• IDDM
  • Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM), or type 1 diabetes, is a genetic autoimmune disorder that accounts for 15% of all cases of diabetes and whose incidence is determined by both environmental and genetic factors. (davidson.edu)
  • If the patient has the DQ allele but has the gene for aspartic acid at postion 57 of both chromosomes, then he / she has a varying degree of immunity to IDDM. (davidson.edu)
  • This particular allele codes for alanine at postion 57 of the Beta chain of the MHC II molecule, making the patient susceptible to IDDM. (davidson.edu)
  • The most common model uses mice infected with IDDM, also known as nonobese diabetic mice (NOD mice)) expressing aspartic acid in position 57 in the I-A chain of their MHC II, showed a low to nonexistent rate of diabetes occurence. (davidson.edu)
  • One of the leading and more realised hypotheses is that viral infection mediates the introduction of a superantigen into the patients body, and the activation of a wide assortment of T cells, some autoreactive, triggers the onset of IDDM. (davidson.edu)
  • 2000
  • WHO estimates suggest that there were 171 million people in the world with diabetes mellitus in 2000, a figure projected to increase to 366 million by 2030. (vin.com)
  • In 2000, Dr. James Shapiro and colleagues published a report describing seven consecutive patients who achieved euglycemia following islet transplantation using a steroid-free protocol and large numbers of donor islets, since referred to as the Edmonton protocol. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • The activation of the JNK signal transduction pathway by MAP4K4 has been implicated in apoptotic regulation of many different cell types, tumorigenesis and/or inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This association can be explained by shared genetic factors, and inflammation or nutritional deficiencies caused by untreated celiac disease, even if type 1 diabetes is diagnosed first. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baker IDI's teams comprising medical specialists, scientists and public health experts are focussed on bringing their knowledge and expertise to bear on these areas: Metabolism and Inflammation: What is the role of inflammation in the initiation and progression of heart disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and heart failure? (wikipedia.org)
  • Cases of drug-induced hepatitis can manifest with systemic signs of an allergic reaction including rash, fever, serositis (inflammation of membranes lining certain organs), elevated eosinophils (a type of white blood cell), and suppression of bone marrow activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, ER-stressed β-cells in prediabetic NOD mice could eventually die through NF-κB signaling and lead to frank diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, EPA and DHA supplementation should be considered as additional therapy to an angiotensin‐converting enzyme‐inhibitor or angiotensin‐receptor blocker in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the fasting state, this is due to the continuous release of insulin from the pancreas, which results in steady plasma insulin, thus restraining hepatic glucose production and thereby preventing fasting hyperglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, a primary goal in the management of diabetes is the regulation of blood glucose to achieve near-normal blood glucose. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2002
  • In 2002, the estimated annual national cost of diabetes in the USA was €132 billion with an expected increase to €192 billion by 2020. (vin.com)
  • 2002 Aug 1;66(3):461-469. (aafp.org)
  • pancreatic
  • Unresolved ER stress has deleterious effects on pancreatic β-cell function and survival, and it can influence the progression of diabetes ( 11 , 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Investigators as early as the English surgeon Charles Pybus (1882-1975) attempted to graft pancreatic tissue to cure diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Around 1,300 T1DM patients receive pancreas or β- pancreatic islet transplants from cadaveric donors each year in the USA as an alternative to insulin administration [ 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Pancreatic islets are highly vascularized and receive 10% of pancreatic blood flow despite comprising only 1-2% of tissue mass. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Some insulin-deficient patients have glucose intolerance from loss of pancreas function following pancreatitis, with or without surgical pancreatic resection. (springer.com)
  • polyuria
  • Play media The classical symptoms of type 1 diabetes include: polyuria (excessive urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), dry mouth, polyphagia (increased hunger), fatigue, and weight loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are weight loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger). (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • Impaired fasting glycaemia or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) refers to a condition in which the fasting blood glucose or the 3-month average blood glucose (A1C) is elevated above what is considered normal levels but is not high enough to be classified as diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impaired fasting glucose is defined as a fasting glucose that is higher than the upper limit of normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some patients with impaired fasting glucose also may be diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance, but many have normal responses to a glucose tolerance test. (wikipedia.org)
