• mortality
  • The model achieves this by adjusting the mortality rate of the adults so that the modeled population produces the observed number of pups. (gc.ca)
  • It was in 1662 that John Graunt was fascinated by mortality rates in Britain and made a treatise for the population of Britain to analyse what influenced the age of death. (brainmass.com)
  • demographic
  • August 2014: Datasheet The 2014 World Population Data Sheet offers up-to-date demographic, health, and environment data on 16 indicators for more than 200 countries. (prb.org)
  • The effects of these demographic differences are explored by comparing autarky and trade and unequal population dynamics are shown to affect the relative abundance of the factors of production in each region, leading to differences in wage rates and rentals for capital under autarky conditions. (repec.org)
  • The goal of the graduate training program is to produce social scientists, fully trained in their discipline, with broad knowledge in population studies and specialized skills in statistical and demographic techniques, who can undertake independent research on a wide range of population topics. (wikipedia.org)
  • capita
  • d N d T = r N {\displaystyle {\dfrac {dN}{dT}}=rN} where d N d T {\displaystyle {\dfrac {dN}{dT}}} is the rate of population growth per unit time, r is the maximum per capita growth rate, and N is the population size. (wikipedia.org)
  • consequences
  • We estimated the population consequences to an inferior competitor from interactions with a superior competitor that also is an indirect mutualist. (mendeley.com)
  • implications
  • This paper investigates the implications of the addition of differential population dynamics to a simple 2x2x2 model of international trade within an overlapping-generations (OLG) framework, by assuming that one of the trading partners has the power to set the terms of trade (i.e., is large) at the beginning. (repec.org)
  • This is especially true when dealing with the protection of the sexual and reproductive health and rights of all people, a sensitive area, and one with enormous implications for population dynamics. (unfpa.org)
  • Human Population
  • J.P. Holdren and P.R. Ehrlich, "Human Population and the Global Environment," American Scientist, vol. 62 (1974), pp. 282-92. (learner.org)
  • In the last 100 years, human population growth has appeared to be exponential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paul Ehrlich and Thomas Malthus believed that human population growth would lead to overpopulation and starvation due to scarcity of resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • They believed that human population would grow at rate in which they exceed the ability at which humans can find food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Demography
  • The Michigan Population Studies Center is a demography center in the United States, with an extensive record in both domestic and international population research and training. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Population Studies Center provides apprenticeship training and fellowship support to graduate students in Sociology, Economics, Public Health, and Anthropology who choose demography as a field of specialization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interaction
  • Failure to consider the indirect positive interaction in this system would lead to a gross underestimate of the strength of competition, and would not reveal the critical im- portance of the indirect mutualism in maintaining local populations of the inferior com- petitor. (mendeley.com)
  • Migration
  • Evidence suggests that efforts to limit urban population growth, for example by restricting internal migration, have had limited success, if any. (unfpa.org)
  • Inform
  • Together with data on social and economic conditions and vulnerabilities, population data can inform investments in social services such as health care and education. (unfpa.org)
  • size
  • Population dynamics is the study of population size and factors that affect animal abundance. (gc.ca)
  • A population model is then used to determine total population size. (gc.ca)
  • Information on population size has been obtained from aerial surveys to count the number of pups, total counts of pups born in a colony, or through mark-recapture experiments. (gc.ca)
  • In fact, studying population size goes far back in scientific research. (brainmass.com)
  • The harvestable surplus is the number of individuals that can be harvested from the population without affecting long term stability (average population size). (wikipedia.org)
  • The effective population size (Ne) was defined by Sewall Wright, who wrote two landmark papers on it (Wright 1931, 1938). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ne is usually less than N (the absolute population size). (wikipedia.org)
  • Population bottlenecks are when population size reduces for a short period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • VPA is virtual in the sense that the population size is not observed or measured directly but is inferred or back-calculated to have been a certain size in the past in order to support the observed fish catches and an assumed death rate owing to non-fishery related causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Population size and structure impact a country's economy as well as its ability to provide social protections and access to health care, education, housing, sanitation, water, food and energy. (unfpa.org)
  • parameters
