• ditches
  • It is found in shallow peaty calcareous lakes, ponds and ditches, commonly associated with lowland fens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within this habitat it occurs predominantly in ponds, ditches and drains, flushes and seeps, and the margins of shallow lakes, in water up to about 1 m deep, often in the company of stoneworts and bladderworts. (wikipedia.org)
  • This seems to suggest that Lymnaea meridensis evolved in a somewhat isolated fashion, in permanent ponds and small ditches in more northern, very high altitude areas (3,550-4,040 m) of the Andean mountains, like those in Merida State, Venezuela. (wikipedia.org)
  • Helix
  • Janahmadi, Mahyar 2011-01-20 00:00:00 We examined the effects of 50-Hz magnetic fields in the range of flux densities relevant to our current environmental exposures on action potential (AP), after-hyperpolarization potential (AHP) and neuronal excitability in neurons of land snails, Helix aspersa. (deepdyve.com)
  • neurons
  • The duo also found that instead of requiring a sensory organ to consolidate the snails' memories - like their memories of predators triggered by smell - epi directly affects the neurons that store the memory. (phys.org)
  • Prosobranch
  • Duft M, Schmitt C, Bachmann J, Brandelik C, Schulte-Oehlmann U, Oehlmann J (2007): Prosobranch snails as test organisms for the assessment of endocrine active chemicals - an overview and a guideline proposal for a reproduction test with the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum . (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • The Neritimorpha are a group of primitive "prosobranch" gilled snails which have a shelly operculum. (wikipedia.org)
  • behaviours
  • We studied its effects on basic snail behaviours (aerial respiration and locomotion), long-term memory (LTM) formation and memory extinction of operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behaviour. (biologists.org)
  • shells
  • Immediately before training, the snails were exposed to two different stressful experiences, low calcium - which is stressful as calcium is necessary for healthy shells - and overcrowding by other pond snails. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The shells of these snails were found in lake marls in the southern part of the South Island. (wikipedia.org)
  • breathe
  • Usually pond snails breathe underwater and absorb oxygen through their skin. (bio-medicine.org)
  • To train the snails not to breathe air they were placed in poorly oxygenated water and their breathing holes were gently poked every time they emerged to breathe. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Snail memory was tested by observing how many times the snails attempted to breathe air after they had received their training. (bio-medicine.org)
  • He explains that pond snails usually breathe through their skins, but when oxygen levels fall, they extend the breathing tube above the surface to supplement the oxygen supply . (phys.org)
  • Some groups of snails that live in freshwater respire using gills, whereas other groups need to reach the surface to breathe air. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Researchers from the University of Exeter and the University of Calgary trained snails and found that when they were exposed to multiple stressful events they were unable remember what they had learned. (bio-medicine.org)
  • By training snails, and then observing their behaviour and brain activity following exposure to stressful situations, we found that a single stressful event resulted in some impairment of memory but multiple stressful events prevented any memories from being formed. (bio-medicine.org)
  • No snails were found in the irrigation flow itself however. (wikipedia.org)
  • shell
  • The type locality of Lymnaea meridensis is a permanent pond in Mucubaji (Kettle Mucubají), Merida State, Venezuela, located at an altitude of 3,550 m (8°47'51.8" N, 70°49'32.4" W). The shell is light brown, thin-walled, with a relatively short spire. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • F. Tiwari and D. K. Singh, "Behavioural responses of the snail Lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates in snail-attractant pellets," Naturwissenschaften , vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 378-380, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • water
  • In the study, the pond snails were trained to reduce how often they breathed outside water. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, the snails can be trained to remember to keep the breathing tube closed in deoxygenated water by gently tapping it when they try to open it, and the strength of the memory depends on the training regime. (phys.org)
  • Explaining that a half-hour training session in deoxygenated water allows the snails to form intermediate-term memories (lasting less than 3 h) but not long-term memories (lasting 24 h or more), Fruson and Lukowiak wondered whether epi would improve the snail's memories, allowing them to form long-term memories after shorter memory training. (phys.org)
  • Water gardening is gardening that is concerned with growing plants adapted to pools and ponds. (wikipedia.org)
  • memory
  • New research on pond snails has revealed that high levels of stress can block memory processes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • When faced with the stressors individually, the pond snails had reduced ability to form long term memory, but were still able to learn and form short and intermediate term memory lasting from a few minutes to hours. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, when both stressors were experienced at the same time, results showed that they had additive effects on the snails' ability to form memory and all learning and memory processes were blocked. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, when snails were operantly conditioned in epi for a single 0.5 h training session, which typically results in memory lasting ~3 h, they formed LTM lasting at least 24 h. (biologists.org)
  • Having trained the snails, the duo then tried to replace it with a memory where the snails could open their breathing tubes. (phys.org)
  • However, instead of learning the new memory, the epi-trained snails stubbornly kept their breathing tubes shut. (phys.org)
  • small
  • Pomatiopsidae, small amphibious snails scattered worldwide, most diverse in eastern and Southeast Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • This tiny snail previously inhabited a small group of thermal springs in the State of New Mexico, USA. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Very little is known about this snail in general, because of its minute size, its very restricted range, and the fact that the places where it currently lives are on private property which allows no access. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal
  • A. P. Tripathi and D. K. Singh, "Attraction of eyestalk ablated Lymnaea acuminata towards the different photo and chemo stimulants," Scientific Journal of Biological Sciences , vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 94-104, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • They publish their discovery that epi improves the length and strength of snail memories in The Journal of Experimental Biology . (phys.org)
  • Family
  • Family Neritidae, Neritina natalensis The Caenogastropoda are a large group of gilled operculate snails, which are largely marine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In freshwater habitats there are ten major families of caenogastropods, as well as several other families of lesser importance: Architaenioglossa Ampullariidae, an exclusively freshwater family that is largely tropical and includes the large "apple snails" kept in aquaria. (wikipedia.org)