  • World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for impaired fasting glucose differs from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria, because the normal range of glucose is defined differently by each. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intraislet ECs are thin and highly fenestrated, allowing for sensitive detection of blood glucose levels and rapid dissemination of secreted insulin ( Fig. 1 ), and it has been postulated that every β-cell is in contact with a vascular EC. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The goal of minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia while achieving good glycemic control is feasible as long as 1 ) a rational plan of insulin therapy is adopted, 2 ) blood glucose is properly monitored, 3 ) blood glucose targets are individualized, and 4 ) education programs are widely implemented. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hypoglycemia is traditionally defined by 1 ) the development of symptoms (autonomic or neuroglycopenic), 2 ) a low plasma glucose level, and 3 ) reversal of symptoms when the blood glucose level is restored to normal (Whipple's triad). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Recently, the American Diabetes Association Workgroup on Hypoglycemia ( 5 ) agreed on how hypoglycemia must be defined and reported: the biochemical definition of hypoglycemia is a blood glucose concentration ≤70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/l) ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Both the quantity and the type or source of carbohydrate found in foods influence postprandial glucose level ( 18 , 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although most experts agree that the total carbohydrate intake from a meal or snack is a relatively reliable predictor of postprandial blood glucose ( 18 , 20 - 22 ), the impact and relative importance that the type or source of carbohydrate has on postprandial glucose level has continued to be an area of debate ( 23 - 26 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The specific type of carbohydrate (e.g., starch versus sucrose) present in a particular food does not always predict its effect on blood glucose ( 28 , 29 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Studies such as the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) in type 1 diabetes and the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) in type 2 diabetes have left little doubt that the risk of microvascular complications rises exponentially as mean blood glucose (assessed using A1C) increases ( 2 - 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Indeed, it has subsequently been suggested that the increased complication risk in conventionally treated patients was simply because their blood glucose values were higher compared with those of intensively treated patients at the same A1C ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It is fundamental to managing diabetes for a clinician to know whether a patient with glucose instability has a higher risk of microvascular complications than one without, especially because many of the recent pharmacological advances have focused on reducing glucose variability (as well as mean glucose) largely by targeting postprandial hyperglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • commonly
  • Although other subcategories are recognised, type 1 disease tends to occur most commonly in young lean individuals who are totally dependent on insulin to prevent ketoacidosis and death (hence previously known as juvenile onset or insulin dependent). (vin.com)
  • 1 The most commonly affected organs are the lungs (pneumonia) and central nervous system (meningitis). (scielo.org.za)
  • The Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, commonly known as the Baker Institute, is an Australian independent medical research institute headquartered in Melbourne, Victoria. (wikipedia.org)
  • islets
  • Another interesting possibility is that ER stress in β-cells may trigger autoimmunity and the severe infiltration of T cells into the islets ( Fig. 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Subsequent studies showed that transplanted islets could reverse diabetes in both rodents and non-human primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human islets, on the other hand, are only sparsely innervated, with most neurons contacting intraislet smooth muscle cells ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • atherosclerotic
  • 3-5 ⇓ ⇓ Increased PAI-1 expression has been demonstrated in conditioned media from arterial segments with atherosclerotic changes 6 and in atherosclerotic plaques. (ahajournals.org)
  • environmental
  • Unlike the genetic factors the contribute to the disease, namely being a carrier for the HLA-DQ allele in the IDDM1 region, the environmental factors that cause type 1 diabetes are relatively unknown. (davidson.edu)
  • Environmental factors can influence expression of type 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevention
  • The purpose of this statement is to review the available scientific data regarding the effect of the type or source of carbohydrate on the prevention and management of diabetes and to clarify the position of the American Diabetes Association on this important topic. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Current approaches to health promotion and prevention of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes do not approach the potential of the existing state of knowledge. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this article, the ACS, ADA, and AHA review strategies for the prevention and early detection of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, as the beginning of a new collaboration among the three organizations. (ahajournals.org)
  • The evidence base with regard to the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of specific components of prevention and early detection is reviewed regularly by many health organizations, including the American Cancer Society (ACS), the American Diabetes Association (ADA), and the American Heart Association (AHA). (ahajournals.org)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides similar reviews with regard to community, population, and healthcare system interventions related to cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other chronic diseases. (ahajournals.org)
  • glycemic