  • Research also examines factors that may affect population parameters such as energy intake or disease. (gc.ca)
  • In addition to information on the number of pups born, and reproductive parameters, model inputs include removals from the population due to incidental catches by the fishing industry, the number of animals that are removed from the population by subsistence, and commercial harvesting, and also a factor that corrects removals by hunters for animals that may have been struck or killed but not recovered or reported. (gc.ca)
  • We discuss the asymptotic dependence of the variability of the population on different parameters, representing the severity or the fluctuations of the environment. (springer.com)
  • aquatic
  • A fishery is an area with an associated fish or aquatic population which is harvested for its commercial or recreational value. (wikipedia.org)
  • Matters
  • Nancy Birdsall and Steven W. Sinding, "How and Why Population Matters: New Findings, New Issues," in Nancy Birdsall, Allen C. Kelley, and Steven W. Sinding, eds. (learner.org)
  • Population Matters (Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 14. (learner.org)
  • models
  • Population models become much more complex as you specify the generation type of the population of interest or analyze resource availability in a population. (brainmass.com)
  • The models will be applied to research the movements and population connectivity of blue crabs in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. (tulane.edu)
  • In neutral models of biodiversity all populations are assumed to change incrementally due to stochastic births and deaths of individuals. (osti.gov)
  • processes
  • This is done by dividing the rate of one of the ecological processes (say birth rates) by the total number of individuals in the population. (brainmass.com)
  • Research
  • The Program also conducts considerable research and development of new methods for stock assessment research, and has participated in major field programs to estimate bivalve populations directly from the results of expanded research vessel survey catches. (noaa.gov)
  • Population Research and Policy Review, 32(3): 311-324. (wikipedia.org)
  • PSC becomes the fourth center in ISR, joining the Survey Research Center, the Center for Political Studies, and the Research Center for Group Dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • stable
  • Although drastically reduced in numbers from hunting, the St Lawrence Estuary beluga population was stable or increasing at a very slow rate since the end of the hunt in the 1960s and numbered around 1000 individuals in the early 2000s. (gc.ca)
  • In a stable population the replacement rate should hover close to 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • rate
  • This is therefore the theoretical maximum rate of increase of a population per individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic reproductive rate R 0 {\displaystyle R_{0}} , also known as the replacement rate of a population, is the ratio of daughters to mothers. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fishery population is affected by three dynamic rate functions: Birth rate or recruitment. (wikipedia.org)
  • displaystyle
  • Homeostasis is the set point, or carrying capacity, defined as K. d N d T = r N ( 1 − N K ) {\displaystyle {\dfrac {dN}{dT}}=rN{\Big (}1-{\dfrac {N}{K}}{\Big )}} where ( 1 − N K ) {\displaystyle {\Big (}1-{\dfrac {N}{K}}{\Big )}} is the density dependence, N is the number in the population, K is the set point for homeostasis and the carrying capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • urban
  • By 2050, nearly 63 per cent of the total population of Southeast Asia is expected to live in urban areas. (fao.org)
  • Promoting better market access and market performance for smallholder agricultural producers and the provision of access to better quality and lower price food for the majority of the world's population requires the strengthening of rural-urban linkages and putting 'place-based development' at. (fao.org)
  • To this end, countries need to collect disaggregated population data on a regular basis and use this data for planning at the national, local, rural and urban levels. (unfpa.org)
  • future
  • In the future, humans would be unable to feed large populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a reference standard, MVP is usually given with a population survival probability of somewhere between ninety and ninety-five percent and calculated for between one hundred and one thousand years into the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • rates
  • The harp seal population is monitored through a combination of aerial surveys that determine how many pups are born in a year, and the collection of seals by hunters to obtain information on age at maturity and age specific reproductive rates. (gc.ca)
  • This is done by calculating how many adults in a population would be required to produce the number of pups that are counted during the surveys, given the reproductive rates that are obtained from the sampling program. (gc.ca)
  • Population regulation is a density-dependent process, meaning that population growth rates are regulated by the density of a population. (wikipedia.org)
  • health
  • The International Conference on Population and Development , the Millennium Development Goals , and the upcoming post-2015 development agenda all call for unrestricted and universal access to sexual and reproductive health care, including voluntary family planning . (unfpa.org)