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  • species
  • O'Neal is concerned that broad-spectrum insecticides aimed at aphids and other pests may also kill beneficial species that prey on aphids. (agriculture.com)
  • Eubanks M.D. & Denno R.F. 2000: Health food versus fast food: the effects of prey quality and mobility on prey selection by a generalist predator and indirect interactions among prey species. (eje.cz)
  • Finlayson C., Alyokhin A., Gross S. & Porter E. 2010: Differential consumption of four aphid species by four lady beetle species. (eje.cz)
  • Kalushkov P. & Hodek I. 2004: The effects of thirteen species of aphids on some life history parameters of the ladybird Coccinella septempunctata. (eje.cz)
  • Kalushkov P. & Hodek I. 2005: The effects of six species of aphids on some life history parameters of the ladybird Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). (eje.cz)
  • A total of 18 pest species of aphids have been found in the suction traps. (agriculture.com)
  • Along with the soybean aphid, the cowpea aphid is a relatively new species to Iowa and was first reported in 2002. (agriculture.com)
  • In a catchment-scale experiment, we quantified the multiple effects of integrating strips of native prairie species amid corn and soybean crops, with prairie strips arranged to arrest run-off on slopes. (danielhellerman.com)
  • They are used in orchards to help control the European red mite (Panonychus ulmi), the twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), and most species of aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The species repeatedly failed to establish in the wild after successfully controlling aphid populations, but an established population of beetles was observed in the wild near New Orleans, Louisiana, in about 1988. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids originated in the late Cretaceous about 100 million years ago (Mya), but the Aphidinae which comprises about half of the 4700 described species and genera of aphids alive today come from their most recent radiation which occurred in the late Tertiary less than 10 Mya. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to many taxa, aphid species diversity is much lower in the tropics than in the temperate zones. (wikipedia.org)
  • When host plant quality becomes poor or conditions become crowded, some aphid species produce winged offspring, "alates", that can disperse to other food sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many aphid species are monophagous (that is, they feed on only one plant species). (wikipedia.org)
  • Others, like the green peach aphid feed on hundreds of plant species across many families. (wikipedia.org)
  • numbers of aphids
  • The numbers of aphids seen were dramatically larger than in previous years for the same time period. (illinois.edu)
  • He found various numbers of aphids and ants on other plants in the planting-date study that was planted on April 9. (illinois.edu)
  • Keith Jarvi, UNL extension educator for Dixon, Dakota and Thurston counties, said that numbers of aphids in northeast Nebraska are normal, compared to 2012 when numbers were low due to the drought, but there is a good chance of seeing aphid numbers increase in the next few weeks. (unl.edu)
  • corn and soybean
  • Results from a multiyear, catchment-scale experiment comparing corn and soybean fields with and without prairie vegetation indicated prairie strips raised pollinator and bird abundance, decreased water runoff, and increased soil and nutrient retention. (danielhellerman.com)
  • Corn and soybean yields for catchments with prairie strips decreased only by the amount of the area taken out of crop production. (danielhellerman.com)
  • Agroecosystems dominate the region ( 3 ) and are primarily composed of corn and soybean croplands, which cover 43% of the Midwestern Corn Belt and 69% of Iowa ( 4 ). (danielhellerman.com)
  • soft-bodied
  • The soybean aphid is soft-bodied, light green to pale yellow, less than 1/16th inch long, and has two black-tipped cornicles (cornicles look like tailpipes) on the rear of the abdomen. (no-tillfarmer.com)
  • adults
  • These mummies harbor immature parasitoids, which will become adults, emerge from the mummy, and parasitize more aphids. (no-tillfarmer.com)
  • The most abundant predator group noted was syrphid adults. (illinois.edu)
  • David Voegtlin, research entomologist with the Illinois Natural History Survey, reported finding the first winged soybean aphid adults in Illinois this season on April 23. (illinois.edu)
  • The adults are voracious predators and exhibit efficient searching behaviour. (wikipedia.org)
  • insidiosus
  • The large differences in aphid abundance between years were associated with the higher number of O. insidiosus found in the field in 2005 (416 total O. insidiosus ) than in 2004 (149 total O. insidiosus ). (unl.edu)
