• cerebral cortex
  • A composite area of the cerebral cortex concerned with motor control and sensory perception comprising the motor cortex areas, the somatosensory areas, the gustatory cortex, the olfactory areas, the auditory cortex, and the visual cortex. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The cytoarchitecturally well-defined area of multilaminate cerebral cortex on the medial aspect of the parahippocampal gyrus, immediately caudal to the olfactory cortex of the uncus. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The largest number of supranumerary synapses has been recorded in the cerebral cortex of human and nonhuman primates. (pnas.org)
  • It is generally accepted that synaptic pruning in the cerebral cortex, including prefrontal areas, occurs at puberty and is completed during early adolescence [Huttenlocher PR, et al. (pnas.org)
  • This hypothesis gained considerable support from the discovery that synaptic connections in the cerebral cortex of human and nonhuman primates initially are overproduced to about two times the adult number and are then pruned during puberty to reach the adult level at the onset of adolescence ( 2 ⇓ ⇓ - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a human, the cerebral cortex contains approximately 15-33 billion neurons, each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The length of an axon can be extraordinary: for example, if a pyramidal cell, (an excitatory neuron) of the cerebral cortex were magnified so that its cell body became the size of a human body, its axon, equally magnified, would become a cable a few centimeters in diameter, extending more than a kilometer. (wikipedia.org)
  • These lower brain areas are under control of cerebral cortex ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through them, the higher cerebral cortex areas can control the immune system, and the body's homeostatic and stress physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cerebral cortex in rodents shows lateral specialization in its regulation of immunity with immunosuppression being controlled by the right hemisphere, and immunopotention by the left one. (wikipedia.org)
  • Time perception is handled by a highly distributed system involving the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Goldman-Rakic was also the founder of the Cerebral Cortex Journal, a specialized publication by Oxford Press. (wikipedia.org)
  • ventromedial prefro
  • What Is the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex? (wisegeek.com)
  • Located at the anterior-most portion of the frontal lobes, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex has been dubbed the "moral brain center" and its function is not completely understood. (wisegeek.com)
  • Limbic system structures mature to completion before the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, explaining why adolescents frequently engage in taking risks, seem disorganized, and make quick, haphazard decisions. (wisegeek.com)
  • The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is a part of the prefrontal cortex in the mammalian brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the ventromedial prefrontal cortex does not have a universally agreed on demarcation, in most sources, it is equivalent to the ventromedial reward network of Ongur and Price. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different researchers use the term ventromedial prefrontal cortex differently. (wikipedia.org)
  • To get a rough idea of where the ventromedial prefrontal cortex is, recall that the left and right hemispheres of the brain are separated [by the longitudinal cerebral fissure]. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is connected to and receives input from the ventral tegmental area, amygdala, the temporal lobe, the olfactory system, and the dorsomedial thalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research in developmental neuroscience also suggested that neural networks in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex are rapidly developing during adolescence and young adulthood supporting emotion regulation through the amygdala, being associated with a decrease in cortisol levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (especially in the right hemisphere) has been connected with deficits in detecting irony, sarcasm, and deception. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex still retain the ability to consciously make moral judgments without error, but only in hypothetical situations presented to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • striatum
  • We hypothesized that neuronal activity in striatum would increase in its dorsal part and that activity in frontal cortex would decrease with prolonged cocaine self-administration experience. (springer.com)
  • Our data reveal functional changes in cellular activity in striatum and frontal cortex with increasing cocaine self-administration experience. (springer.com)
  • third-party source needed] First, there are multiple separate stripes (groups of units) in the prefrontal cortex and striatum layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • thalamus
  • There are three possible ways to define the prefrontal cortex: as the granular frontal cortex as the projection zone of the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus as that part of the frontal cortex whose electrical stimulation does not evoke movements The prefrontal cortex has been defined based on cytoarchitectonics by the presence of a cortical granular layer IV. (wikipedia.org)
