• Humans
  • reviewing the evidence accumulated on a worldwide basis, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded in 2004 that "Involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or 'environmental' tobacco smoke) is carcinogenic to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • By the 20th century, the concept of epigenesis the interaction between a genetic program and environment was established and in the second half of the 20th century researchers had evidence that environmental factors can cause malformations and even trans-generational effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • utero
  • Neonatal withdrawal or neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a withdrawal syndrome of infants after birth caused by in utero exposure to licit or illicit drugs, especially opiates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female infants with classic CAH have ambiguous genitalia due to exposure to high concentrations of androgens in utero. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rats
  • 1944. The effect of the administration of sodium bromide to pregnant rats on the learning ability of offspring: IIL Three-table test. (springer.com)
  • birth defects
  • citation needed] Australia's categorisations system takes into account the birth defects, the effects around the birth or when the mother gives birth, and problems that will arise later in the child's life caused from the drug taken. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influence
  • Factors such as poverty that are frequently associated with PCE have a much stronger influence on children's intellectual and academic abilities than does exposure to cocaine in isolation. (wikipedia.org)
  • lead exposure
  • Early lead exposure produces lasting changes in sustained attention, response initiation, and reacti. (biomedsearch.com)
  • His research on preventing childhood lead exposure has influenced lead policy in several major ways, including: contributing to a paradigm shift from treating lead poisoned children to a primary and secondary prevention approach that involves home investigations and abatements and screening of children to trigger home investigations and repairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • mothers
  • 2) Three case-control studies have examined pseudoephedrine exposure among mothers of children born with gastroschisis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Effect of aldrin on the condition avoidance response and electroshockseizure threshold of offspring from aldrin-treated mothers. (springer.com)
  • problems
  • Serious side effects can include liver problems and regular monitoring of liver function tests is therefore recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • malnutrition
  • ABSTRACT This article presents a reappraisal of the literature on the enduring cognitive effects of early malnutrition. (unu.edu)
  • Health effects associated with large levels of alcohol intake include an increased risk of alcoholism, malnutrition, chronic pancreatitis, alcoholic liver disease and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • pregnant
  • U.S. Code of Federal Regulations requires that certain drugs and biological products must be labelled very specifically with respect to their effects on pregnant populations, including a definition of a "pregnancy category. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • Most of the research on reproductive effects has been conducted on farmers working with pesticides and insecticdes in rural areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • His health services research had a direct effect on the American Academy of Pediatrics establishing the Julius Richmond Center on Tobacco and Child Health, which leads national efforts to get pediatricians to address parental smoking. (wikipedia.org)
  • His research into the positive effect school breakfast programs had on school performance helped to lead to every state in the US implementing school breakfast programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive
  • The only cognitive processes for which enduring cognitive changes were demonstrated in rehabilitated animals - outside of effects mediated by these affective changes - are cognitive flexibility and, possibly, susceptibility to proactive interference. (unu.edu)
  • Cognitive impairment and dementia: Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in adults 50 and over. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, studies have failed to clearly show that PCE has negative cognitive effects, partly because such effects may be due to concurrent factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • The onset and severity of symptoms, whether acute or chronic, depends upon the specific chemical, the route of exposure (skin, lungs, or GI tract), the dose, and the individuals ability to degrade the compound, which the PON1 enzyme level will affect. (wikipedia.org)
  • These syndromes result after acute and chronic exposure to OP pesticides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The long-term effects of alcohol consumption range from cardioprotective health benefits for low to moderate alcohol consumption in industrialized societies with higher rates of cardiovascular disease to severe detrimental effects in cases of chronic alcohol abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • fertility
  • Milder degrees of inefficiency are usually associated with excessive or deficient sex hormone effects in childhood or adolescence, while the mildest forms of CAH interfere with ovulation and fertility in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • Thus researchers have had difficulty in determining which effects result from PCE and which result from other factors in the children's histories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to any of the temporary factors can cause up to a three-month delay before sperm quality returns to normal, due to spermiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)