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  • Infectious Diseases
  • West Nile virus, Lyme disease and hantavirus are all infectious diseases spreading in animals and in people. (nsf.gov)
  • A joint National Science Foundation (NSF) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases (EEID) program is providing answers. (nsf.gov)
  • It supports efforts to understand the underlying ecological and biological mechanisms behind human-induced environmental changes and the emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. (nsf.gov)
  • The interdisciplinary collaborations fostered by the EEID program promote a deeper understanding of how infectious diseases emerge and spread,' says Irene Eckstrand of the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of General Medical Sciences. (nsf.gov)
  • Infectious diseases have a major effect on these issues, threatening the health of humans and livestock. (nsf.gov)
  • Researchers supported by the EEID program are advancing basic theory related to infectious diseases and applying that knowledge to improve our understanding of how pathogens spread through populations at a time of increasing environmental change. (nsf.gov)
  • The benefits of research on the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases include development of theories of how diseases are transmitted, improved understanding of unintended health effects of development projects, increased capacity to forecast disease outbreaks, and knowledge of how infectious diseases emerge and reemerge. (nsf.gov)
  • Infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Warming oceans and a changing climate are resulting in extreme weather patterns which have brought about an increase of infectious diseases-both new and re-emerging. (wikipedia.org)
  • El Nino is an extreme weather pattern that is often responsible for increased precipitation, resulting in increased flooding, creating a more promising breeding ground for a plethora of vectors that both carry and cause infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another result of the warming oceans are stronger hurricanes, which will wreck more havoc on land, and in the oceans, and create more opportunities for vectors to breed and infectious diseases to flourish. (wikipedia.org)
  • vector-borne diseases
  • Here, we provide background information and present our hypothesis that IgG4 may not only be a useful tool to measure exposure to infected mosquito bites, but that these bi-specific antibodies may also play an important role in modulation of the immune response against malaria and other vector-borne diseases in endemic settings. (frontiersin.org)
  • From this large group, the vector-borne diseases are among the leading causes of mortality and disability in developing countries ( 3 , 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we present a brief review on the antibody response against SPs and the hypothetical implication of IgG4 antibodies in disease progression of several vector-borne diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • For his outstanding contributions to the field of vector borne disease control, he was bestowed 'Best Scientist Award for Environmental Science 2011' by the National Academy of Vector Borne Diseases, India. (wikipedia.org)
  • M. Zaim (2011), "Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasite
  • see parasite parasite, plant or animal that at some stage of its existence obtains its nourishment from another living organism called the host. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • On a global scale, ruminant diseases caused by gastrointestinal nematode parasite infestations are among the diseases with the greatest impact upon animal health and productivity. (iaea.org)
  • Found worldwide, T. gondii is capable of infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals, but felids such as domestic cats are the only known definitive hosts in which the parasite can undergo sexual reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second phase of the disease, the neurological phase, begins when the parasite invades the central nervous system by passing through the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • African Trypanosomiasis is dependent on the interaction of the parasite (trypanosome) with the tsetse flies (vector), as well as the host (human for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, and animals for Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two subspecies of the parasite that are responsible for starting the disease in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large population of cats, more specifically stray cats, are infected with the parasite. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • Much research in Animal Genetics is currently focused on the search of genetic markers for economically important traits, with the aim of providing new tools for breeding programmes. (iaea.org)
  • The Animal Genetics group at Seibersdorf is trying to develop tools to make this possible. (iaea.org)
  • prevalence
  • Under this general umbrella, I study a diversity of topics, such as the impacts of a melting sea ice habitat on polar bear populations, the impacts of climate change on the prevalence and distribution of parasitic diseases in caribou and muskoxen, and the impacts of forest fragmentation on the likelihood of disease transmission between domestic and wild animals, such as jaguars and pumas, in Costa Rica. (utoronto.ca)
  • Studies are showing higher prevalence of these diseases in areas that have experienced extreme flooding and drought. (wikipedia.org)
  • behaviour
  • Joan Beauchamp Procter made some of the earliest observations of these animals in captivity and she demonstrated the behaviour of one of these animals at a Scientific Meeting of the Zoological Society of London in 1928. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • Animal and plant diseases cause significant losses in food production around the globe, with some pathogens also causing food-borne illnesses in humans,' says Sonny Ramaswamy, director of USDA's National Institute of Food and Agriculture. (nsf.gov)
  • Continuing advances in the science of plant pathology are needed to improve disease control, and to keep up with changes in disease pressure caused by the ongoing evolution and movement of plant pathogens and by changes in agricultural practices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lyme
  • It was not until the 1970s that the association of these bacteria with what came to be known as Lyme disease was discovered. (usda.gov)
  • The black legged tick, a carrier of Lyme disease, when not feeding, spends its time burrowed in soil absorbing moisture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The natural environmental controls that used to keep the tick populations in check are disappearing, and warmer and wetter climates are allowing the ticks to breed and grow at an alarming rate, resulting in an increase in Lyme disease, both in existing areas and in areas where it has not been seen before. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxoplasmosis
  • In rare cases, Toxoplasmosis can present with severe pathological symptoms, including diseases related to inflammation of the retina and choroid, inflammation and damage to heart muscle and inflammation of the brain, potentially leading to death. (psypost.org)
  • Toxoplasma gondii (IPA: /ˈtɒksoʊˌplæzmə ˈɡɒndi.aɪ/) is an obligate intracellular, parasitic alveolate that causes the disease toxoplasmosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • The disease later progresses to a latent phase with less symptoms and ultimately into a chronic or obstructive phase months to years later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment is easier when the disease is detected early and before neurological symptoms occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • If left untreated, the disease overcomes the host's defenses and can cause more extensive damage, broadening symptoms to include anemia, endocrine, cardiac, and kidney dysfunctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • birds
  • The lifecycle of T. gondii can be broadly summarized into two components: a sexual component that occurs only within cats (felids, wild or domestic), and an asexual component that can occur within virtually all warm-blooded animals, including humans, cats, and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • These roundworms cause a high mortality rate in nesting egrets and other wading birds, including other coastal populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • nematode
  • Plants in both natural and cultivated populations carry inherent disease resistance, but there are numerous examples of devastating plant disease impacts (see Irish potato famine, chestnut blight), as well as recurrent severe plant diseases (see rice blast, soybean cyst nematode, citrus canker). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a filarial nematode known to infect the lymph vessels of domestic cats and wild animals, causing a disease filariasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • impacts
  • This behavior negatively impacts the prey animal's welfare, and may have a negative effect on native wildlife populations and contribute to ecosystem disruption. (avma.org)
  • variety of diseases
  • Given the variety of diseases prevalent in swine production, both in the United States and abroad, it is important to understand the risks associated with organic swine production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • By using molecular markers it is then possible to use a simple DNA test (e.g. blood sample) to "genotype" animals and classify those carrying a desire trait before the selection process. (iaea.org)
  • Molecular studies have been made on dugong populations using mitochondrial DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • hantavirus
  • Other diseases on the rise due to extreme weather include hantavirus, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis (river blindness), and tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • For example, several breeds of are sheep known to have some degree of enhanced resistance and show superior growth compared to other breeds in environments where animals are exposed to helminths. (iaea.org)
  • In addition, members of the Animal Production Unit and Section are collaborating with researchers from the United States Department of Agriculture, the International Livestock Research Institute and the University of San Paulo on a genome scan of a cross between Dorper and Red Massai sheep to develop genetic markers for helminth resistance. (iaea.org)
  • pigs
  • Integrated farming systems involving both crop and livestock production in a closed system can reduce financial risk for the producer, since organic producers generally receive premiums or higher prices for their products sold that cover and possibly reduce disease risk so long as there is no outside contact with other pigs or animals, such as cows, or poultry. (wikipedia.org)
  • malaria
  • Mosquito-borne diseases are probably the greatest threat to humans as they include malaria, elephantiasis, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever, and dengue fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • ECOLOGY
  • In 2009, he joined as a scientist in vector ecology and management in the Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. (wikipedia.org)
  • habitat
  • Despite being legally protected in many countries, the main causes of population decline remain anthropogenic and include fishing-related fatalities, habitat degradation and hunting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fragmented habitat create barriers in gene flow between populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, the selection of superior animals can be achieved in a simpler and faster manner than through the standard approach of recording data and analyzing it statistically. (iaea.org)
  • increases
  • Threats to human health, food security and ecosystem services are growing, in part due to increases in the spread of diseases,' says Sam Scheiner, NSF EEID program director. (nsf.gov)
  • this is strictly an economic issue, because better known animals at the zoo attract more guests which therefore increases profits. (wikipedia.org)
  • crops
  • This project will initially measure the changes in mineral status of ewes grazing cereal crops during the last third of pregnancy and determine if direct measures of mineral composition of the crops, the mineral status in ewes and other factors can be used to predict the risk of metabolic disease. (edu.au)
  • However, disease control is reasonably successful for most crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • incidence
  • Is human interaction with the environment somehow responsible for the increase in incidence of these diseases? (nsf.gov)
  • Agronomic practices often influence disease incidence for better or for worse. (wikipedia.org)
  • decline
  • In the decade after it was first discovered in 1998, the disease devastated amphibian populations around the world, in a global decline towards multiple extinctions, part of the Holocene extinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The introduction of B.terrestris into certain regions of Patagonia and southern South America (starting around the 1980s) have led to the rapid decline of Bombus dahlbomii populations in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • (1) This impressive volume of water is what gives the planet its blue appearance and might lead us to think that the amount available to supply the needs of humans, animals and plants is almost inexhaustible. (d-p-h.info)
  • Determination of parasitic protein structures may help to better understand how these proteins function differently from homologous proteins in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmission of disease through rodents can be spread to humans through direct handling and contact, or indirectly through rodents carrying the disease spread to ticks, mites, fleas (arboborne. (wikipedia.org)
  • brains
  • We need a science that is contextual, that will look at the way brains are embodied in animals, which are in turn situated in environments with histories and cultures," Noë says. (scitech-news.com)
