• mutations
  • Disease-targeted sequencing of ion channel genes identifies de novo mutations in patients with non-familial Brugada syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • Although these actions of the toxin are subtle in the wild-type channel, strengthening the toxin-channel interaction with mutations in the S3b helix of the S1-S4 domain enhances toxin affinity and causes large shifts in the conductance-voltage relationship. (rupress.org)
  • toxins
  • Chimeras in which S3b-S4 paddle motifs are transferred between Kv2.1 and Shaker Kv channels, as well as experiments with the related tarantula toxin GxTx-1E, lead us to conclude that the actions of tarantula toxins are not simply a product of where they bind to the channel, but that fine structural details of the toxin-channel interface determine whether a toxin is an inhibitor or opener. (rupress.org)
  • They are the targets of multiple toxins, and malfunction of the channels has been implicated in several diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • range
  • Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. (nih.gov)
  • Using a range of previously characterized mutants of the Shaker Kv channel, we find that hanatoxin stabilizes an activated conformation of the voltage sensors, in addition to promoting opening through an effect on the final opening transition. (rupress.org)
  • Voltage-activated ion channels play a wide range of critical roles in electrical and chemical signaling within biological systems. (rupress.org)
  • domains
  • In Nav and Cav channels, the four voltage-sensing domains are contained within a single α subunit, such that the four voltage-sensing domains are not identical ( Catterall, 2012 ). (rupress.org)