  • To define the prefrontal cortex as the projection zone of the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus builds on the work of Rose and Woolsey, who showed that this nucleus projects to anterior and ventral parts of the brain in nonprimates, however, Rose and Woolsey termed this projection zone "orbitofrontal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern tract tracing studies have shown that projections of the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus are not restricted to the granular frontal cortex in primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • In the present study we analyzed synaptic spine density on the dendrites of layer IIIC cortico-cortical and layer V cortico-subcortical projecting pyramidal neurons in a large sample of human prefrontal cortices in subjects ranging in age from newborn to 91 y. (pnas.org)
  • sensory
  • We review the plastic changes of the prefrontal cortex of the rat in response to a wide range of experiences including sensory and motor experience, gonadal hormones, psychoactive drugs, learning tasks, stress, social experience, metaplastic experiences, and brain injury. (uleth.ca)
  • VLPFC
  • The whole right VLPFC is active during motor inhibition having a critical role, meaning when the person is walking, and suddenly stops - the VLPFC activates to stop or to override the motor activity in the cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • synapses
  • Previous EM analyses in nonhuman primates revealed that synaptic elimination in the monkey prefrontal cortex occurs mainly by removal of asymmetric synapses on spines, whereas the number of symmetric synapses on dendritic shafts remains constant ( 5 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • stimuli
  • A recent study has also revealed that emotional stimuli and attentional functions are integrated in a specific part of the prefrontal cortex - the anterior cingulate (located between the right and left halves). (memory-key.com)
  • primates
  • It seems to have been Akert, who, for the first time in 1964, explicitly suggested that this criterion could be used to define homologues of the prefrontal cortex in primates and nonprimates. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • A single-cell RNA-seq survey of the developmental landscape of the human prefrontal cortex. (bioportfolio.com)
  • All in all, this review is aimed at providing a synthesis of new findings that are emerging from the use of neuroimaging techniques with infants as well as at encouraging further theory-driven research to understand the developmental origins of prefrontal cortex function. (ed.gov)
  • anatomy
  • Based on this anatomy, the IL cortex is thought to be at an executive level in the control of habits and behavioral strategies ( 1 , 8 , 9 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • functional
  • We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine prefrontal activation during sequential encoding of word pairs. (jneurosci.org)
  • A systematic evaluation of the activation patterns in these neuroimaging studies mainly based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy reveals that prefrontal cortex function can be broadly divided into two distinct anatomical clusters with different functional properties. (ed.gov)
  • human
  • The experiment sought to measure the densities of various neurotransmitter receptors in both the avian NCL and the human prefrontal cortex, using quantitative in-vitro receptor autoradiography. (wikipedia.org)
  • working memory
  • The right prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an essential role in active processing within visuospatial working memory (VSWM). (bioportfolio.com)
  • The prefrontal cortex has long been thought to subserve both working memory (the holding of information online for processing) and "executive" functions (deciding how to manipulate working memory and perform processing). (wikipedia.org)
  • The critic system learns which prefrontal representations are task-relevant and trains the actor, which in turn provides a dynamic gating mechanism for controlling working memory updating. (wikipedia.org)
  • functions
  • Many authors have indicated an integral link between a person's will to live, personality, and the functions of the prefrontal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most typical psychological term for functions carried out by the prefrontal cortex area is executive function. (wikipedia.org)
  • So despite the nidopallium and prefrontal cortex having evolved separately (an educated assumption), both have achieved similar functions of higher order thought processes via convergent evolution, as a result of influences at the molecular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • This study investigates the relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and antisocial and aggressive behavior, and risk factors for such behavior. (bioportfolio.com)
  • He found the representation of time to be generated by the oscillatory activity of cells in the upper cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • We tested these dynamics of habit control by the prefrontal IL region by targeting precisely timed optogenetic inhibition to the IL cortex with light to drive virally introduced halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0) ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • adult
  • This distinction is in line with adult data and evolutionary models and may represent a developmentally continuous organization principle of prefrontal cortex function. (ed.gov)