• species
  • Eubanks M.D. & Denno R.F. 2000: Health food versus fast food: the effects of prey quality and mobility on prey selection by a generalist predator and indirect interactions among prey species. (eje.cz)
  • Finlayson C., Alyokhin A., Gross S. & Porter E. 2010: Differential consumption of four aphid species by four lady beetle species. (eje.cz)
  • Kalushkov P. & Hodek I. 2004: The effects of thirteen species of aphids on some life history parameters of the ladybird Coccinella septempunctata. (eje.cz)
  • Kalushkov P. & Hodek I. 2005: The effects of six species of aphids on some life history parameters of the ladybird Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). (eje.cz)
  • A total of 18 pest species of aphids have been found in the suction traps. (agriculture.com)
  • Along with the soybean aphid, the cowpea aphid is a relatively new species to Iowa and was first reported in 2002. (agriculture.com)
  • They are used in orchards to help control the European red mite (Panonychus ulmi), the twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), and most species of aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The species repeatedly failed to establish in the wild after successfully controlling aphid populations, but an established population of beetles was observed in the wild near New Orleans, Louisiana, in about 1988. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids originated in the late Cretaceous about 100 million years ago (Mya), but the Aphidinae which comprises about half of the 4700 described species and genera of aphids alive today come from their most recent radiation which occurred in the late Tertiary less than 10 Mya. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to many taxa, aphid species diversity is much lower in the tropics than in the temperate zones. (wikipedia.org)
  • When host plant quality becomes poor or conditions become crowded, some aphid species produce winged offspring, "alates", that can disperse to other food sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many aphid species are monophagous (that is, they feed on only one plant species). (wikipedia.org)
  • Others, like the green peach aphid feed on hundreds of plant species across many families. (wikipedia.org)
  • numbers of aphids
  • The numbers of aphids seen were dramatically larger than in previous years for the same time period. (illinois.edu)
  • He found various numbers of aphids and ants on other plants in the planting-date study that was planted on April 9. (illinois.edu)
  • Keith Jarvi, UNL extension educator for Dixon, Dakota and Thurston counties, said that numbers of aphids in northeast Nebraska are normal, compared to 2012 when numbers were low due to the drought, but there is a good chance of seeing aphid numbers increase in the next few weeks. (unl.edu)
  • Colonization
  • All aphids were found on the newest leaves, so we imagine colonization was fairly recent, probably within the last week. (unl.edu)
  • Of course, there are always exceptions to any rule, so one should always be watchful for soybean aphid colonization and population increase. (unl.edu)
  • Relatively
  • He has speculated that the number of aphids flying in the spring is relatively small compared with the larger flights that occur later in the summer. (illinois.edu)
  • insecticide
  • Insecticide-laced seed treatments can provide up to 65 days of protection for early-emerging aphids. (agriculture.com)
  • Another practice that can result in aphid population resurgence is unwarranted insecticide treatment, either because fields were treated well before the threshold was met or fields were treated along with an herbicide (in some cases a fungicide), regardless of aphid presence. (unl.edu)
  • There are two methods to scout and determine if an insecticide treatment is warranted: a conventional scouting method using the 250 aphid/plant economic threshold and a speed scouting method. (unl.edu)
  • yields
  • Growers must overcome these challenges to maximize soybean yields. (pioneer.com)
  • Strobilurin fungicides applied at the R3 growth stage have consistently increased soybean yields in Pioneer studies. (pioneer.com)
  • Consider establishing your own 5- to 10-acre high-yield plot to test new practices important to maximizing soybean yields. (pioneer.com)
  • A previous Crop Insights addressed basic agronomic practices that could help increase soybean yields. (pioneer.com)
  • This article will discuss overcoming pest obstacles to achieving top soybean yields and profits. (pioneer.com)
  • But research with Ohio State's Department of Plant Pathology has shown that such a treatment, specifically a Quadris/Warrior combination, has been shown to boost soybean yields only in fields with high soybean aphid populations. (farmanddairy.com)
  • Nasonovia
  • For example, the currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, is believed to have spread from New Zealand to Tasmania in this way. (wikipedia.org)
  • crop
  • For soybeans, 10% of the crop is blooming while about 90% is podded. (gov.mb.ca)
  • The soybean crop throughout the Southwest Region is in the R6 to R6.5 stage of development with pod and full seed development occurring on the four upper most nodes on the main stem. (gov.mb.ca)