  • primarily
  • Later in the season aphids can be found on all parts of the plant, feeding primarily on the undersides of leaves, but also on stems and pods. (no-tillfarmer.com)
  • Soybean aphids go through approximately 15 generations on soybean, all of which are primarily composed of apterous females produced through viviparous parthenogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • eggs
  • A study identified the spotted lady beetle as a significant predator of the eggs of the European corn borer, Pyrausta nubilalis, with consumption averaging sixty eggs per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nasonovia
  • For example, the currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, is believed to have spread from New Zealand to Tasmania in this way. (wikipedia.org)
  • insecticides
  • Carbofuran usage has increased in recent years because it is one of the few insecticides effective on soybean aphids, which have expanded their range since 2002 to include most soybean-growing regions of the U.S. The main global producer is the FMC Corporation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parasites
  • We don't believe there were enough predators or parasites present in any of the fields to have any significant impact on the aphid numbers. (illinois.edu)
  • In contrast, other biotic defenses such as predators or parasites of the herbivores consuming a plant are normally attracted by volatile organic compounds (known as semiochemicals) released following damage or by food rewards and shelter produced by the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • insecticide
  • Insecticide-laced seed treatments can provide up to 65 days of protection for early-emerging aphids. (agriculture.com)
  • There are two methods to scout and determine if an insecticide treatment is warranted: a conventional scouting method using the 250 aphids per plant economic threshold, and a speed scouting method. (no-tillfarmer.com)
  • 2002
  • The mean number of aphids per plant was 276 compared to 16 in 2001 and 5 in 2002, already exceeding the mean peaks observed in the last two years in August. (illinois.edu)
  • First, we suggest rereading the soybean aphid fact sheet prepared in 2002. (illinois.edu)
  • Relatively
  • He has speculated that the number of aphids flying in the spring is relatively small compared with the larger flights that occur later in the summer. (illinois.edu)
  • All aphids have very small eyes, sucking mouthparts in the form of a relatively long, segmented rostrum, and fairly long antennae. (wikipedia.org)
  • David Voegtlin
  • Drs. David Voegtlin (Illinois Natural History Survey) and David Onstad (Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences) recently visited several soybean fields in Kendall County. (illinois.edu)
  • Fourteen fields in Kendall Township, Kendall County were sampled for soybean aphids on Wednesday, July 16 by David Onstad, David Voegtlin, Ramie Wells, Doris Lagos, Mike White, and Mike Just. (illinois.edu)
  • During the past few years, David Voegtlin and his co-workers have established and operated a set of suction traps (currently at nine locations) designed to sample the air for flying aphids. (illinois.edu)
  • temperatures
  • The aphids do not do well when temperatures are in the 90s F, and are reported to begin to die when temperatures reach 95 F. (no-tillfarmer.com)
  • You might recall that the scientific literature suggests that populations of soybean aphids develop more readily when temperatures are cool. (illinois.edu)
  • Thus far this spring, our temperatures certainly have been cool, so soybean aphids may be off to a fast start. (illinois.edu)
  • The optimal temperature for soybean aphid development occurs between 25 and 30 °C, and exposure to prolonged temperatures of 35 °C (95 °F) decrease survival rates and fecundity of soybean aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soybeans continue to respond favourably to the above normal temperatures with maturities in the late R4 to full R5 (seed set) stage of development. (gov.mb.ca)
  • plant
  • 2013. Within-plant bottom-up effects mediate non-consumptive impacts of top-down control of soybean aphids. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Aphids are most likely to concentrate at the very top of the plant, although they will move onto stems and within the canopy as populations grow and/or the plant reaches mid to late reproductive stages. (no-tillfarmer.com)
  • All plants sampled were infested, and the mean number of aphids per plant ranged from 110 to 636. (illinois.edu)
  • We believe that the alates that develop on any plant will leave that plant and fly before settling on another soybean plant for feeding and reproduction. (illinois.edu)
