• ions
  • In the new study, Yu, Kim and their colleagues looked for VNO potassium channels, which admit positively charged potassium ions. (redorbit.com)
  • To determine the contribution of potassium ions to these currents, they replaced the potassium ions in the neurons with chemically similar cesium ions, which cannot get through potassium channels. (redorbit.com)
  • That and other experiments with the VNO tissue slices suggested that potassium ions normally flow out of VNO neurons through potassium channels when a VNO receptor is activated. (redorbit.com)
  • neurons typically have a greater concentration of potassium ions inside than outside, leading to an outward flow when potassium channels are opened. (redorbit.com)
  • However, in the VNO neurons a strong outward flow of potassium also occurred within the dendrites, directly countering the inward flow of positive ions that would activate the neurons. (redorbit.com)
  • But when they set up experiments to evaluate these channels not in VNO tissue slices but "in vivo"-in the working VNOs of live mice-they found a very different result: On balance the potassium channels now sent potassium ions in the inward direction. (redorbit.com)
  • The resulting low concentration had misleadingly caused potassium ions to be sucked out of VNO neuron dendrites when the SK3 and GIRK potassium channels were opened. (redorbit.com)
  • Potassium ions are necessary for the function of all living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this and its low first ionization energy of 418.8 kJ/mol, the potassium atom is much more likely to lose the last electron and acquire a positive charge than to gain one and acquire a negative charge (though negatively charged alkalide K− ions are not impossible). (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium ferricyanide is also one of two compounds present in ferroxyl indicator solution (along with phenolphthalein) which turns blue (Prussian blue) in the presence of Fe2+ ions, and which can therefore be used to detect metal oxidation that will lead to rust. (wikipedia.org)
  • The insolubility of this compound has been used to determine the concentration of potassium ions by precipitation and gravimetric analysis: K+ + NaB(Ph)4 → KB(Ph)4 + Na+ The compound adopts a polymeric structure with bonds between the phenyl rings and potassium. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects of potassium
  • Much of what is known of the protective effects of potassium iodide has come from the measurements of radiation accumulation in the thyroid glands of hundreds of thousands of people in the weeks following the Chernobyl reactor disaster of April 1986, and the therapeutic effects KI achieved in Poland during that time. (faqs.org)
  • The protective effects of potassium iodide last about 24 hours from the time it is ingested. (faqs.org)
  • Iodide
  • Indeed, potassium iodide is a common commercial additive to table salt, to produce 'iodized' salt. (faqs.org)
  • Potassium iodide is noteworthy in security because of its ability to block the uptake of radioactive iodine by the body's thyroid gland. (faqs.org)
  • If taken in time following an accidental or deliberate release of radioactive iodine, such as would occur with a leak from a nuclear power plant or the detonation of a bomb containing a radioactive payload, potassium iodide saturates the thyroid with a form of iodine that persists in the gland. (faqs.org)
  • Guidance: Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid Blocking Agent in radiation Emergencies. (faqs.org)
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Potassium Iodide. (faqs.org)
  • Because iodide can be oxidized to iodine by molecular oxygen under wet conditions, US companies add thiosulfates or other antioxidants to the potassium iodide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approved by the World Health Organization for radiation protection, potassium iodate (KIO3) is an alternative to potassium iodide (KI), which has poor shelf life in hot and humid climates. (wikipedia.org)
  • bromate
  • The additive is called potassium bromate, which is added to flour to strengthen the dough, allow it to rise higher and give the finished bread an appealing white color. (ewg.org)
  • EWG's Food Scores , an online tool to help consumers eat healthier, lists potassium bromate as an ingredient in at least 86 baked goods and other food products * found on supermarket shelves, including well-known brands and products such as Hormel Foods breakfast sandwiches, Weis Kaiser rolls and French toast, and Goya turnover pastry dough. (ewg.org)
  • Regulators in the United States and abroad have reached troubling conclusions about the risks of potassium bromate that you probably don't know about, but should. (ewg.org)
  • In 1999 the International Agency for Research on Cancer determined that potassium bromate is a possible human carcinogen. (ewg.org)
  • 2,3,4,5 The state of California requires food with potassium bromate to carry a warning label. (ewg.org)
  • In tests on lab animals, exposure to potassium bromate increased the incidence of both benign and malignant tumors in the thyroid and peritoneum - the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity. (ewg.org)
  • Potassium bromate also has the potential to disrupt the genetic material within cells. (ewg.org)
  • 9 Upon entering the body, potassium bromate can be transformed into molecules called oxides and radicals. (ewg.org)
  • Scientists have observed such damage in human liver and intestine cells, where exposure to potassium bromate resulted in breaks in DNA strands and chromosomal damage. (ewg.org)
