• species
  • The complexity of reproductive strategies found in the animal kingdom as well as their implication for harvesting of species are presented. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite that is present in around a third of the human population, as well as many other animal species. (psypost.org)
  • The intruders are exotic species - non-native plants and animals introduced into the country either intentionally or by accident. (pbs.org)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi , the bacteria causing Lyme disease is maintained in nature in I. scapularis and I. pacificus ticks and certain host species, chief of which is the white-footed mouse. (usda.gov)
  • Projects funded through the EEID program allow scientists to study how large-scale environmental events--such as habitat destruction, invasions of non-native species and pollution--alter the risks of emergence of viral, parasitic and bacterial diseases in humans and animals. (nsf.gov)
  • A population of this species exists in the Korean Demilitarized Zone, near the tracks of the Donghae Bukbu Line. (wikipedia.org)
  • The species is classified as endangered in South Korea, with an estimated population less than 250. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species and representing more than half of all known living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million, and potentially represent over 90% of the differing animal life forms on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few parasitic species are pathogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Native species of plants may serve as reservoirs for pathogens that cause disease in crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease epidemics in plants can cause huge losses in yield of crops as well threatening to wipe out an entire species such as was the case with Dutch Elm Disease and could occur with Sudden Oak Death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic erosion is a process where the limited gene pool of an endangered species diminishes even more when reproductive individuals die off before reproducing low population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low genetic diversity in a population of wild animals and plants leads to a further diminishing gene pool - inbreeding and a weakening immune system can then "fast-track" that species towards eventual extinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many species benefit from a human-assisted breeding program to keep their population viable,[citation needed] thereby avoiding extinction over long time-frames. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meanwhile, low genetic diversity (see inbreeding and population bottlenecks) can cause reduced biological fitness and increase the chance of extinction of that species or population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, even if an endangered species in a bottleneck can withstand whatever human development may be eating away at its habitat, it still faces the threat of an epidemic that could be fatal to the entire population. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main factor, however, is the replacement of local varieties of domestic plants and animals by other varieties or species that are non-local. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common frog has long been thought to be an entirely introduced species in Ireland, however, genetic analyses suggest that particular populations in the south west of Ireland are indeed indigenous to the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • Across large regions and many crop species, it is estimated that diseases typically reduce plant yields by 10% every year in more developed settings, but yield loss to diseases often exceeds 20% in less developed settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phlebotomus species are also vectors for bartonellosis, verruga peruana, and pappataci fever, an arboviral disease caused by sandfly fever viruses such as the Naples and Sicilian strains of the genus Phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae), which also includes the closely related Toscana virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory colonies of several Phlebotomus species have been established for experimental study of their biology, behaviour, mutual relations with disease agents, and for testing methods of vector control. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • To manage the threat associated with cattle fever tick infestation, APHIS proposed to treat white-tailed deer with ivermectin, a broad spectrum anti-parasitic drug, to control tick vectors of cattle fever in in South Texas. (usda.gov)
  • El Nino is an extreme weather pattern that is often responsible for increased precipitation, resulting in increased flooding, creating a more promising breeding ground for a plethora of vectors that both carry and cause infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another result of the warming oceans are stronger hurricanes, which will wreck more havoc on land, and in the oceans, and create more opportunities for vectors to breed and infectious diseases to flourish. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • West Nile virus, Lyme disease and hantavirus are all infectious diseases spreading in animals and in people. (nsf.gov)
  • A joint National Science Foundation (NSF) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases (EEID) program is providing answers. (nsf.gov)
  • It supports efforts to understand the underlying ecological and biological mechanisms behind human-induced environmental changes and the emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. (nsf.gov)
  • The interdisciplinary collaborations fostered by the EEID program promote a deeper understanding of how infectious diseases emerge and spread,' says Irene Eckstrand of the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of General Medical Sciences. (nsf.gov)
  • Infectious diseases have a major effect on these issues, threatening the health of humans and livestock. (nsf.gov)
  • Researchers supported by the EEID program are advancing basic theory related to infectious diseases and applying that knowledge to improve our understanding of how pathogens spread through populations at a time of increasing environmental change. (nsf.gov)
  • The benefits of research on the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases include development of theories of how diseases are transmitted, improved understanding of unintended health effects of development projects, increased capacity to forecast disease outbreaks, and knowledge of how infectious diseases emerge and reemerge. (nsf.gov)
