening and complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevention
  • The purpose of this statement is to review the available scientific data regarding the effect of the type or source of carbohydrate on the prevention and management of diabetes and to clarify the position of the American Diabetes Association on this important topic. (diabetesjournals.org)