  • The body's response to glycemic load is extremely rapid-circulating plasma insulin levels increase within 1 min of ingestion of food as β-cells release preformed insulin from granules. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the present article, the importance of the use of insulin analogs as a key tool to achieve good glycemic control and prevent hypoglycemia is emphasized. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For example, in the DCCT the rate of complications at a given value of A1C was apparently higher in the conventionally treated patients than in those treated intensively ( 3 ), leading to the suggestion that this result may be a consequence of larger glycemic excursions in the former group of patients as they received fewer injections of insulin per day ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • reversal
  • The first successful trial of human islet allotransplantation resulting in long-term reversal of diabetes was performed at the University of Pittsburgh in 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pre-diabetes individuals with increased microalbuminuria even in the so-called normal range is associated with increased progression to diabetes and decreased reversal to normoglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Because early detection and prompt treatment may reduce the burden of diabetes and its complications, screening for diabetes may be appropriate under certain circumstances. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It is an experimental treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of our study was to systematically review all randomised, placebo-controlled trials that had evaluated to what extent the ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism influences treatment effects of ACE inhibitors on any surrogate and on any clinically relevant parameters in patients with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, renal transplantation and/or renal disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the effect of losartan on PAI-1 antigen was not sustained throughout the 6-week treatment period, such that there was a significant drug×time interaction ( P =0.043). (ahajournals.org)
  • Patients with asthma and symptoms of ongoing infection, who do not respond to antibiotic treatment, should be suspected of ABPA. (wikipedia.org)
  • dihydropyridines: amlodipine cilnidipine clevidipine felodipine isradipine lercanidipine levamlodipine nicardipine nifedipine nimodipine nisoldipine nitrendipine non-dihydropyridines: diltiazem verapamil JNC8 recommends calcium channel blockers to be a first-line treatment either as monotherapy or in combination with thiazide-type diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor antagonists for all patients regardless of age or race. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment partly depends on the underlying cause, but the goal is often to prevent worsening and complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • The present study compares the time course of effects of ACE inhibition and angiotensin type 1 (AT 1 ) receptor antagonism on morning plasma PAI-1 antigen. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hydrochlorothiazide increased plasma PAI-1 ( P =0.013) but not tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) ( P =0.431) antigen. (ahajournals.org)
  • Addition of either ramipril or losartan significantly decreased plasma PAI-1 antigen ( P =0.046). (ahajournals.org)
  • Short-term interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by either ACE inhibition or AT 1 receptor antagonism decreases PAI-1 antigen, but the duration of this effect is greater for ACE inhibition than for AT 1 receptor antagonism. (ahajournals.org)
  • juvenile
  • Examples of chromosome abnormalities associated with cataracts include 1q21.1 deletion syndrome, cri-du-chat syndrome, Down syndrome, Patau's syndrome, trisomy 18 (Edward's syndrome), and Turner's syndrome, and in the case of neurofibromatosis type 2, juvenile cataract on one or both sides may be noted. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Immune complexes (a type III reaction) and inflammatory cells are deposited within the mucous membranes of the airways, leading to necrosis (tissue death) and eosinophilic infiltration. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, MAP4K4 has been found to be expressed in all tissue types with a relatively more pronounced expression in the brain and testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple isoforms of MAP4K4 can be present at any given time in the same cell but the abundance of each isoform in the cell differs depending on the cell-type or tissue-type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prospective Diabetes Study
  • 5 However, in the U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study, despite a high frequency of modestly elevated baseline triglyceride levels (mean baseline 159 mg/dl), a multivariate analysis showed that triglyceride levels did not predict CHD events. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • diseases
  • Diabetes mellitus is one of the most significant diseases encountered in human medicine. (vin.com)
  • Other specific types of diabetes are less common, but include some genetic disorders of insulin secretion or action, diseases of the pancreas (pancreatitis, carcinoma etc.), various endocrinopathies (growth hormone, cortisol, glucagon and catecholamine excess) or prolonged diabetogenic drug administration. (vin.com)
  • 1 These diseases undermine health, shorten life expectancy, and cause enormous suffering, disability, and economic costs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Inhibitors
  • We conducted a systematic review to assess the effect modification of the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene on any outcome in patients treated with ACE inhibitors for cardiovascular and/or renal disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We observed a trend towards better response to ACE inhibitors in Caucasian DD carriers compared to II carriers, in terms of blood pressure, proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, ACE activity and progression to end-stage renal failure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Results from the ALLHAT trial showed that thiazide-type diuretics and calcium channel blockers were both more effective as monotherapy in improving cardiovascular outcomes compared to ACE inhibitors for this subgroup. (wikipedia.org)