  • Warming oceans and a changing climate are resulting in extreme weather patterns which have brought about an increase of infectious diseases-both new and re-emerging. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • From an evolutionary angle, we also ask questions about the adaptations of parasites to better exploit their hosts, and use molecular tools to investigate the population genetics and diversification of parasitic organisms. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Controlled release compositions of matter are disclosed comprising complexes for treating a population of one or more aquatic organisms in a column of water. (google.com)
  • The components are selected to sink or float so that the complexes will permeate and/or remain in any planar or volumetric segment of a water column for a period of time that is sufficient to effectively treat a population of aquatic organisms. (google.com)
  • Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogen
  • Still other grantees will study the ecological drivers of infectious disease evolution in an emerging avian pathogen, while others will link models and policy using adaptive management for optimal control of disease outbreaks. (nsf.gov)
  • The host might out-grow susceptibility as with high-temperature adult-plant resistance, the environment changes and is not conducive for the pathogen to cause disease, or the pathogen is controlled through a fungicide application for instance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease control is achieved by use of plants that have been bred for good resistance to many diseases, and by plant cultivation approaches such as crop rotation, use of pathogen-free seed, appropriate planting date and plant density, control of field moisture, and pesticide use. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasite
  • On a global scale, ruminant diseases caused by gastrointestinal nematode parasite infestations are among the diseases with the greatest impact upon animal health and productivity. (iaea.org)
  • cruzi as a potential opportunistic parasite in HIV patients from areas where Chagas disease is endemic, (16) such as southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Found worldwide, T. gondii is capable of infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals, but felids such as domestic cats are the only known definitive hosts in which the parasite can undergo sexual reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second phase of the disease, the neurological phase, begins when the parasite invades the central nervous system by passing through the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • African Trypanosomiasis is dependent on the interaction of the parasite (trypanosome) with the tsetse flies (vector), as well as the host (human for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, and animals for Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two subspecies of the parasite that are responsible for starting the disease in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • Much research in Animal Genetics is currently focused on the search of genetic markers for economically important traits, with the aim of providing new tools for breeding programmes. (iaea.org)
  • The Animal Genetics group at Seibersdorf is trying to develop tools to make this possible. (iaea.org)
  • behaviour
  • Joan Beauchamp Procter made some of the earliest observations of these animals in captivity and she demonstrated the behaviour of one of these animals at a Scientific Meeting of the Zoological Society of London in 1928. (wikipedia.org)
  • ticks
  • Treated corn is placed in the gravity flow feeders from February through July to control cattle fever ticks in deer populations. (usda.gov)
  • The natural environmental controls that used to keep the tick populations in check are disappearing, and warmer and wetter climates are allowing the ticks to breed and grow at an alarming rate, resulting in an increase in Lyme disease, both in existing areas and in areas where it has not been seen before. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lyme
  • It was not until the 1970s that the association of these bacteria with what came to be known as Lyme disease was discovered. (usda.gov)
  • The black legged tick, a carrier of Lyme disease, when not feeding, spends its time burrowed in soil absorbing moisture. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxoplasmosis
  • In rare cases, Toxoplasmosis can present with severe pathological symptoms, including diseases related to inflammation of the retina and choroid, inflammation and damage to heart muscle and inflammation of the brain, potentially leading to death. (psypost.org)
  • Toxoplasma gondii (IPA: /ˈtɒksoʊˌplæzmə ˈɡɒndi.aɪ/) is an obligate intracellular, parasitic alveolate that causes the disease toxoplasmosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • The main symptoms are fever and enlargement of the lymph nodes in the acute stage, with involvement of the heart and gastrointestinal tract when the disease becomes chronic. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The disease later progresses to a latent phase with less symptoms and ultimately into a chronic or obstructive phase months to years later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment is easier when the disease is detected early and before neurological symptoms occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • If left untreated, the disease overcomes the host's defenses and can cause more extensive damage, broadening symptoms to include anemia, endocrine, cardiac, and kidney dysfunctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • birds
  • The lifecycle of T. gondii can be broadly summarized into two components: a sexual component that occurs only within cats (felids, wild or domestic), and an asexual component that can occur within virtually all warm-blooded animals, including humans, cats, and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • These roundworms cause a high mortality rate in nesting egrets and other wading birds, including other coastal populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • agriculture
  • In addition, members of the Animal Production Unit and Section are collaborating with researchers from the United States Department of Agriculture, the International Livestock Research Institute and the University of San Paulo on a genome scan of a cross between Dorper and Red Massai sheep to develop genetic markers for helminth resistance. (iaea.org)
  • Animal and plant diseases cause significant losses in food production around the globe, with some pathogens also causing food-borne illnesses in humans,' says Sonny Ramaswamy, director of USDA's National Institute of Food and Agriculture. (nsf.gov)
  • The United.States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Veterinary Services' (VS) Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program has issued a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Environmental Assessment (EA): Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program Use of Ivermectin Corn. (usda.gov)
