• ruminal
  • At a certain point, particles are dense and small enough that they may "fall" through the rumen mat into the ventral sac below, or they may be swept out of the rumen mat into the reticulum by liquid gushing through the mat during ruminal contractions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbiome
  • Rumen microbiome metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data were analysed by Gene Set Enrichment, sparse partial least squares regression and the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test to estimate correlations between specific KEGG bacterial pathways/genes and high methane yield in sheep. (beds.ac.uk)
  • microbial community
  • To more efficiently identify the microbial community of the yak rumen, the standardization of DNA extraction is key to ensure fidelity while studying environmental microbial communities. (pjmonline.org)
  • The results indicate that method 6 (hexadecyltrimethylammomium bromide-lysozyme-physical lysis by bead beating) is recommended for the DNA isolation of the rumen microbial community due to its high yield, operational taxonomic unit, bacterial diversity, and excellent cell-breaking capability. (pjmonline.org)
  • In summary, the investigation of the optimal DNA extraction methods and the preliminary evaluation of the bacterial community composition of yak rumen support further identification of the specificity of the rumen microbial community in yak and the discovery of distinct gene resources. (pjmonline.org)
  • Rumen microbial community could be studied by culture-based or some molecular techniques (DGGE and ribosomal RNA clone libraries). (pjmonline.org)
  • 2012). With the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies, conducting in-depth sequencing on samples that are derived from any environment of choice, including the complex rumen microbial community at a deeper level than previously performed is feasible (Bergmann et al . (pjmonline.org)
  • Several studies reported that DNA extraction methods significantly impact the microbial community in samples from different habitats, including the rumen (Bergmann et al . (pjmonline.org)
  • bacterial
  • To this end, we investigated how rumen bacterial and viral community structure and function responded in five steers fed four randomized dietary treatments in a crossover design. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Detailed analysis of the rumen microbiomes of high methane yield sheep shows that gene and transcript abundances of bacterial type III secretion system genes are positively correlated with methane yield in sheep. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We report for first time the activity of bovine gastric lysozyme (BG lysozyme) against pure bacterial cultures, and the specific resistance of some rumen Gram positive strains to BGL. (biomedcentral.com)
  • digesta
  • The potential digestibility of rumen digesta and faeces was estimated by incubating the samples for 240 h in nylon bags in the rumen. (cgiar.org)
  • Digested food (digesta) in the rumen is not uniform, but rather stratified into gas, liquid, and particles of different sizes, densities, and other physical characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, digesta does not merely enter and exit the rumen without event, but it is subject to extensive mixing, and travels along complicated flow paths. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, since liquid cannot be trapped in the mat as digesta can, liquid passes through the rumen much more quickly than digesta does. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluid
  • Rumen fluid was collected before the morning feeding from two rumen fistulated dairy cows. (ac.ir)
  • Approximately, 90 mL of buffered rumen fluid (BRF), 400 mg of feed sample plus carbohydrates (maltose, xylose and starch) at four concentrations (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg) were added to screw-cap bottles. (ac.ir)
  • carbohydrates
  • Moreover, analysis of virally encoded auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) indicates rumen viruses have glycosidic hydrolases to potentially augment the breakdown of complex carbohydrates to increase energy production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ammonia
  • The rumen milieu can use sulphate and nitrate as alternative electron acceptors with the production of hydrogen sulphide and ammonia. (slideserve.com)
  • The ammonia is then used for de novo synthesis of amino acids by rumen microbes and excess amounts of it absorbed to blood stream trough rumen wall ( Leng and Nolan, 1984 ). (ac.ir)
  • metabolism
  • Our results show that rumen viruses have implications for understanding the structuring of the previously identified core rumen microbiota and impacting microbial metabolism through a vast array of AMGs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • AMGs in the rumen appear to have consequences for microbial metabolism that are largely in congruence with the current paradigm established in marine systems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • continuous
  • The smaller part of the reticulorumen is the reticulum, which is fully continuous with the rumen, but differs from it with regard to the texture of its lining. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristics
  • In Experiment 2, four ruminally cannulated Holstein-Friesian steers of mean initial live weight 630 (s.d. 23.2) kg were used to evaluate rumen characteristics for four of the above diets (FL, EL, FH and EH) in a 4 × 4 latin square design. (teagasc.ie)
  • digestibility
  • There were close negative correlations (r2 0.96-0.999) between rumen pool size of cell wall components and in vivo digestibility of the corresponding component. (cgiar.org)
  • Potential digestibility of DM, NDF and ADF of rumen ingesta and faeces was higher with diets S and I than with diets C and B. Faecal output of digestible NDF was greater with diets S and I than with diets C and B. (cgiar.org)
  • cattle
  • The changes in methaemoglobin in blood of cattle with increasing amounts of nitrate entering the rumen (after Crawford et al 1965). (slideserve.com)
  • The lining of the rumen wall is covered in small fingerlike projections called papillae, which are flattened, approximately 5 mm in length and 3 mm wide in cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • To enable a direct comparison of the rumen community structure from different individual samples, standardizing DNA extraction methods is crucial. (pjmonline.org)
  • optimal
  • Kondisi utama untuk produksi yang sukses, kesehatan ruminansia yang optimal memerlukan pH optimum dan jumlah bakteri yang tinggi dalam rumen. (biomin.net)
  • Mengamankan kesehatan rumen yang optimal menyebabkan kecernaan dan asupan pakan yang lebih tinggi. (biomin.net)
  • extraction
  • Rumen liquids and solids for DNA extraction were collected via intubation from two animals in each group before and after dietary shift. (wiley.com)
  • Commercial DNA extraction kits for rumen content are currently unavailable, but kits that are designed for other samples are often used. (pjmonline.org)
  • efficiency
  • Rumen microbes have been recently extensively studied due to their association with environmentally and economically important traits, such as feed conversion efficiency (Guan e t al . (pjmonline.org)
  • hydrogen
  • The uppermost area of the rumen, the headspace, is filled with gases (such as methane, carbon dioxide, and, to a much lower degree, hydrogen) released from fermentation and anaerobic respiration of food. (wikipedia.org)
  • To intensify the spectroscopic lines for publishable data, Murphy and Urey paired with Ferdinand Brickwedde and distilled a more concentrated pool of heavy hydrogen, known today as deuterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • diets
  • The greater rumen pool size of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) with sucrose diets consisted mainly of digestible NDF and ADF. (cgiar.org)
  • The initial hypothesis was that rumen microbes would be similar to some extent across the world, but they wanted to see if diets or other factors made a difference. (agresearch.co.nz)
  • carbon
  • Other AMGs identified have a role in redirecting carbon to the pentose phosphate pathway and one carbon pools by folate to boost viral replication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cells
  • Gemma Henderson and Peter Janssen with an image of rumen contents, showing methanogen cells in bright blue. (agresearch.co.nz)
  • different
  • past behavior pooling no Incoherent roofs links an polar research, but However thoroughly ' two-year ' site requires easily different of bonds. (prigsbee.com)
  • effect
  • Inclusion of sodium bicarbonate in the diet almost completely eliminated the effect of sucrose on rumen pool size. (cgiar.org)
  • results
  • The results of the Global Rumen Census have been published in the latest edition of the open-access journal Scientific Reports . (agresearch.co.nz)