  • The majority of the soybean crop is podded. (gov.mb.ca)
  • temperatures
  • Thus far this spring, our temperatures certainly have been cool, so soybean aphids may be off to a fast start. (illinois.edu)
  • The optimal temperature for soybean aphid development occurs between 25 and 30 °C, and exposure to prolonged temperatures of 35 °C (95 °F) decrease survival rates and fecundity of soybean aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soybeans continue to respond favourably to the above normal temperatures with maturities in the late R4 to full R5 (seed set) stage of development. (gov.mb.ca)
  • threshold
  • The treatments might prevent aphids from reaching threshold for about a week or two, but a grower will need to treat those fields sooner or later if the aphids are building. (farmanddairy.com)
  • Economic threshold for soybean aphids occurs when populations reach 250 aphids/plant and are increasing. (lgseeds.com)
  • The economic threshold for late vegetative through R5 stage soybeans is 250 aphids per plant with 80% of the plants infested and populations increasing. (unl.edu)
  • a conventional scouting method using the 250 aphid/plant economic threshold and a speed scouting method. (unl.edu)
  • The current recommended economic threshold for late vegetative through R5 stage soybeans is 250 aphids per plant with 80% of the plants infested and populations increasing. (unl.edu)
  • Soybean aphids in Nebraska usually reach the economic threshold and require treatment in late July (rarely) through August, with a very few fields requiring treatment earlier in July. (unl.edu)
  • The current threshold for late vegetative through R5 stage soybean is 250 aphids/plant with 80% of the plants infested and populations increasing (see above for details). (unl.edu)
  • Parasites
  • We don't believe there were enough predators or parasites present in any of the fields to have any significant impact on the aphid numbers. (illinois.edu)
  • In contrast, other biotic defenses such as predators or parasites of the herbivores consuming a plant are normally attracted by volatile organic compounds (known as semiochemicals) released following damage or by food rewards and shelter produced by the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • The mean number of aphids per plant was 276 compared to 16 in 2001 and 5 in 2002, already exceeding the mean peaks observed in the last two years in August. (illinois.edu)
  • First, we suggest rereading the soybean aphid fact sheet prepared in 2002. (illinois.edu)
  • stems
  • Aphids were observed throughout the plants: on stems and lower trifoliates as well as the growing tips. (illinois.edu)
  • Aphids start out in the upper canopy of the soybean and slowly move down the plant to lower leaves, stems, and pods. (lgseeds.com)
  • Later in the season the aphids can be found on all parts of the plant, feeding primarily on the undersides of leaves, but also on the stems and pods. (unl.edu)
  • Aphids are most likely to concentrate at the very top of the plant, although they will move onto stems and within the canopy as populations grow and/or the plant reaches mid to late reproductive stages. (unl.edu)
  • David Voegtlin
  • Drs. David Voegtlin (Illinois Natural History Survey) and David Onstad (Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences) recently visited several soybean fields in Kendall County. (illinois.edu)
  • Fourteen fields in Kendall Township, Kendall County were sampled for soybean aphids on Wednesday, July 16 by David Onstad, David Voegtlin, Ramie Wells, Doris Lagos, Mike White, and Mike Just. (illinois.edu)
  • During the past few years, David Voegtlin and his co-workers have established and operated a set of suction traps (currently at nine locations) designed to sample the air for flying aphids. (illinois.edu)
  • plants infested
  • Fun with numbers: Let's assume that in an 80-acre field, 100,000 plants per acre, with 100% of the plants infested at an average of 500 aphids per plant, 10% of the population will become winged and emigrate each day. (illinois.edu)
  • field
  • Each field was sampled by counting all the aphids on each of 50 plants, noting the presence of winged aphids as well as predators and parasite mummies. (illinois.edu)
  • So, 80 x 100,000 x 500 = 4 billion aphids per field. (illinois.edu)
  • These were abundant in every field, often landing on the counter's hand or on the plant where the aphids were being counted. (illinois.edu)
  • Reflecting these low populations in the field, we observed fewer aphids within our suction traps compared to the 2005 growing season when the traps collected nearly 100 times more aphids. (agriculture.com)
  • Soybean aphids have recently been found in field surveys in northeast Nebraska from Battle Creek to Ponca. (unl.edu)
  • If a tree line or woodlot is adjacent to the soybean field, make sure and include a few sampling locations near these areas. (unl.edu)
  • Determining if the aphid population is actively increasing requires several visits to the field. (unl.edu)
  • The earlier a field is treated, the greater the chance that any surviving aphids can later reproduce or new aphids can repopulate the field. (unl.edu)