  • Looking at consciousness this way stresses the link between our brains and our animal selves, Noë says, and moves beyond the more limited neuroscientific understanding of consciousness. (scitech-news.com)
  • rabies
  • Following on from this, in 1857 Louis Pasteur also designed vaccines against several diseases such as anthrax, fowl cholera and rabies as well as pasteurization for food preservation. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Rat-bite Fever (RBF) is an rodent borne disease caused by two types of bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis, which is predominany in North America and Spirillum minus, predominantly in Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rat-bite fever is contacted by bites or scratches from an infected rodent, contaminated food or beverages with either bacteria, or by handling rodents with the disease, without necessariliy being bitten or scratched by the rodent. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • The disease complex they cause, known as leishmaniosis or leishmaniasis, is endemic in large areas of the tropics, subtropics, and the Mediterranean basin, affecting more than 98 countries. (springer.com)
  • Cancers are a large family of diseases that involve abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • In August 2007, a Chinese man reportedly videotaped a large white animal swimming in the Yangtze. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • (8) This provoked some serious debate and it was in the middle of the 19th century that scientists proved that the quantity and flow of water were not, by themselves, sufficient to guarantee its cleanliness, and that it was only the quality of water that ensured the health of the population. (d-p-h.info)
  • biological processes
  • Disease impacts many biological processes such as community stability, the evolution of sex and speciation, yet the importance of different transmission modes in these processes is not understood. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Later, animals were also flown to investigate various biological processes and the effects microgravity and space flight might have on them. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmission
  • In this article, which is based on my opening talk as a 'facilitator' at the British Ecological Society retreat on Transmission in September 2015, I review some of the issues that I think are important when considering the subject of disease transmission. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • I was specifically asked to provide an overview of aspects of disease transmission that I find interesting, drawing on examples from my own experience, and 'sowing the seeds' for subsequent discussions. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The curse of beta': diagram of the disease cycle illustrating the complex nature of the transmission process, that often is summarized by one parameter β . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Simian HTLV-1 genotypes are interspersed in between the human genotypes indicating frequent animal-human and human-animal transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inadequate hygiene and sanitation, as seen in some European countries, also contribute to increase rodent populations and higher risks of rodent borne disease transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • health
  • Epidemiology of common health problems and diseases. (emagister.in)
  • At VCA Animal Hospitals, your pet's health is our top priority, provided through high-quality, professional care and genuine personal service. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Human interference into natural environment through changes of cultivation structure, fertilisation, use of pesticides, contamination, urbanisation and fast development of motorization have a negative influence on the population and health of wild animals. (media.pl)
  • It is listed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a neglected tropical disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • A highly significant decrease in the number of small animals, mainly hares and partridges - which also constituted natural food for foxes - has resulted in the fact that the fox has become a threat for young roes and fallows, which could be confirmed by our own observations as well as hunters' reports published in hunting periodicals. (media.pl)
  • Other efforts include those to decrease the fly population by spraying insecticides. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • The infected tick will be carried by its rodent host and infect another host (animal or human) as it feeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • living conditions
  • In the breeding activities concerning warrantable animals one should aim at the improvement of living conditions also through improving the feeding base and biological shield. (media.pl)
  • Cats
  • VCA Bonita Animal Hospital is conveniently located just East of the 805 FWY on Bonita Rd in Chula Vista, CA. We see dogs, cats, rabbits, and pocket pets. (vcahospitals.com)
  • common
  • These flies live near rivers, hence the common name of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Against this hypothesis stands the fact that when the brown rat had become common in this country, it was unknown in Norway, although there was a small animal like a rat, but really a lemming, which made its home there. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dogs
  • A wide variety of non-human animals have been launched into space, including monkeys, dogs, tortoises, and insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (/bəˌtreɪkoʊˈkɪtriəm ˈdɛndroʊbətaɪdɪs/ bə-TRAY-koh-KIT-ree-əm DEN-droh-bə-ty-dis), also known as Bd or the amphibian chytrid fungus, is a fungus that causes the disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians. (wikipedia.org)
  • seeds
  • Zoochory is the dispersal of the seeds of plants by animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is similar to pollination in that the plant produces food resources (for example, fleshy fruit, overabundance of seeds) for animals that disperse the seeds (service). (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • One surveillance study in the late 1980s found incidences of pneumococcal bacteremia among infants, young adults, and persons ≥70 years of age to be 160, 5, and 70 cases per 100,000 population, respectively. (gkhub.info)
  • support
  • From the first of August to August 30th, VCA Hospitals will be fundraising - in conjunction with VCA Charities - to support the animal relief organizations who have come together to aid animals across Northern California. (vcahospitals.com)
  • fruit
  • The first animals sent into space were fruit flies aboard a U.S.-launched V-2 rocket on 20 February 1947 from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. (wikipedia.org)
  • Control
  • Animals had been used in aeronautic exploration since 1783 when the Montgolfier brothers sent a sheep, a duck, and a rooster aloft in a hot air balloon (the duck serving as the experimental control). (wikipedia.org)