  • The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates indeed that pests and diseases are responsible for about 25% of crop loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • nematode
  • Plants in both natural and cultivated populations carry inherent disease resistance, but there are numerous examples of devastating plant disease impacts (see Irish potato famine, chestnut blight), as well as recurrent severe plant diseases (see rice blast, soybean cyst nematode, citrus canker). (wikipedia.org)
  • impacts
  • This behavior negatively impacts the prey animal's welfare, and may have a negative effect on native wildlife populations and contribute to ecosystem disruption. (avma.org)
  • pathology
  • Continuing advances in the science of plant pathology are needed to improve disease control, and to keep up with changes in disease pressure caused by the ongoing evolution and movement of plant pathogens and by changes in agricultural practices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • By using molecular markers it is then possible to use a simple DNA test (e.g. blood sample) to "genotype" animals and classify those carrying a desire trait before the selection process. (iaea.org)
  • Molecular studies have been made on dugong populations using mitochondrial DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevalent
  • Given the variety of diseases prevalent in swine production, both in the United States and abroad, it is important to understand the risks associated with organic swine production. (wikipedia.org)
  • hantavirus
  • Other diseases on the rise due to extreme weather include hantavirus, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis (river blindness), and tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • For example, several breeds of are sheep known to have some degree of enhanced resistance and show superior growth compared to other breeds in environments where animals are exposed to helminths. (iaea.org)
  • pigs
  • Integrated farming systems involving both crop and livestock production in a closed system can reduce financial risk for the producer, since organic producers generally receive premiums or higher prices for their products sold that cover and possibly reduce disease risk so long as there is no outside contact with other pigs or animals, such as cows, or poultry. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • This is a vascular disease that is commonly triggered by the involvement of change in temperature, which leads to syndromes including (first and second degree) burning pain, increased temperature, erythema and swelling, of mainly the hands and feet that are affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • ECOLOGY
  • In 2009, he joined as a scientist in vector ecology and management in the Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. (wikipedia.org)
  • habitat
  • Despite being legally protected in many countries, the main causes of population decline remain anthropogenic and include fishing-related fatalities, habitat degradation and hunting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fragmented habitat create barriers in gene flow between populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • Threats to human health, food security and ecosystem services are growing, in part due to increases in the spread of diseases,' says Sam Scheiner, NSF EEID program director. (nsf.gov)
  • this is strictly an economic issue, because better known animals at the zoo attract more guests which therefore increases profits. (wikipedia.org)
  • crops
  • This project will initially measure the changes in mineral status of ewes grazing cereal crops during the last third of pregnancy and determine if direct measures of mineral composition of the crops, the mineral status in ewes and other factors can be used to predict the risk of metabolic disease. (edu.au)
  • However, disease control is reasonably successful for most crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • India
  • For his outstanding contributions to the field of vector borne disease control, he was bestowed 'Best Scientist Award for Environmental Science 2011' by the National Academy of Vector Borne Diseases, India. (wikipedia.org)
  • Control
  • Presently, he is working in a team of the department of control of neglected tropical diseases that manages the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES). (wikipedia.org)
  • M. Zaim (2011), "Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Control of plant diseases is crucial to the reliable production of food, and it provides significant reductions in agricultural use of land, water, fuel and other inputs. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Is human interaction with the environment somehow responsible for the increase in incidence of these diseases? (nsf.gov)
  • In the urban slums of Brazil, other grantees will study the influence on human health of leptospirosis--a common disease transmitted to people from animals. (nsf.gov)
  • However, recent research suggests the large size of Komodo dragons may be better understood as representative of a relict population of very large varanid lizards that once lived across Indonesia and Australia, most of which, along with other megafauna, died out after the Pleistocene (likely as a result of human activity). (wikipedia.org)
  • captivity
  • The only conservation effort is bringing these animals into captivity within the zoo system, which should prevent it from going extinct. (wikipedia.org)
  • environmental
  • During summer season, increase in the environmental temperature in the subtropical regions of Pakistan is negatively affecting the performance of dairy animals. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Thus
  • Thus, the selection of superior animals can be achieved in a simpler and faster manner than through the standard approach of recording data and analyzing it statistically. (iaea.org)
  • health
  • The concept of One Health recognizes that the health of people is connected to the health of animals and the environment. (hindawi.com)
  • With the growing global population expected to reach nine billion by 2050, we face many challenges related to food security and health,' says Douglas Kell, BBSRC chief executive. (nsf.gov)
  • A good example of the impact of global warming on health can be seen in the disease Erythromelalgia. (wikipedia.org)
  • To solve this issue, new methods are needed to detect diseases and pests early, such as novel sensors that detect plant odours and spectroscopy and biophotonics that are able to diagnose plant health and metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Mosquito-borne diseases are probably the greatest threat to humans as they include malaria, elephantiasis, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever, and dengue fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parasitic plants that use impatiens as hosts include the European dodder (Cuscuta europaea). (wikipedia.org)