  • Fun with numbers: Let's assume that in an 80-acre field, 100,000 plants per acre, with 100% of the plants infested at an average of 500 aphids per plant, 10% of the population will become winged and emigrate each day. (illinois.edu)
  • These were abundant in every field, often landing on the counter's hand or on the plant where the aphids were being counted. (illinois.edu)
  • Will you plant more corn or soybeans next year? (agriculture.com)
  • He found as many as 40 aphids on one V2-V3 stage soybean plant. (illinois.edu)
  • They are found on the underside of soybean leaves on the upper part of the plant. (unl.edu)
  • If you have 250 aphids per plant and at least 80 percent of the plants have some aphids, that's when you might want to think about treating," Jarvi said. (unl.edu)
  • As the infested plant ages, soybean aphids remain on leaves near the top of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids have also been spread by human transportation of infested plant materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Soybean aphids often are found first in fields near wooded areas. (no-tillfarmer.com)
  • Note that in a similar effort in Champaign County, the team found virtually no aphids in 14 fields. (illinois.edu)
  • Voegtlin and Onstad have also found winged aphids for the first time this year in three of the nine suction traps around the state (Freeport, DeKalb, and Joliet). (illinois.edu)
  • Cage effects on mean temperature and soybean growth were found to be insignificant. (unl.edu)
  • yields
  • Strobilurin fungicides applied at the R3 growth stage have consistently increased soybean yields in Pioneer studies. (pioneer.com)
  • Consider establishing your own 5- to 10-acre high-yield plot to test new practices important to maximizing soybean yields. (pioneer.com)
  • Over the last 25 years, US average corn yields have increased by 1.6% per year while soybeans have only achieved a 1.27% per year gain. (pioneer.com)
  • A previous Crop Insights addressed basic agronomic practices that could help increase soybean yields. (pioneer.com)
  • honeydew
  • Like aphids, phylloxera feed on the roots, leaves, and shoots of grape plants, but unlike aphids, do not produce honeydew or cornicle secretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids excrete a sugary liquid called honeydew, because the plant sap from which they feed contains excess carbohydrates relative to its low protein content. (wikipedia.org)
  • aphid's
  • Their research shows that when the aphid is exposed to low doses of imidacloprid, the aphid's reproductive output goes way up. (topcropmanager.com)
  • During a regularly scheduled aphid scouting trip in mid-May made by our colleagues from other states, aphids were reported as 'abundant near Toledo (Secor Park)' on buckthorn, the aphid's overwintering host. (ocj.com)
  • Venette and Ragsdale (2004) suggested that Japan probably served as the point of origin for the soybean aphid's North American invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corn
  • What this probably means is that soybean aphids will be present this year in Ohio soybean fields, which would continue the two-year cycle," wrote Ohio State University Extension entomologists Ron Hammond and Andy Michel in a recent CORN Newsletter. (ocj.com)
  • A study identified the spotted lady beetle as a significant predator of the eggs of the European corn borer, Pyrausta nubilalis, with consumption averaging sixty eggs per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • In contrast to many taxa, aphid species diversity is much lower in the tropics than in the temperate zones. (wikipedia.org)
  • When host plant quality becomes poor or conditions become crowded, some aphid species produce winged offspring, "alates", that can disperse to other food sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many aphid species are monophagous (that is, they feed on only one plant species). (wikipedia.org)
  • Others, like the green peach aphid feed on hundreds of plant species across many families. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids originated in the late Cretaceous about 100 million years ago (Mya), but the Aphidinae which comprises about half of the 4700 described species and genera of aphids alive today come from their most recent radiation which occurred in the late Tertiary less than 10 Mya. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are used in orchards to help control the European red mite (Panonychus ulmi), the twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), and most species of aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • predation
