• utero
  • Neonatal withdrawal or neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a withdrawal syndrome of infants after birth caused by in utero exposure to licit or illicit drugs, especially opiates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female infants with classic CAH have ambiguous genitalia due to exposure to high concentrations of androgens in utero. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • Prenatal immune challenge affects growth, behavior, and brain dopamine in offspring. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This paper examines the effect of maternal ganglionectomy (pineal gland sympathetic denervation) or extirpation of the pineal gland on pups' drinking rhythms, a behavior that is continuously monitored in individual animals starting after weaning and studied up to 3 weeks later. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Problems associated with FASD include facial anomalies, low birth weight, stunted growth, small head size, delayed or uncoordinated motor skills, hearing or vision problems, learning disabilities, behavior problems, and inappropriate social skills compared to same-age peers. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has published over 150 articles in medical and scientific journals on the damaging effects of second-hand smoke, lead exposure, and countless other determinants of children's health and behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intrauterine
  • BACKGROUND: Intrauterine exposure to alcohol may result in a distinct pattern of craniofacial abnormalities and central nervous system dysfunction, designated fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). (biomedsearch.com)
  • On the other hand, evidence is conflicting for carbamazepine regarding any increased risk of congenital physical anomalies or neurodevelopmental disorders by intrauterine exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical
  • The onset and severity of symptoms, whether acute or chronic, depends upon the specific chemical, the route of exposure (skin, lungs, or GI tract), the dose, and the individuals ability to degrade the compound, which the PON1 enzyme level will affect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malformations
  • By the 20th century, the concept of epigenesis the interaction between a genetic program and environment was established and in the second half of the 20th century researchers had evidence that environmental factors can cause malformations and even trans-generational effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influence
  • Factors such as poverty that are frequently associated with PCE have a much stronger influence on children's intellectual and academic abilities than does exposure to cocaine in isolation. (wikipedia.org)
  • lead exposure
  • Early lead exposure produces lasting changes in sustained attention, response initiation, and reacti. (biomedsearch.com)
  • His research on preventing childhood lead exposure has influenced lead policy in several major ways, including: contributing to a paradigm shift from treating lead poisoned children to a primary and secondary prevention approach that involves home investigations and abatements and screening of children to trigger home investigations and repairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • mothers
  • 2) Three case-control studies have examined pseudoephedrine exposure among mothers of children born with gastroschisis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • When melatonin was given to the mothers instead of the endogenous pineal secretory activity for 5 days during the late period of gestation, this treatment reversed the effects of maternal ganglionectomy and pinealectomy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • pregnant
  • U.S. Code of Federal Regulations requires that certain drugs and biological products must be labelled very specifically with respect to their effects on pregnant populations, including a definition of a "pregnancy category. (wikipedia.org)
  • problems
  • citation needed] Australia's categorisations system takes into account the birth defects, the effects around the birth or when the mother gives birth, and problems that will arise later in the child's life caused from the drug taken. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serious side effects can include liver problems and regular monitoring of liver function tests is therefore recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • malnutrition
  • ABSTRACT This article presents a reappraisal of the literature on the enduring cognitive effects of early malnutrition. (unu.edu)
  • Health effects associated with large levels of alcohol intake include an increased risk of alcoholism, malnutrition, chronic pancreatitis, alcoholic liver disease and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • In contrast, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded in 2004 that there was "no support for a causal relation between involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke and breast cancer in never-smokers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the research on reproductive effects has been conducted on farmers working with pesticides and insecticdes in rural areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • His health services research had a direct effect on the American Academy of Pediatrics establishing the Julius Richmond Center on Tobacco and Child Health, which leads national efforts to get pediatricians to address parental smoking. (wikipedia.org)
  • His research into the positive effect school breakfast programs had on school performance helped to lead to every state in the US implementing school breakfast programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive
  • The only cognitive processes for which enduring cognitive changes were demonstrated in rehabilitated animals - outside of effects mediated by these affective changes - are cognitive flexibility and, possibly, susceptibility to proactive interference. (unu.edu)
  • Cognitive impairment and dementia: Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in adults 50 and over. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, studies have failed to clearly show that PCE has negative cognitive effects, partly because such effects may be due to concurrent factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • fertility
  • Milder degrees of inefficiency are usually associated with excessive or deficient sex hormone effects in childhood or adolescence, while the mildest forms of CAH interfere with ovulation and fertility in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • Thus researchers have had difficulty in determining which effects result from PCE and which result from other factors in the children's histories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to any of the temporary factors can cause up to a three-month delay before sperm quality returns to normal, due to spermiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)