• lateral prefro
  • Evidence from neuropsychological studies is consistent with the idea that regions in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) implement cognitive control processes that contribute to successful episodic long-term memory (LTM) encoding ( Ranganath and Blumenfeld, 2007 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • neurons
  • In the present study we analyzed synaptic spine density on the dendrites of layer IIIC cortico-cortical and layer V cortico-subcortical projecting pyramidal neurons in a large sample of human prefrontal cortices in subjects ranging in age from newborn to 91 y. (pnas.org)
  • thalamus
  • 5. The anatomical relationship of the prefrontal cortex with the striatopallidal system, the thalamus and the amygdala: evidence for a parallel organization (H.J. Groenewegen, H.W. Berendse, J.G. Wolters and A.H.M. Lohman). (elsevier.com)
  • There are three possible ways to define the prefrontal cortex: as the granular frontal cortex as the projection zone of the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus as that part of the frontal cortex whose electrical stimulation does not evoke movements The prefrontal cortex has been defined based on cytoarchitectonics by the presence of a cortical granular layer IV. (wikipedia.org)
  • To define the prefrontal cortex as the projection zone of the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus builds on the work of Rose and Woolsey, who showed that this nucleus projects to anterior and ventral parts of the brain in nonprimates, however, Rose and Woolsey termed this projection zone "orbitofrontal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern tract tracing studies have shown that projections of the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus are not restricted to the granular frontal cortex in primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • infralimbic
  • We trained rats to perform a maze habit, confirmed the habitual behavior by devaluation tests, and then, during the maze runs ( ca. 3 s), we disrupted population activity in a small region in the medial prefrontal cortex, the infralimbic cortex. (pnas.org)
  • This medial prefrontal region [called infralimbic (IL) cortex in rodents] is linked to emotion-related limbic circuitry and projects to sites that promote behavioral flexibility at the expense of habits (e.g., prelimbic cortex and medial striatum) ( 3 , 4 , 7 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • nonhuman primates
  • Previous EM analyses in nonhuman primates revealed that synaptic elimination in the monkey prefrontal cortex occurs mainly by removal of asymmetric synapses on spines, whereas the number of symmetric synapses on dendritic shafts remains constant ( 5 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • 16. Cellular and circuit basis of working memory in prefrontal cortex of nonhuman primates (P.S. Goldman-Rakic). (elsevier.com)
  • primates
  • 3. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of the prefrontal cortices in rat and in primates, including humans (H.B.M. Uylings and C.G. van Eden). (elsevier.com)
  • It seems to have been Akert, who, for the first time in 1964, explicitly suggested that this criterion could be used to define homologues of the prefrontal cortex in primates and nonprimates. (wikipedia.org)
  • striatum
  • We hypothesized that neuronal activity in striatum would increase in its dorsal part and that activity in frontal cortex would decrease with prolonged cocaine self-administration experience. (springer.com)
  • Our data reveal functional changes in cellular activity in striatum and frontal cortex with increasing cocaine self-administration experience. (springer.com)
  • third-party source needed] First, there are multiple separate stripes (groups of units) in the prefrontal cortex and striatum layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensory
  • We review the plastic changes of the prefrontal cortex of the rat in response to a wide range of experiences including sensory and motor experience, gonadal hormones, psychoactive drugs, learning tasks, stress, social experience, metaplastic experiences, and brain injury. (uleth.ca)
  • 1. How sensory cortex is subdivided in mammals: implications for studies in prefrontal cortex (J.H. Kaas). (elsevier.com)
  • mesocortical
  • 12. Age-dependent effects of lesioning the mesocortical dopamine system upon prefrontal cortex morphometry and PFC-related behaviours (A. Kalsbeek, J.P.C. de Bruin, M.G.P. Feenstra and H.B.M. Uylings). (elsevier.com)
  • VLPFC
  • The whole right VLPFC is active during motor inhibition having a critical role, meaning when the person is walking, and suddenly stops - the VLPFC activates to stop or to override the motor activity in the cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • synapses
  • After the formation of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the density of synapses in the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in eyewitness memory, is peaks in its development during 15 to 24 months, changing until the age of adolescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • It is thought that the reduced ability to recall the context of memories that occurs with advancing age, is evidence that the prefrontal cortex is also critical for context processing - a process involved in many cognitive functions. (memory-key.com)
  • developmental
  • All in all, this review is aimed at providing a synthesis of new findings that are emerging from the use of neuroimaging techniques with infants as well as at encouraging further theory-driven research to understand the developmental origins of prefrontal cortex function. (ed.gov)
  • working memory
  • The right prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an essential role in active processing within visuospatial working memory (VSWM). (bioportfolio.com)
  • The prefrontal cortex has long been thought to subserve both working memory (the holding of information online for processing) and "executive" functions (deciding how to manipulate working memory and perform processing). (wikipedia.org)
  • The critic system learns which prefrontal representations are task-relevant and trains the actor, which in turn provides a dynamic gating mechanism for controlling working memory updating. (wikipedia.org)
  • functions
  • Many authors have indicated an integral link between a person's will to live, personality, and the functions of the prefrontal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most typical psychological term for functions carried out by the prefrontal cortex area is executive function. (wikipedia.org)
  • So despite the nidopallium and prefrontal cortex having evolved separately (an educated assumption), both have achieved similar functions of higher order thought processes via convergent evolution, as a result of influences at the molecular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • anatomy
  • Based on this anatomy, the IL cortex is thought to be at an executive level in the control of habits and behavioral strategies ( 1 , 8 , 9 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • functional
  • Section III: Functional Aspects of Prefrontal Cortex. (elsevier.com)
  • We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine prefrontal activation during sequential encoding of word pairs. (jneurosci.org)
  • A systematic evaluation of the activation patterns in these neuroimaging studies mainly based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy reveals that prefrontal cortex function can be broadly divided into two distinct anatomical clusters with different functional properties. (ed.gov)
  • rats
  • 11. Anatomical correlates of behavioural change after neonatal prefrontal lesions in rats (B. Kolb and R. Gibb). (elsevier.com)
  • activity
  • This study investigates the relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and antisocial and aggressive behavior, and risk factors for such behavior. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 18. Influence of the ascending monoaminergic systems on the activity of the rat prefrontal cortex (A.-M. Thierry, R. Godbout, J. Mantz and J. Glowinski). (elsevier.com)
  • He found the representation of time to be generated by the oscillatory activity of cells in the upper cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • We tested these dynamics of habit control by the prefrontal IL region by targeting precisely timed optogenetic inhibition to the IL cortex with light to drive virally introduced halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0) ( 12 ). (pnas.org)