  • It has been found experimentally that interplanting a crop susceptible to aphid attack with a flowering plant such as the dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, encouraged predation on aphids because the spotted lady beetles were attracted to their pollen-rich flowers. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Reduction in photosynthetic capacity of soybean may occur before plants begin to display symptoms of injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • eggs
  • Eggs begin to hatch into fundatrices when temperatures in the spring reach 10 °C (50 °F).[citation needed] Colonization of buckthorn by soybean aphids in the spring can lead to curling of leaves and twigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Our objectives were to determine if natural enemies delay aphid establishment and limit subsequent population growth and if this biological control can be improved by altering the within-field habitat. (usda.gov)
  • Feeding by soybean aphids injures soybean by interfering with photosynthetic pathways-more specifically, biological mechanisms responsible for restoring chlorophyll to a low energy state are impaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • beetles
  • Some people have claimed that the bright (red on black, or black on red) colors of some adult ladybirds are aposematic, which is to say that the colors warn would-be predators that the beetles are distasteful or toxic. (ufl.edu)
  • plant
  • Cutler says, "We've shown this in laboratory and greenhouse experiments where, after a few weeks, the population of the aphids on a plant can double due to exposure to the insecticide that is supposed to kill them. (topcropmanager.com)
  • They eat plant juice, and as their name suggest, their preferred food source is soybean leaves. (middletowntranscript.com)
  • Aphids have also been spread by human transportation of infested plant materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the infested plant ages, soybean aphids remain on leaves near the top of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to a soybean plant during this initial stage is a result of stylet-feeding and can include curling and stunting of leaves and twigs, physiological delays, and underdevelopment of root tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • As colonies expand and temperatures increase, soybean aphids move toward lower portions of the soybean plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, other biotic defenses such as predators or parasites of the herbivores consuming a plant are normally attracted by volatile organic compounds (known as semiochemicals) released following damage or by food rewards and shelter produced by the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Korea
  • It has been described as a common pest of soybeans in China and as an occasional pest of soybeans in Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand. (wikipedia.org)
  • hosts
  • The energetic demands of searching for hosts and dodging hungry predators and murderous humans requires carbohydrates. (bugoftheweek.com)
  • The soybean aphid possesses a heteroecious holocyclic life cycle, which means the insect alternates hosts and undergoes sexual reproduction for at least part of its life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • At this time, there is no way to predict how common aphids will be, and whether they will reach economic levels. (ocj.com)
  • Aphids are distributed worldwide, but are most common in temperate zones. (wikipedia.org)
  • year
  • While most people probably take little notice of such things, soybean growers and agricultural writers around Ohio are likely well aware that 2013 is an "on" year for the soybean aphid. (ocj.com)
  • Through some freak of nature, breeding, maybe lack of predators and ideal growing conditions, they are just (a lot of them) this year," Robson said. (middletowntranscript.com)
  • small
  • All aphids have very small eyes, sucking mouthparts in the form of a relatively long, segmented rostrum, and fairly long antennae. (wikipedia.org)
  • probably
  • However, based on what is being seen in other Midwest states, aphids will probably be present. (ocj.com)
  • people
  • Other products containing oils extracted from lemon eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora , and products combining oils of soybean, geranium, and caster bean protect people from mosquito bites. (bugoftheweek.com)
  • example
  • For example, when the aphids are exposed to low doses of imidacloprid, their numbers go way up. (topcropmanager.com)
  • For example, he and his lab have been looking at how this aphid responds to imidacloprid, a commonly used neonicotinoid sold under various trade names, such as Admire. (topcropmanager.com)
  • shows
  • The cladogram from V. Papasotiropoulos et al, 2013, shows the phylogeny of the aphids, not yet fully resolved. (wikipedia.org)