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  • separation
  • Successful separation of a set of conjoined twins was first reported in 1689 in Basel, Switzerland. (boots.com)
  • We present a 27-year-old woman, gravida 2 para 0, former ischiopagus conjoined twin with successful separation at 12 days of life. (biomedsearch.com)
  • If surgery is chosen, it is done when the twins are 2-4 months old, unless emergency separation is required. (fertilitysmarts.com)
  • many advances in medicine including brain imaging, neuro-anesthesia and neurosurgical techniques have proven that a successful outcome is possible following separation of total craniopagus twins. (wikipedia.org)
  • These twins usually undergo successful separation and both twins may live to lead normal lives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various studies suggest that mechanical disturbances such as shaking of the blastomeres, exposure of the embryo to cold or insufficient oxygen during the early process of cleavage, grafting organizer onto gastrula or half a gastrula together, or constricting the blastula or early gastrula can cause the incomplete separation of monozygotic twins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Ischiopagus twins usually share a gastrointestinal tract and other organs in the pelvic region, it takes months of planning to decide whether or not separation of the twins outweighs the complications and risks associated with surgery and reconstruction of organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • She was critical of the Court of Appeal's ruling in the case of Jodie and Mary, the Maltese conjoined twins, in 2002, and acted for pro-life campaigner Bruno Quintavalle in an unsuccessful bid to stop the twins' separation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shiloh was the only one of the three survivors of sirenomelia without surgery for separation of the conjoined legs. (wikipedia.org)
  • births
  • For no known reason, more male conjoined twins are created in the uterus, but most successful births of conjoined twins are female. (fertilitysmarts.com)
  • The human twin birth rate in the United States, rose 76% from 1980 through 2009, from 18.9 to 33.3 per 1,000 births. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple pregnancies are much less likely to carry to full term than single births, with twin pregnancies lasting on average 37 weeks, three weeks less than full term. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other factors that increase the odds of having fraternal twins include maternal age, fertility drugs and other fertility treatments, nutrition, and prior births. (wikipedia.org)
  • Twins can be: Female-female-sometimes called sororal twins Male-male twins-no special name Male-female twins-this is the most common pairing, simply by virtue of it encompassing both "male-female" and "female-male" twins, thus half of all fraternal (dizygotic) twins are male-female Among non-twin births, male singletons are slightly (about five percent) more common than female singletons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such births are often named according to the number of offspring, as in twins and triplets. (wikipedia.org)
  • This average decreases for each additional fetus: to thirty-six weeks for twin births, thirty-two weeks for triplets, and thirty weeks for quadruplets. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, it has been estimated that by 2011, 36% of twin births and 78% of triplet and higher-order births resulted from conception by assisted reproductive technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Twins are by far the most common form of multiple births in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report more than 132,000 sets of twins out of 3.9 million births of all kinds each year, about 3.4%, or 1 in 30. (wikipedia.org)
  • Triplets are far less common than twins, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, accounting for only about 4300 sets in 3.9 million births, just a little more than 0.1%, or 1 in 1000. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century medical texts, which treat pregnancy as a disease, suggest that monstrous births may be the result of the mother's sickness or distress, and they continue the myth of (bestial) intercourse during pregnancy as a cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • childbirth
  • As much science as we know about pregnancy and childbirth, it's all really unbelievable. (go.com)
  • 670) Major puerperal infection (670.04) Endometritis, postpartum (671) Venous complications in pregnancy and the puerperium (671.44) Thrombophlebitis, postpartum (672) Pyrexia of unknown origin during the puerperium (673) Obstetrical pulmonary embolism (674) Other and unspecified complications of the puerperium, not elsewhere (675) Infections of the breast and nipple associated with childbirth (675.14) Abscess of breast, postpartum (675.94) Mastitis, lactating, unspec. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caused by: Pregnancy-induced hypercoagulability as a physiological response to potential massive bleeding at childbirth. (wikipedia.org)
  • maternal
  • The most common causes of maternal mortality are maternal bleeding, maternal sepsis and other infections, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, obstructed labor, and pregnancy with abortive outcome, which includes miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, and elective abortion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) has an incidence of 0.5 to 7 per 1,000 pregnancies, and is the second most common cause of maternal death in developed countries after bleeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • This increased risk is caused by an increased immune tolerance in pregnancy to prevent an immune reaction against the fetus, as well as secondary to maternal physiological changes including a decrease in respiratory volumes and urinary stasis due to an enlarging uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • ischiopagus
  • Technical challenges of a term delivery in a separated ischiopagus twin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is mostly confused with pygopagus where the twins are joined ventrally at the buttocks facing away from each other, whereas ischiopagus twins are joined dorsally at the sacrum and coccyx. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, parapagus twins are joined side-by-side whereas ischiopagus twins typically have spines connected at a 180° angle, facing away from one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ischiopagus Tetrapus/Quadripus: This variety has the twins at a symmetrical continuous longitudinal axis with their area of union not broken anteriorly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The origin of exactly what goes wrong to produce ischiopagus or any conjoined twin is a result by either incomplete fission or double overlapping inducing centers on the same germ disc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most Ischiopagus twins will need reconstruction surgery of the genitals and the gastrointestinal tract tract so that the twin will be able to perform normal bodily functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the Ischiopagus twins that both survive from birth, complications and risks also arise. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years, with advancing medical technology, physicians have been able to successfully separate Ischiopagus twins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultrasound
  • With the aid of 3D ultrasound and MRI images, the parents were counseled regarding the management options, including continuation of pregnancy, termination of pregnancy, or selective fetocide. (hindawi.com)
  • Current ultrasound techniques can accurately determine the chorionicity of twins, but not zygosity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We previously proposed that the zygosity of spontaneously conceived twins can be determined at early ultrasound, where 2 corpora lutea infers dizygosity, and 1 implies monozygosity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Doctors can use MRI and ultrasound to determine which organs the twins might share and classify the degree of difficulty of the surgery. (fertilitysmarts.com)
  • survive
  • The parents were counseled and options discussed included (1) continue the pregnancy understanding that the shared heart meant the conjoined twins could not be separated should they survive to delivery, (2) terminate the entire pregnancy or, (3) selective feticide of the conjoined twins. (hindawi.com)
  • Survival of both, or one twin, often depends on how the babies are joined together, and whether they have enough separate organs to survive alone. (boots.com)
  • But 75 percent of conjoined twins do not survive pregnancy, according to the hospital. (ibtimes.com)
  • In many cases, one or both of the twins may not survive any attempts to separate them, making the cases controversial. (fertilitysmarts.com)
  • Usually if the both twins survive labor, one twin will be healthy and strong, while the other is malnourished and weak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prenatal
  • 46,XX/46,XY chimerism can be identified during pregnancy by prenatal screening or in early childhood through genetic testing and direct observation. (wikipedia.org)
  • zygote
  • Conjoined twins are created when, after one egg is fertilized by one sperm, the resulting zygote begins to split. (fertilitysmarts.com)
  • A multiple pregnancy from a single zygote is called monozygotic, from two zygotes is called dizygotic, or from two or more zygotes is called polyzygotic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chimerism arises in utero from the combination of an XX zygote and an XY zygote (which otherwise would have developed into twins) into a single embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • ectopic
  • 630) Hydatidiform mole (631) Other abnormal product of conception (632) Abortion, missed (633.1) Ectopic pregnancy, tubal, no IUP (633.9) Ectopic pregnancy, no IUP, unspec. (wikipedia.org)
  • umbilical
  • The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of single umbilical artery (SUA) in twin pregnancies and to investigate whether SUA in twin gestations is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The thorax and abdomen are separate and each twin has its own umbilicus and umbilical cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parasitic twin, little more than a torso with or without legs, receives its blood supply from the host twin by means of an umbilical cord-like structure, much like a fetus in fetu, except the acardiac twin is outside the host twin's body. (wikipedia.org)
  • While it is thought that the classical TRAP/Acardius sequence is due to a retrograde flow from the umbilical arteries of the pump twin to the iliac arteries of the acardiac twin resulting in preferential caudal perfusion, acardius acormus is thought to be a result of an early embryopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • dizygotic
  • Dizygotic twins, like any other siblings, have an extremely small chance of having the same chromosome profile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like any other siblings, dizygotic twins may look similar, particularly given that they are the same age. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, dizygotic twins may also look very different from each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies show that there is a genetic proclivity for dizygotic twinning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dizygotic twins are also more common for older mothers, with twinning rates doubling in mothers over the age of 35. (wikipedia.org)
  • utero
  • However, males are also more susceptible than females to die in utero, and since the death rate in utero is higher for twins, it leads to female twins being more common than male twins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the books, it is theorised that Maelys "ate" his twin while in-utero, which strongly implies that that the head is that of a parasitic twin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyperemesis
  • 642.7) Pre-eclampsia or eclampsia superimposed on pre-existing hypertension (643) Excessive vomiting in pregnancy (643.0) Mild hyperemesis gravidarum (643.1) Hyperemesis gravidarum with metabolic disturbance (643.9) Vomiting of pregnancy, unspec. (wikipedia.org)
  • Siamese
  • A novel not just about Siamese twins but a host of human attachments, it was only a modest best seller, but reviews were laudatory. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Birth defects may result from genetic or chromosomal problems, exposure to certain medications or chemicals, or certain infections during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • womb
  • Each of these factors (rotation, spot of union) affects the development of the brain, the vascular system within the brain and overall wellness of life both of the twins have outside the womb. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetus
  • The undeveloped twin is defined as parasitic, rather than conjoined, because it is incompletely formed or wholly dependent on the body functions of the complete fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fetus in fetu sometimes is interpreted as a special case of parasitic twin, but may be a distinct entity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blood received by the parastitic twin has already been used by normal fetus, and as such is already de-oxygenated, leaving little developmental nutrients for the acardiac twin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "Conjoined Fetus Lady" episode of the television series South Park featured a character named Nurse Gollum who has a dead fetus attached to her head. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kyle's mother explains parasitic twins and fetus in fetu, leading Stan to attempt to open his head with an ice pick to release a supposed parasitic twin. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetes
  • Other conditions that can make pregnancy risky can happen while you are pregnant - for example, gestational diabetes and Rh incompatibility. (icdlist.com)
  • Early pregnancy weight gain is associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes during pregnancy," said Greenfield. (go.com)
  • Gestational diabetes is when a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors include folic acid deficiency, drinking alcohol or smoking during pregnancy, poorly controlled diabetes, and a mother over the age of 35 years old. (wikipedia.org)
  • early
  • Conjoined twins are delivered at least 2-4 weeks early, always by C-section. (fertilitysmarts.com)
  • The zygotes fuse early enough that there is no risk of them developing into conjoined twins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In On the Generation of Animals, he declared that the soul develops first a vegetative soul, then animal, and finally human, adding that abortions were permissible early in pregnancy, before certain biological processes began. (wikipedia.org)