• local populations
  • Failure to consider the indirect positive interaction in this system would lead to a gross underestimate of the strength of competition, and would not reveal the critical im- portance of the indirect mutualism in maintaining local populations of the inferior com- petitor. (mendeley.com)
  • In marine systems, classical theory holds that the influence of demographic processes and dispersal is confined to local populations whereas the environment controls regional patterns of abundance. (pnas.org)
  • dynamical
  • Here, we use spatial synchrony to compare the distribution of population abundance of the dominant mussel Mytilus californianus observed along the West Coast of the United States to that predicted by dynamical models undergoing different dispersal and environmental treatments to infer the relative influence of local and regional processes. (pnas.org)
  • In light of these recent developments, we relax the assumptions of demographic openness and local equilibrium dynamics and compare the distribution of population abundance, predicted by dynamical metapopulation models undergoing different dispersal and environmental treatments, to that of the dominant mussel Mytilus californianus , observed along the West Coast of the United States, to assess the relative importance of nearshore environmental heterogeneity and dispersal. (pnas.org)
  • demographic
  • August 2014: Datasheet The 2014 World Population Data Sheet offers up-to-date demographic, health, and environment data on 16 indicators for more than 200 countries. (prb.org)
  • The effects of these demographic differences are explored by comparing autarky and trade and unequal population dynamics are shown to affect the relative abundance of the factors of production in each region, leading to differences in wage rates and rentals for capital under autarky conditions. (repec.org)
  • We show that dispersal among neighboring populations interacts with local demographic processes to generate characteristic patterns of spatial synchrony that can govern the dynamic distribution of mussel abundance over 1,800 km of coastline. (pnas.org)
  • More specifically MVP is the smallest possible size at which a biological population can exist without facing extinction from natural disasters or demographic, environmental, or genetic stochasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The goal of the graduate training program is to produce social scientists, fully trained in their discipline, with broad knowledge in population studies and specialized skills in statistical and demographic techniques, who can undertake independent research on a wide range of population topics. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Synchrony can be induced by local intrinsic processes such as dispersal among populations and strong interactions with mobile predators or regional extrinsic processes such as spatially correlated environmental variability ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Recent work has shown that when the processes that contribute to synchrony can be studied in isolation, be it via natural barriers to dispersal among populations ( 2 , 3 ) or experimental manipulation ( 4 ), synchrony patterns can be ascribed to their underlying cause. (pnas.org)
  • abundance
  • Population dynamics is the study of population size and factors that affect animal abundance. (gc.ca)
  • Beluga abundance in the St Lawrence Estuary has been modeled using aerial surveys, which also provide information on the proportion of young animals in the population. (gc.ca)
  • We reveal synchronized fluctuations in the abundance of mussel populations across a whole continent despite limited larval dispersal and strong environmental forcing. (pnas.org)
  • Our study emphasizes the importance of dispersal and local dynamics for the distribution of abundance at the continental scale. (pnas.org)
  • Synchronized fluctuations in abundance among spatially segregated populations are common in nature and can be used to quantify and understand the distribution of abundance in space and time ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here, we show that in marine populations experiencing both intrinsic and extrinsic sources of synchrony, the shape of spatial synchrony patterns can be used to infer the cause of synchrony and explain the regional distribution of abundance. (pnas.org)
  • Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U W Y Abundance - is a measure of how many fish are in a population or a fishing ground. (wikipedia.org)
  • consequences
  • We estimated the population consequences to an inferior competitor from interactions with a superior competitor that also is an indirect mutualist. (mendeley.com)
  • implications
  • This paper investigates the implications of the addition of differential population dynamics to a simple 2x2x2 model of international trade within an overlapping-generations (OLG) framework, by assuming that one of the trading partners has the power to set the terms of trade (i.e., is large) at the beginning. (repec.org)
  • This is especially true when dealing with the protection of the sexual and reproductive health and rights of all people, a sensitive area, and one with enormous implications for population dynamics. (unfpa.org)
  • Human Population
  • J.P. Holdren and P.R. Ehrlich, "Human Population and the Global Environment," American Scientist, vol. 62 (1974), pp. 282-92. (learner.org)
  • In the last 100 years, human population growth has appeared to be exponential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paul Ehrlich and Thomas Malthus believed that human population growth would lead to overpopulation and starvation due to scarcity of resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • They believed that human population would grow at rate in which they exceed the ability at which humans can find food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Demography
  • The potential for large-scale transport, along with the difficulties associated with measuring larval dispersal, has prompted many studies to assume either completely closed (no exportation of larvae to other populations) or completely open (no coupling between larval production and recruitment) demography ( 5 , 6 , but see refs. (pnas.org)
  • The Michigan Population Studies Center is a demography center in the United States, with an extensive record in both domestic and international population research and training. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Population Studies Center provides apprenticeship training and fellowship support to graduate students in Sociology, Economics, Public Health, and Anthropology who choose demography as a field of specialization. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluctuations
  • We discuss the asymptotic dependence of the variability of the population on different parameters, representing the severity or the fluctuations of the environment. (springer.com)
  • Migration
  • Evidence suggests that efforts to limit urban population growth, for example by restricting internal migration, have had limited success, if any. (unfpa.org)
  • Inform
  • Together with data on social and economic conditions and vulnerabilities, population data can inform investments in social services such as health care and education. (unfpa.org)
  • parameters
  • Research also examines factors that may affect population parameters such as energy intake or disease. (gc.ca)
  • In addition to information on the number of pups born, and reproductive parameters, model inputs include removals from the population due to incidental catches by the fishing industry, the number of animals that are removed from the population by subsistence, and commercial harvesting, and also a factor that corrects removals by hunters for animals that may have been struck or killed but not recovered or reported. (gc.ca)
  • aquatic
  • A fishery is an area with an associated fish or aquatic population which is harvested for its commercial or recreational value. (wikipedia.org)
  • Matters
  • Nancy Birdsall and Steven W. Sinding, "How and Why Population Matters: New Findings, New Issues," in Nancy Birdsall, Allen C. Kelley, and Steven W. Sinding, eds. (learner.org)
  • Population Matters (Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 14. (learner.org)
  • stable
  • Although drastically reduced in numbers from hunting, the St Lawrence Estuary beluga population was stable or increasing at a very slow rate since the end of the hunt in the 1960s and numbered around 1000 individuals in the early 2000s. (gc.ca)
  • In a stable population the replacement rate should hover close to 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • fisheries
  • Fisheries Management Under Cyclical Population Dynamics ," Environmental & Resource Economics , Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 42(3), pages 379-410, March. (repec.org)
  • Fisheries Management Under Cyclical Population Dynamics ," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt4586c8tk, Department of Economics, UC San Diego. (repec.org)
  • This is important in fisheries where the population is often measured in terms of biomass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Care is needed when applying population dynamics to real world fisheries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virtual population analysis (VPA) is a cohort modeling technique commonly used in fisheries science for reconstructing historical fish numbers at age using information on death of individuals each year. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth rate
  • d N d T = r N {\displaystyle {\dfrac {dN}{dT}}=rN} where d N d T {\displaystyle {\dfrac {dN}{dT}}} is the rate of population growth per unit time, r is the maximum per capita growth rate, and N is the population size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nieuw-Lekkerland had the second highest Natural Growth Rate of Population in Netherlands in 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • rate
  • This is therefore the theoretical maximum rate of increase of a population per individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic reproductive rate R 0 {\displaystyle R_{0}} , also known as the replacement rate of a population, is the ratio of daughters to mothers. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fishery population is affected by three dynamic rate functions: Birth rate or recruitment. (wikipedia.org)
  • VPA is virtual in the sense that the population size is not observed or measured directly but is inferred or back-calculated to have been a certain size in the past in order to support the observed fish catches and an assumed death rate owing to non-fishery related causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • displaystyle
  • Homeostasis is the set point, or carrying capacity, defined as K. d N d T = r N ( 1 − N K ) {\displaystyle {\dfrac {dN}{dT}}=rN{\Big (}1-{\dfrac {N}{K}}{\Big )}} where ( 1 − N K ) {\displaystyle {\Big (}1-{\dfrac {N}{K}}{\Big )}} is the density dependence, N is the number in the population, K is the set point for homeostasis and the carrying capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • urban
  • By 2050, nearly 63 per cent of the total population of Southeast Asia is expected to live in urban areas. (fao.org)
  • Promoting better market access and market performance for smallholder agricultural producers and the provision of access to better quality and lower price food for the majority of the world's population requires the strengthening of rural-urban linkages and putting 'place-based development' at. (fao.org)
  • To this end, countries need to collect disaggregated population data on a regular basis and use this data for planning at the national, local, rural and urban levels. (unfpa.org)
  • size
  • A population model is then used to determine total population size. (gc.ca)
  • Information on population size has been obtained from aerial surveys to count the number of pups, total counts of pups born in a colony, or through mark-recapture experiments. (gc.ca)
  • Population size and structure impact a country's economy as well as its ability to provide social protections and access to health care, education, housing, sanitation, water, food and energy. (unfpa.org)
  • The harvestable surplus is the number of individuals that can be harvested from the population without affecting long term stability (average population size). (wikipedia.org)
  • The effective population size (Ne) was defined by Sewall Wright, who wrote two landmark papers on it (Wright 1931, 1938). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ne is usually less than N (the absolute population size). (wikipedia.org)
  • Population bottlenecks are when population size reduces for a short period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • health
  • The International Conference on Population and Development , the Millennium Development Goals , and the upcoming post-2015 development agenda all call for unrestricted and universal access to sexual and reproductive health care, including voluntary family planning . (unfpa.org)
  • However
  • However, since then the population has declined, possibly to as low as 889 individuals in 2012. (gc.ca)
  • models
  • The models will be applied to research the movements and population connectivity of blue crabs in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. (tulane.edu)
  • change
  • The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population. (jove.com)