  • But testing in the United Kingdom revealed that potassium bromate remains detectable after baking, with six out of six unwrapped breads and seven out of 22 packaged breads containing measurable levels. (ewg.org)
  • California is the only state to have taken any measures to warn residents of the dangers associated with this chemical, placing potassium bromate on its Proposition 65 list, 13 which means that products that contain it must carry a cancer warning on their labels. (ewg.org)
  • Congress must overhaul this broken process in order to truly protect us from potentially cancer-causing chemicals such as potassium bromate. (ewg.org)
  • In light of the evidence that suggests potassium bromate has the potential to be genotoxic and carcinogenic, and the decisions by numerous regulatory authorities based on this evidence, EWG recommends a precautionary approach to consumers: You should avoid food products that contain this chemical. (ewg.org)
  • Check the list and use EWG's Food Scores database and companion app to find foods without potassium bromate. (ewg.org)
  • Like potassium bromate, potassium iodate is occasionally used as a maturing agent in baking. (wikipedia.org)
  • bitartrate
  • Potassium bitartrate crystallizes in wine casks during the fermentation of grape juice , and can precipitate out of wine in bottles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium bitartrate can be mixed with an acidic liquid such as lemon juice or white vinegar to make a paste-like cleaning agent for metals such as brass, aluminum or copper, or with water for other cleaning applications such as removing light stains from porcelain. (wikipedia.org)
  • potash
  • When Humphry Davy first isolated the pure element using electrolysis in 1807, he named it potassium which he derived from the word potash. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyanides
  • Potassium ferricyanide separates from the solution: 2 K4[Fe(CN)+ Cl2 → 2 K3[Fe(CN)+ 2 KCl Like other metal cyanides, solid potassium ferricyanide has a complicated polymeric structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute
  • Acute potassium intoxication by mouth is rare because large single doses usually induce vomiting and because in the absence of pre-existing kidney damage, potassium is rapidly excreted. (hazard.com)
  • Potassium chlorochromate can be toxic upon ingestion (may cause acute poisoning and kidney damage amongst other complications) or contact with the human skin (may cause eye burns, irritation, allergy, or ulceration), especially if inhalated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium benzoate has low acute toxicity upon oral and dermal exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxides
  • In 1999 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, cleanup of potassium oxides from a NaK metal leak produced an impact-sensitive explosion while saturated with mineral oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water
  • Unlike sports beverages, coconut water is low in carbohydrates, while still rich in potassium . (dictionary.com)
  • It is found dissolved in sea water (which is 0.04% potassium by weight), and is part of many minerals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium superoxide is a potent oxidizer, and can produce explosive reactions when combined with a variety of substances, including water, acids, organics, or powdered graphite. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common potassium silicate has the formula K2SiO3, samples of which contain varying amounts of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • Potassium creates acid as it oxidises iron and magnesium. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Acidic foods and beverages such as fruit juice (citric acid), sparkling drinks (carbonic acid), soft drinks (phosphoric acid), and pickles (vinegar) may be preserved with potassium benzoate. (wikipedia.org)
  • urine
  • When these potassium-depleted VNO neurons were exposed to pheromone-containing mouse urine, the usual net inward flow of positive charge was significantly greater than it had been when the neurons contained potassium. (redorbit.com)
  • Urine potassium testing is also used for people with abnormal kidney tests to help the healthcare practitioner determine the cause of kidney disease and to help guide treatment. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Urine potassium testing may be done when blood potassium levels are abnormal. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Potassium urine concentrations must be evaluated in association with blood levels. (labtestsonline.org)
  • If blood potassium levels are low due to insufficient intake, then urine concentrations will also be low. (labtestsonline.org)
  • deficiency
  • potassium deficiency and excess can each result in numerous abnormalities, including an abnormal heart rhythm and various electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • iodine
  • In other countries, potassium iodate is used as a source for dietary iodine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium iodate may be used to protect against accumulation of radioactive iodine in the thyroid by saturating the body with a stable source of iodine prior to exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gent, Nick (1999), "Evaluation of a scheme for the pre-distribution of stable iodine (potassium iodate) to the civilian population residing within the immediate countermeasures zone of a nuclear submarine construction facility", Journal of Public Health, 21 (4): 2008-10, doi:10.1093/pubmed/21.4.412, PMID 11469363 Pahuja, D.N. (wikipedia.org)