• buffered rumen fluid
  • Approximately, 90 mL of buffered rumen fluid (BRF), 400 mg of feed sample plus carbohydrates (maltose, xylose and starch) at four concentrations (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg) were added to screw-cap bottles. (ac.ir)
  • virome
  • This project sought to investigate the domestic caprid rumen virome by developing a robust viral DNA isolation and enrichment protocol (utilizing membrane filtration, ultra-centrifugation, overnight PEG treatment and nuclease treatment) and using RSD-PCR and high throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques. (springer.com)
  • Improvements in the viral DNA enrichment and isolation protocol are required to obtain data that are more representative of the rumen virome. (springer.com)
  • While rumen viruses were dynamic, 14 near ubiquitous viral populations were identified, suggesting the presence of a core rumen virome largely comprised of novel viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • fluid
  • Nitrate has been rejected as a potential N source for ruminants that would also inhibit methane production because nitrite accumulated in rumen fluid when nitrate was administered to animals without prior adaptation. (slideserve.com)
  • Rumen fluid was collected before the morning feeding from two rumen fistulated dairy cows. (ac.ir)
  • This method utilizes a rumen-fluid, batch culture, gas fermentation system to which mathematical curve-peeling techniques are applied to differentiate rapidly from slowly fermenting carbohydrate pools. (pioneer.com)
  • The sample preparation technique, centrifugation before DNA extraction, allowed us to preferentially examine methanogens isolated from the fluid fraction of rumen contents. (biomedcentral.com)
  • microbial community
  • To more efficiently identify the microbial community of the yak rumen, the standardization of DNA extraction is key to ensure fidelity while studying environmental microbial communities. (pjmonline.org)
  • The results indicate that method 6 (hexadecyltrimethylammomium bromide-lysozyme-physical lysis by bead beating) is recommended for the DNA isolation of the rumen microbial community due to its high yield, operational taxonomic unit, bacterial diversity, and excellent cell-breaking capability. (pjmonline.org)
  • In summary, the investigation of the optimal DNA extraction methods and the preliminary evaluation of the bacterial community composition of yak rumen support further identification of the specificity of the rumen microbial community in yak and the discovery of distinct gene resources. (pjmonline.org)
  • Rumen microbial community could be studied by culture-based or some molecular techniques (DGGE and ribosomal RNA clone libraries). (pjmonline.org)
  • 2012). With the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies, conducting in-depth sequencing on samples that are derived from any environment of choice, including the complex rumen microbial community at a deeper level than previously performed is feasible (Bergmann et al . (pjmonline.org)
  • Several studies reported that DNA extraction methods significantly impact the microbial community in samples from different habitats, including the rumen (Bergmann et al . (pjmonline.org)
  • bacterial
  • To this end, we investigated how rumen bacterial and viral community structure and function responded in five steers fed four randomized dietary treatments in a crossover design. (biomedcentral.com)
  • carbohydrates
  • Moreover, analysis of virally encoded auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) indicates rumen viruses have glycosidic hydrolases to potentially augment the breakdown of complex carbohydrates to increase energy production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • viral
  • Using partial least squares regression, we demonstrate significant associations between the abundances of 267 viral populations and variables driving the variation in rumen viral communities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other AMGs identified have a role in redirecting carbon to the pentose phosphate pathway and one carbon pools by folate to boost viral replication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study provides a foundation for future hypotheses regarding the dynamics of viral-mediated processes in the rumen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • metabolism
  • Our results show that rumen viruses have implications for understanding the structuring of the previously identified core rumen microbiota and impacting microbial metabolism through a vast array of AMGs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • AMGs in the rumen appear to have consequences for microbial metabolism that are largely in congruence with the current paradigm established in marine systems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • rDNA
  • A second cluster contained sequences related to 16S rDNA from Methanosphaera stadtmanae , an organism not previously described in the rumen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The third cluster contained rDNA sequences that may form a novel group of rumen methanogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • digestibility
  • The potential digestibility of rumen digesta and faeces was estimated by incubating the samples for 240 h in nylon bags in the rumen. (cgiar.org)
  • There were close negative correlations (r2 0.96-0.999) between rumen pool size of cell wall components and in vivo digestibility of the corresponding component. (cgiar.org)
  • Potential digestibility of DM, NDF and ADF of rumen ingesta and faeces was higher with diets S and I than with diets C and B. Faecal output of digestible NDF was greater with diets S and I than with diets C and B. (cgiar.org)
  • cattle
  • The changes in methaemoglobin in blood of cattle with increasing amounts of nitrate entering the rumen (after Crawford et al 1965). (slideserve.com)
  • viruses
  • Though identified in the rumen, most of these viruses have been reported in other environments as well. (springer.com)
  • However, little is known about the processes shaping the distribution of rumen viruses or how viruses may modulate microbial-driven processes in the rumen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • optimal
  • Kondisi utama untuk produksi yang sukses, kesehatan ruminansia yang optimal memerlukan pH optimum dan jumlah bakteri yang tinggi dalam rumen. (biomin.net)
  • Mengamankan kesehatan rumen yang optimal menyebabkan kecernaan dan asupan pakan yang lebih tinggi. (biomin.net)
  • extraction
  • Rumen liquids and solids for DNA extraction were collected via intubation from two animals in each group before and after dietary shift. (wiley.com)
  • To enable a direct comparison of the rumen community structure from different individual samples, standardizing DNA extraction methods is crucial. (pjmonline.org)
  • Commercial DNA extraction kits for rumen content are currently unavailable, but kits that are designed for other samples are often used. (pjmonline.org)
  • diets
  • The greater rumen pool size of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) with sucrose diets consisted mainly of digestible NDF and ADF. (cgiar.org)
  • In Experiment 2, four ruminally cannulated Holstein-Friesian steers of mean initial live weight 630 (s.d. 23.2) kg were used to evaluate rumen characteristics for four of the above diets (FL, EL, FH and EH) in a 4 × 4 latin square design. (teagasc.ie)
  • samples
  • To enrich for phages in the rumen samples the filtrates were first processed to remove the remaining small debri by centrifugation at 8,000X g at 10 °C for 10 minutes in the 5424 Eppendorf desktop centrifuge (Eppendorf, Germany). (springer.com)
  • The accumulated number of samples is already over 75,000, which makes the program the largest worldwide data pool for mycotoxin. (biomin.net)
  • effect
  • Inclusion of sodium bicarbonate in the diet almost completely eliminated the effect of sucrose on rumen pool size. (cgiar.org)
  • Research
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